Special operations are military, law enforcement or intelligence operations that are "special" or unconventional and carried out by dedicated special forces and other special operations forces units using unconventional methods and resources. Special operations may be performed independently, or in conjunction with conventional military operations; the primary goal is to achieve a political or military objective where a conventional force requirement does not exist or might adversely affect the overall strategic outcome. Special operations are conducted in a low-profile manner that aims to achieve the advantages of speed and violence of action against an unsuspecting target. Special ops are carried out with limited numbers of trained personnel that are adaptable, self-reliant and able to operate in all environments, able to use unconventional combat skills and equipment. Special operations are implemented through specific, tailored intelligence; the decade 2003–2012 saw U. S. national security strategy rely on special operations to an unprecedented degree.
Identifying and killing terrorists became a central task in the Global War on Terrorism. Linda Robinson, Adjunct Senior Fellow for U. S. National Security and Foreign Policy at the Council on Foreign Relations, argued that the organizational structure became flatter and cooperation with the intelligence community was stronger, allowing special operations to move at the "speed of war". Special Operations appropriations are costly: Its budget went from $2.3 billion in 2001 to $10.5 billion in 2012. Some experts argued the investment was worthwhile, pointing to the raid in May 2011 that killed Osama bin Laden in Abbottabad, Pakistan. Others claimed that the emphasis on Special Operations precipitated a misconception that it was a substitute for prolonged conflict. "Raids and drone strikes are tactics that are decisive and incur significant political and diplomatic costs for the United States. Although raids and drone strikes are necessary to disrupt dire and imminent threats…special operations leaders admit that they should not be the central pillar of U.
S. military strategy." Instead, Special Operations commanders stated that grand strategy should include their "indirect approach", which meant working with non-U. S. Partners to accomplish security objectives. "Special Operations forces forge relationships that can last for decades with a diverse collection of groups: training and operation alongside other countries' militaries, police forces, militias or other information groups." Special forces/Special operations forces Covert operation Foreign internal defense List of military special forces units Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol Capt. Malcolm Brailey, The Transformation of Special Operations Forces in Contemporary Conflict: Strategy, Missions and Tactics. Canberra, ACT: Land Warfare Studies Centre, Working Paper No. 127, 2005. Colin S. Gray, “Part III: Strategy and Special Operations”, Explorations in Strategy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996, pp. 139–232. William H. McRaven, Spec Ops: Case Studies of Special Operations Warfare. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1995.
Linda Robinson, One Hundred Victories: Special Ops and the Future of American Warfare, New York: Public Affairs, 2013. ISBN 978-1-61039-149-8. List of US Special Operations Forces
The PlayStation 4 is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Announced as the successor to the PlayStation 3 in February, 2013, it was launched on November 15 in North America, November 29 in Europe, South America and Australia, on February 22, 2014, in Japan, it Switch. Moving away from the more complex Cell microarchitecture of its predecessor, the console features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit built upon the x86-64 architecture, which can theoretically peak at 1.84 teraflops. The PlayStation 4 places an increased emphasis on social interaction and integration with other devices and services, including the ability to play games off-console on PlayStation Vita and other supported devices, the ability to stream gameplay online or to friends, with them controlling gameplay remotely; the console's controller was redesigned and improved over the PlayStation 3, with improved buttons and analog sticks, an integrated touchpad among other changes.
The console supports HDR10 High-dynamic-range video and playback of 4K resolution multimedia. The PlayStation 4 was released to acclaim, with critics praising Sony for acknowledging its consumers' needs, embracing independent game development, for not imposing the restrictive digital rights management schemes to those announced by Microsoft for Xbox One. Critics and third-party studios praised the capabilities of the PlayStation 4 in comparison to its competitors. Heightened demand helped Sony top global console sales. By the end of December 2018, over 94 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been shipped worldwide, surpassing lifetime sales of its predecessor, the PlayStation 3; as of December 2018, 91.6 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been sold through to customers worldwide. On September 7, 2016, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 Pro, a high-end version of the console with an upgraded GPU and higher CPU clock rate to support enhanced performance and 4K resolution on supported games; the company released a variant of the original model with a smaller form factor, the release of a patch to add HDR support to all existing consoles.
According to lead architect Mark Cerny, development of Sony's fourth video game console began as early as 2008. Less than two years earlier, the PlayStation 3 had launched after months of delays due to issues with production; the delay placed Sony a year behind Microsoft's Xbox 360, approaching unit sales of 10 million by the time the PS3 launched. PlayStation Europe CEO Jim Ryan said Sony wanted to avoid repeating the same mistake with PS3's successor. In designing the system, Sony worked with software developer Bungie, who offered their input on the controller and how to make it better for shooting games. In 2012, Sony began shipping development kits to game developers, consisting of a modified PC running the AMD Accelerated Processing Unit chipset; these development kits were known as "Orbis". In early 2013, Sony announced that an event known as PlayStation Meeting 2013 would be held in New York City, U. S. on February 20, 2013, to cover the "future of PlayStation". Sony announced the PlayStation 4 at the event.
It revealed details about the console's hardware and discussed some of the new features it will introduce. Sony showed off real-time footage of games in development, as well as some technical demonstrations; the design of the console was unveiled in June at the Electronic Entertainment Expo 2013, the initial recommended retail prices of $399, €399, £349 given. The company revealed release dates for North America, Central America, South America and Australia, as well as final pieces of information, at a Gamescom press event in Cologne, Germany, on August 20, 2013; the console was released on November 15, 2013, in the United States and Canada, followed by further releases on November 29, 2013. By the end of 2013, the PS4 was launched in more European and South American countries The PS4 released in Japan at ¥39,980 on February 22, 2014. Sony finalized a deal with the Chinese government in May 2014 to sell its products in mainland China, the PS4 will be the first product to be released. Kazuo Hirai, chief executive officer of Sony, said in May: "The Chinese market, just given the size of it, is potentially a large market for video game products...
I think that we will be able to replicate the kind of success we have had with PS4 in other parts of the world in China."In September 2015, Sony reduced the price of the PS4 in Japan to ¥34,980, with similar price drops in other Southeast Asian markets. The first official sub £300 PS4 bundle was the £299.99 "Uncharted Nathan Drake Collection 500GB", released in the UK on October 9, 2015. On October 9, 2015, the first official price cut of the PS4 in North America was announced: a reduction of $50 to $349.99 and by $20 to $429.99. An official price cut in Europe followed in late October 2015, reduced to €349.99/£299.99. On June 10, 2016, Sony confirmed that a hardware revision of the PlayStation 4, rumored to be codenamed "Neo", was under development; the new revision is a higher-end model, meant to support gameplay in 4K. The new model will be sold alongside the existing model, all existing software will be compatible between the two models. Layden stated that Sony has no plans to "bifurcate the market", only that gamers playing on the Neo will "have the same experience, but one will be delivered at a higher resol
Killzone: Mercenary is a first-person shooter video game for the PlayStation Vita, released in September 2013. Developed by Guerrilla Cambridge, it is the second handheld game in the Killzone series of video games, fifth overall. Taking place throughout key events and locations of the first three installments of the Killzone franchise, Mercenary follows the story of Arran Danner, a mercenary hired by the ISA. Mercenary was met with positive critical reception for its quality as a portable-console first person shooter. Praise was given to the game's controls and visuals, while criticism was aimed at its story and campaign length. For the first time in a Killzone campaign, players can fight alongside Helghast forces as well as ISA specialists, carrying out missions that regular soldiers cannot; as a mercenary, players are free to decide which tactics and load outs they will use to fulfill their contract. The game utilizes the PS Vita's rear touch panel. Killzone: Mercenary takes place on the planets Vekta and Helghan, locked in an interstellar war.
The game is set in between Killzone 2 and Killzone 3 and revisits many of the key events of Killzone, Killzone: Liberation, Killzone 2 from the perspective of Arran Danner, a mercenary hired to execute operations for the ISA. He is supplied by mysterious weapons dealer Blackjack, is aided at times by his boss Anders Benoit; the game starts with the Helghast invasion of Vekta. Mercenaries Arran Danner and his partner Damian Ivanov are tasked by their boss – Anders Benoit to arrive in the Vektan city of Diortem on a mission to rescue ISA Admiral Alex Grey from Helghast forces using location information gained by the Vektan Ambassador – Sepp Harkin. Danner and Ivanov fight their way through the Vektan Halls of Justice, they manage to extract her safely. The two make their way to a downed Helghan cruiser, attempting to escape with stolen ISA weapons technology; the cruiser has the transmission codes for all of the Helghast forces so obtaining the codes is vital to the ISA. Danner hacks into the cruisers computers and obtains the codes, however whilst sabotaging the cruiser power supply Ivanov is caught in a booby trap and sacrifices himself to destroy the ship.
Despite the casualty the mission is deemed a success. Two years the theater of war shifts to Helghan, the Helghast home planet. Danner disables part of the Arc Cannon system in order to open a window for invading ISA forces as because of them the invasion has stalled, he attempts to rescue the Vektan Ambassador and his family from the Vektan Embassy in Pyrrhus City, however the Ambassador and his Helghast wife are killed in the crossfire except for their son, meanwhile a Helghast scientist and defector named Savic escapes the embassy in the chaos. With the help of the Ambassador's bodyguard'Boris', Danner and Justus make it to the boats beneath the Embassy and escape. Rather than make their way directly back to ISA Headquarters, Danner is ordered by Benoit to divert and take Justus to a Helghast'smoker tower' where Savic has escaped to as he wishes to defect and has information, vital the ISA, they need to extract Savic. Danner and Justus make their way through the Helghast infested cliff sides where they find Savic in a bar.
Savic reveals that he had created a weaponized virus capable of wiping out the entire population of either planet due to genetic targeting of either race's DNA, fled due to his conscience. He rendered it inert before defecting, with the key to reactivating it lying inside Justus' bloodstream. Savic had hoped that if Kratek had the inert base of the virus and the ISA had the trigger neither side would be able to use the virus. Danner engages the Helghast forces which provides enough of a distraction that Savic and Justus safely make their way to the extraction point where Admiral Grey meets them, afterwards Danner's next mission is to a nearby Petrusite reactor complex to cut the power to the remaining air defenses. However, as he destroys the final reactor, Benoit cuts him off and leaves him for dead as Admiral Grey knows that Danner is the only other person who knows about the controversial virus. Kratek overhears this and retrieves Danner, revealing Grey was planning to use the virus to wipe out the entire Helghast population.
Kratek has Danner return to the Embassy with a Helghast commando team to obtain the codes to the virus vault from Savic, being interrogated for the same codes. Savic gives the codes to Danner after he makes Danner switch off his comms so that Kratek cannot hear the codes. Danner can choose to leave Savic or execute him. Danner observes Justus being taken to the secret ISA Cruiser by Admiral Grey and Benoit so they can activate the virus. After being pinned down by some ISA Exoskeletons, Danner is saved by some Helghast tanks Danner is taken by dropship to the mobile ISA Cruiser facility where the virus is held. Following a crash landing, Danner makes his way through the labs and obtains a sample of the virus for Kratek. After a firefight Danner escapes. However, the explosives planted by Danner used to destroy the virus activated the explosives planted by the ISA which causes the Cruiser to veer off course. Blackjack, Danner's arms dealer, reveals that Benoit intends to take over the private military company that hired Danner and monopolize the industry.
He informs Danner that Kratek intends to betray him as well (as he has now used t
Sony Interactive Entertainment
Sony Interactive Entertainment LLC is a multinational video game and digital entertainment company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the central hub for the American businesses under the Japanese conglomerate Sony Corporation. The company was founded in Tokyo and established on November 16, 1993, as Sony Computer Entertainment, to handle Sony's venture into video game development through its PlayStation brand. Since the successful launch of the original PlayStation console in 1994, the company has been developing the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles and accessories. Expanding into North America and other countries, the company became Sony's main resource for research and development in video games and interactive entertainment. In April 2016, SCE and Sony Network Entertainment International was restructured and reorganized into Sony Interactive Entertainment, carrying over the operations and primary objectives from both companies; the same year, SIE moved its headquarters from Tokyo to California.
Sony Interactive Entertainment handles the research and development and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation video game systems. SIE is a developer and publisher of video game titles, operates several subsidiaries in Sony's largest markets: North America and Asia. By August 2018, the company had sold more than 525 million PlayStation consoles worldwide. Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. was jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1993 to handle the company's ventures into the video game industry. The original PlayStation console was released on December 1994, in Japan; the company's North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America, were established in May 1995 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing. Located in Foster City, the North American office was headed by Steve Race. In the months prior to the release of the PlayStation in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All video game marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica to Foster City.
On August 7, 1995, Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later. He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish; this proved to be the beginning of a run of exceptional managerial turnover, with SCEA going through four presidents in a single year. The PS console was released in the United States on September 9, 1995; as part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, SCEA and Sony Computer Entertainment Europe were both re-established as wholly owned subsidiaries of SCEI. The launch of the second PS console, the PlayStation 2 was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, the U. S. on October 26, 2000. On July 1, 2002, chairman of SCEI, Shigeo Maruyama, was replaced by Tamotsu Iba as chairman. Jack Tretton and Phil Harrison were promoted to senior vice presidents of SCE; the PlayStation Portable was SCEI's first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, it was unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004.
The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. On September 14, 2005, SCEI formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a single internal entity to oversee all wholly owned development studios within SCEI, it became responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCEI-owned studios—all software is produced for the PS family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008, replacing Kazuo Hirai, serving interim after Harrison left the company in early 2008. On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On January 24, 2006, video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the Socom series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. In March 2006, Sony announced the online network for its forthcoming PlayStation 3 system at the 2006 PlayStation Business Briefing meeting in Tokyo, tentatively named "PlayStation Network Platform" and called just PlayStation Network.
Sony stated that the service would always be connected and include multiplayer support. The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at the Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, California, on May 8, 2006; the PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, the U. S. date was November 17, 2006. The PSN was launched in November 2006. On November 30, 2006, president of SCEI, Ken Kutaragi, was appointed as chairman of SCEI, while Hirai president of SCEA, was promoted to president of SCEI. On April 26, 2007, Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as chairman of SCEI and group CEO, passing on his duties to the appointed president of SCE, Hirai. On September 20, 2007, video game developers Evolution Studios and Bigbig Studios, creators of the MotorStorm series, were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On April 15, 2009, David Reeves, president and CEO of SCE Europe, announced his forthcoming resignation from his post.
He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as chairman of SCEE in 2003, president in 2005. His role of president and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House, who joined Sony Corporation in 1990; the PSP Go was released on October 1
Shoot 'em up
Shoot'em up is a subgenre of the shooter genre of video games. There is no consensus as to; some restrict the definition to games featuring spacecraft and certain types of character movement. The genre's roots can be traced back to Spacewar!, one of the earliest computer games, developed in 1962. The shoot'em up genre was established by the hit arcade game Space Invaders, which popularised and set the general template for the genre in 1978, the genre was further developed by arcade hits such as Asteroids and Galaxian in 1979. Shoot'em ups were popular throughout early 1990s. In the mid-1990s, shoot'em ups became a niche genre based on design conventions established in the 1980s, catered to specialist enthusiasts in Japan. "Bullet hell" games are a subgenre that features overwhelming numbers of enemy projectiles in visually impressive formations. A "shoot'em up" known as a "shmup" or "STG", is a game in which the protagonist combats a large number of enemies by shooting at them while dodging their fire.
The controlling player must rely on reaction times to succeed. Beyond this, critics differ on which design elements constitute a shoot'em up; some restrict the genre to games using fixed or scrolling movement. Others widen the scope to include games featuring such protagonists as robots or humans on foot, as well as including games featuring "on-rails" and "run and gun" movement. Mark Wolf restricts the definition to games featuring multiple antagonists, calling games featuring one-on-one shooting "combat games". Critics described any game where the primary design element was shooting as a "shoot'em up", but shoot'em ups became a specific, inward-looking genre based on design conventions established in those shooting games of the 1980s. Shoot'em ups are a subgenre of shooter game, in turn a type of action game; these games are viewed from a top-down or side-view perspective, players must use ranged weapons to take action at a distance. The player's avatar is a vehicle under constant attack. Thus, the player's goal is to shoot as as possible at anything that moves or threatens them.
In some games, the player's character can withstand some damage. The main skills required in shoot'em ups are memorising enemy attack patterns; some games feature overwhelming numbers of enemy projectiles and the player has to memorise their patterns to survive. These games belong to one of the fastest-paced video game genres. Large numbers of enemy characters are featured; these enemies may behave in a certain way dependent on their type, or attack in formations that the player can learn to predict. The basic gameplay tends to be straightforward and many games offset this with boss battles and a variety of weapons. Shoot'em ups have realistic physics. Characters can change direction with no inertia, projectiles move in a straight line at constant speeds; the player's character can collect "power-ups" which may afford the character greater protection, an "extra life", or upgraded weaponry. Different weapons are suited to different enemies, but these games keep track of ammunition; as such, players tend to fire indiscriminately, their weapons only damage legitimate targets.
Shoot'em ups are categorized by design elements viewpoint and movement:Fixed shooters restrict the protagonist to a single axis of motion, enemies attack in a single direction, each level is contained within a single screen. Atari's Centipede is a hybrid, in that the player can move but that movement is constrained to a small area at the bottom of the screen, the game otherwise meets the fixed shooter definition. Tube shooters feature craft flying through an abstract tube, such as Gyruss. Rail shooters limit the player to moving around the screen. Examples include Space Harrier, Captain Skyhawk, Star Wars: Rebel Assault, Panzer Dragoon, Star Fox 64, Sin and Punishment. Light-Gun games that are "on-rails" are not in the shoot-em-up category but the FPS category, the term has been applied to scripted events in first-person shooters such as Call of Duty. Scrolling shooters include horizontal scrolling games. Vertically scrolling shooters: In a vertically scrolling shoot'em up, the action is viewed from above and scrolls up the screen.
Horizontally scrolling shooters: In a "horizontal shooter" or "side-scrolling shooter", the action is viewed side-on and scrolls horizontally. Isometrically scrolling shooters: A small number of scrolling shooters, such as Sega's Zaxxon, feature an isometric point of view. Multidirectional shooters feature 360 degree movement where the protagonist may rotate and move in any direction. Multidirectional shooters with one joystick for movement and one joystick for firing in any direction independent of movement are called "twin-stick shooters."Bullet hell is a shoot'em up in which the entire screen is almost fille
Glossary of video game terms
This is a glossary of video game terms which lists the general terms as used in Wikipedia articles related to video games and its industry. 1-up An object that gives the player an extra life in games where the player has a limited number of chances to complete a game or level. It can be used to mean beating someone else at something by a small amount. 100% To collect all collectibles within a game, either indicated within games as a percentage counter or determined by player community consensus. 1CC Abbreviation of "one credit clear". The act of completing an arcade game without using more than one credit, although it can be applied to any console or PC game that uses some form of continues; the term "1LC" or "no miss clear" are used instead when completing a game without losing a life as well. This can be further extended into a "no damage clear" or "no damage completion" in games where the player-character has a health gauge; some arcade games offer special ending sequences or challenges when the player achieves a 1CC.
1v1 Abbreviation of 1 versus 1, which means two players battling against each other. This term is synonymous with the term PvP. See player versus player. 2D graphics Graphic rendering technique in a two-dimensional perspective using sprites. 2.5D graphics Graphic rendering technique of three-dimensional objects set in a two-dimensional plane of movement. 3D graphics Graphic rendering technique featuring three-dimensional objects. 4X A genre of strategic video games, short for "explore, expand and exterminate". 8-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the third generation of video game consoles, targeting 8-bit computer architecture. 16-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the fourth generation of video game consoles, targeting 16-bit computer architecture. 32-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the fifth generation of video game consoles, targeting 32-bit computer architecture. 64-bit A descriptor for hardware or software that arose during the fifth generation of video game consoles, targeting 64-bit computer architecture.
AAA Also triple A. A high-budget game with a large development team, or game studios that make them. AAA games are multiplatform, have multimillion-dollar budgets, expect to sell millions of copies. Abandonware The idea of a game being forgotten about or abandoned by its developers for any number of reasons, including copyright issues. Act Sometimes used to refer to individual levels or groups of levels that make up a larger world or storyline. Action game A game genre emphasizing hand -- eye coordination and reflexes, it includes fighting games and platformers. Action point A subunit of a player's turn. For example, a game may allow an action to occur only so long as the player has sufficient'action points' to complete the action. Action role-playing game A genre of role-playing video game where battle actions are performed in real-time instead of a turn-based mechanic. Actions per minute The total number of actions the player can perform in a minute. Most professional-level players train with an emphasis on high APM in addition to raw skill.
Adds Commonly used in role-playing video game and MMORPGs where the boss calls in for reinforcements to help them take down the party members. Adventure game A game genre which emphasizes puzzle-solving. AFK Away from keyboard. Said through a chat function in online multiplayer games when a player intends to be temporarily unavailable; the term BRB from texting is used, although whether these two terms are interchangeable varies from person to person. Aggro An abbreviation of'aggravation' or'aggression'.'Causing aggro' in a video game means to attract hostile attention from NPCs to attack the player-character.'Managing aggro' involves keeping aggressive NPCs from overwhelming the player or party. The term may be facetiously used in reference to irritated bystanders. See hate. Aimbot A first-person shooter cheat. In most cases, the aiming reticle locks on to a target within the player's line of sight and the player only has to pull the trigger. Aimbots are one of the most popular cheats in multiplayer FPS, used since 1996's Quake.
Compare to the feature auto-aim. Aiming down sights Also aim down sights. Refers to the common alternate method of firing a gun in a first-person shooter game activated by the right mouse button; the real-life analogue is when a person raises a rifle up and places the stock just inside the shoulder area, leans their head down so they can see in a straight line along the top of the rifle, through both of the iron sights or a scope, if equipped. In most games this increases accuracy, but can limit vision, situational awareness and require a small amount of time to change the weapon position. Alpha release An incomplete version of a game. Alpha versions are released early in the development process to test a game's most critical functionality and prototype design concepts. Compare with beta release. Always-on DRM A type of digital rights management that requires a connection to the Internet while playing the game. Analog stick Also control thumbstick. A small variation of a joystick placed on a game controller to allow a player more fluent 2-dimensional input than is possible with a D-pad.
Animatic A animated storyboard with sound effects used during early game development. Animation priority A
The PlayStation 3 is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to PlayStation 2, is part of the PlayStation brand of consoles, it was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan, November 17, 2006, in North America, March 23, 2007, in Europe and Australia. The PlayStation 3 competed against consoles such as Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles; the console was first announced at E3 2005, was released at the end of 2006. It was the first console to use Blu-ray Disc as its primary storage medium; the console was the first PlayStation to integrate social gaming services, including the PlayStation Network, as well as the first to be controllable from a handheld console, through its remote connectivity with PlayStation Portable and PlayStation Vita. In September 2009, the Slim model of the PlayStation 3 was released, it no longer provided the hardware ability to run PS2 games. It was lighter and thinner than the original version, featured a redesigned logo and marketing design, as well as a minor start-up change in software.
A Super Slim variation was released in late 2012, further refining and redesigning the console. During its early years, the system had a critically negative reception, due to its high price, a complex processor architecture and a lack of quality games, but was praised for its Blu-ray capabilities and "untapped potential"; the reception would get more positive over time. The system had a slow start in the market but managed to recover after the introduction of the Slim model, its successor, the PlayStation 4, was released in November 2013. On September 29, 2015, Sony confirmed that sales of the PlayStation 3 were to be discontinued in New Zealand, but the system remained in production in other markets. Shipments of new units to Europe and Australia ended in March 2016, followed by North America which ended in October 2016. Heading into 2017, Japan was the last territory where new units were still being produced until May 29, 2017, when Sony confirmed the PlayStation 3 was discontinued in Japan.
The PlayStation 3 began development in 2001 when Ken Kutaragi the President of Sony Computer Entertainment, announced that Sony, IBM would collaborate on developing the Cell microprocessor. At the time, Shuhei Yoshida led a group of programmers within this hardware team to explore next-generation game creation. By early 2005, focus within Sony shifted towards developing PS3 launch titles. Sony unveiled PlayStation 3 to the public on May 16, 2005, at E3 2005, along with a boomerang-shaped prototype design of the Sixaxis controller. A functional version of the system was not present there, nor at the Tokyo Game Show in September 2005, although demonstrations were held at both events on software development kits and comparable personal computer hardware. Video footage based on the predicted PlayStation 3 specifications was shown; the initial prototype shown in May 2005 featured two HDMI ports, three Ethernet ports and six USB ports. Two hardware configurations were announced for the console: a 20 GB model and a 60 GB model, priced at US$499 and US$599, respectively.
The 60 GB model was to be the only configuration to feature an HDMI port, Wi-Fi internet, flash card readers and a chrome trim with the logo in silver. Both models were announced for a simultaneous worldwide release: November 11, 2006, for Japan and November 17, 2006, for North America and Europe. On September 6, 2006, Sony announced that PAL region PlayStation 3 launch would be delayed until March 2007, because of a shortage of materials used in the Blu-ray drive. At the Tokyo Game Show on September 22, 2006, Sony announced that it would include an HDMI port on the 20 GB system, but a chrome trim, flash card readers, silver logo and Wi-Fi would not be included; the launch price of the Japanese 20 GB model was reduced by over 20%, the 60 GB model was announced for an open pricing scheme in Japan. During the event, Sony showed 27 playable PS3 games running on final hardware. PlayStation 3 was first released in Japan on November 11, 2006, at 07:00. According to Media Create, 81,639 PS3 systems were sold within 24 hours of its introduction in Japan.
Soon after its release in Japan, PS3 was released in North America on November 17, 2006. Reports of violence surrounded the release of PS3. A customer was shot, campers were robbed at gunpoint, customers were shot in a drive-by shooting with BB guns, 60 campers fought over 10 systems; the console was planned for a global release through November, but at the start of September the release in Europe and the rest of the world was delayed until March. With it being a somewhat last-minute delay, some companies had taken deposits for pre-orders, at which Sony informed customers that they were eligible for full refunds or could continue the pre-order. On January 24, 2007, Sony announced that PlayStation 3 would go on sale on March 23, 2007, in Europe, the Middle East and New Zealand; the system sold about 600,000 units in its first two days. On March 7, 2007, the 60 GB PlayStation 3 launched in Singapore with a price of S$799; the console was launched in South Korea on June 16, 2007, as a single version equipped with an 80 GB hard drive and IPTV.
Following speculation that Sony was working on a'slim' model, Sony announced the PS3 CECH-2000 model on August 18, 2009, at the Sony Gamescom press conference