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Kilogram

The kilogram is the base unit of mass in the metric system, formally the International System of Units, having the unit symbol kg. It is a used measure in science and commerce worldwide, is simply called a kilo in everyday speech; the kilogram was defined in 1795 as the mass of one litre of water. This was a simple definition, but difficult to use in practice. By the latest definitions of the unit, this relationship still has an accuracy of 30 ppm. In 1799, the platinum Kilogramme des Archives replaced it as the standard of mass. In 1879, a cylinder of platinum-iridium, the International Prototype of the Kilogram became the standard of the unit of mass for the metric system, remained so until 20 May 2019; the kilogram was the last of the SI units to be defined by a physical artefact. The kilogram is now defined in terms of the second and the metre, based on fixed fundamental constants of nature, as approved by the General Conference on Weights and Measures on 16 November 2018; the replacement of the International Prototype Kilogram as primary standard was motivated by evidence accumulated over a long period of time that the mass of the IPK and its replicas had been changing.

This led to several competing efforts to develop measurement technology precise enough to warrant replacing the kilogram artefact with a definition based directly on physical fundamental constants. Physical standard masses such as the IPK and its replicas still serve as secondary standards; the kilogram is defined in terms of three fundamental physical constants: The speed of light c, a specific atomic transition frequency ΔνCs, the Planck constant h. The formal definition is: The kilogram, symbol kg, is the SI unit of mass, it is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the Planck constant h to be 6.62607015×10−34 when expressed in the unit J⋅s, equal to kg⋅m2⋅s−1, where the metre and the second are defined in terms of c and ΔνCs. This definition makes the kilogram consistent with the older definitions: the mass remains within 30 ppm of the mass of one litre of water. 1793: The grave is defined 1795: the gram was provisionally defined as the mass of one cubic centimetre of water at the melting point of ice.

1799: The Kilogramme des Archives was manufactured as a prototype 1875: The International Prototype Kilogram is produced. It had a mass equal to the mass of 1 dm3 of water under atmospheric pressure and at the temperature of its maximum density, 4 °C; the IPK was used or handled. Copies of the IPK kept by national metrology laboratories around the world were compared with the IPK in 1889, 1948, 1989 to provide traceability of measurements of mass anywhere in the world back to the IPK. 2019: The kilogram is redefined in terms of the Planck constant. The kilogram is the only base SI unit with an SI prefix as part of its name; the word kilogramme or kilogram is derived from the French kilogramme, which itself was a learned coinage, prefixing the Greek stem of χίλιοι khilioi "a thousand" to gramma, a Late Latin term for "a small weight", itself from Greek γράμμα. The word kilogramme was written into French law in 1795, in the Decree of 18 Germinal, which revised the provisional system of units introduced by the French National Convention two years earlier, where the gravet had been defined as weight of a cubic centimetre of water, equal to 1/1000 of a grave.

In the decree of 1795, the term gramme thus replaced gravet, kilogramme replaced grave. The French spelling was adopted in Great Britain when the word was used for the first time in English in 1795, with the spelling kilogram being adopted in the United States. In the United Kingdom both spellings are used, with "kilogram" having become by far the more common. UK law regulating the units to be used when trading by weight or measure does not prevent the use of either spelling. In the 19th century the French word kilo, a shortening of kilogramme, was imported into the English language where it has been used to mean both kilogram and kilometre. While kilo as an alternative is acceptable, to The Economist for example, the Canadian government's Termium Plus system states that "SI usage, followed in scientific and technical writing" does not allow its usage and it is described as "a common informal name" on Russ Rowlett's Dictionary of Units of Measurement; when the United States Congress gave the metric system legal status in 1866, it permitted the use of the word kilo as an alternative to the word kilogram, but in 1990 revoked the status of the word kilo.

During the 19th century, the standard system of metric units was the centimetre–gram–second system of units, treating the gram as the fundamental unit of mass and the kilogram as a derived unit. In 1901, following the discovery by James Clerk Maxwell that electric measurements could not be explained in terms of the three fundamental units of length and time, Giovanni Giorgi proposed a new standard system that would include a fourth fundamental unit to measure quantities in electromagnetism. In 1935 this was adopted by the IEC as the Giorgi system, now known as MKS system, in 1946 the CIPM approved a proposal to adopt the ampere as the electromagnetic unit of the "MKSA system". In 1948 the CGPM commissioned the CIPM "to make recommendations for a single practical system of units of measurement, suitable for adoption by all countries adhering to the Metre Convention"; this led to the launch of SI in 1960 and the subsequent publication of the "SI Brochure", which stated that "It is not permissible to use abbreviations

2000 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final

The 2000 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final was the 113th All-Ireland Final and the deciding match of the 2000 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, an inter-county Gaelic football tournament for the top teams in Ireland. Kerry defeated Galway after a replay. There was controversy over the decision to hold the replay on a Saturday, instead of the usual Sunday. Since games on days other than Sundays have become commonplace. Kerry triumphed over Galway by a scoreline of 0–17 to 1–10; the men from the Kingdom took on the Tribesmen on Sunday in Croke Park, Dublin in the battle for the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship title. The last time the two teams met in Croke Park in an All-Ireland Final was in 1965 -That game was won by Galway. However, this time the game ended in a draw. Galway trailed for most of the game and it wasn’t until three minutes from the end that they levelled the game after working tirelessly throughout to reduce the deficit, they could have been out of it altogether as at one stage they trailed a rampant Kerry team by seven points in the first half.

They persevered in the end were rewarded with a draw. They could have won it but for three chances in the end, all fell gratefully into the hands of Kerry goalkeeper, Declan O'Keeffe. For Kerry, it was a Jekyll & Hyde performance, a rampant show in the first half to sheer relief in the end; the final score was 0–14 points each. It was the first time since the 1992 All-Ireland Final. Pádraic Joyce brought the sides level with four minutes remaining; the referee played 40 seconds of additional time. The replay of the 2000 All-Ireland Senior Football Final took place in Croke Park on Saturday, 7 October at 4:00pm, it was the first time since 1996. It wasn't the disjointed game of the 24th, replayed on the hallowed turf of Croke Park amidst the chants and jeers of the 64,000 strong crowd, rather a close, man-marked, point-for-point contest, that the pundits had predicted preceding the first game; the first half was a paradox of wide shooting. Declan Meehan broke through Kerry's defense, in the 6th minute, to score one of the best goals of the championship.

Galway's one point lead boded ominous for Kerry but they rallied and began to pick their points amidst a shower of wides. The most definitive injury of the half was that of Kevin Walsh; the occasion once again got to young Bergin as he didn't exert a major influence in the middle of the field and this led to Kerry's domination of this area after Maurice Fitzgerald replaced Noel Kennelly in the 27th minute and played as a third midfielder. As the team broke for half-time the score was 0–09 to 1–04 in favour of Kerry. A light drizzle fell in the second half. Fitzgearld settled into his position with the professional role familiar to all from the 97 season. Kevin Walsh was re-introduced for mid-fielder Sean O'Domhnaill to combat Fitzgearld's influence but he never played as dominant a part in the game as he had prior to his earlier injury and indeed the drawn game; the deteriorating pitch surface took its toll as players began to slip and slide along the Cusack sideline but with minutes left to play Kerry had opened their lead to 4 points and it stayed that way at the end.

Aodán Mac Gearailt fisted the insurance point over the bar in the 2000 replay

Washington Memorial Chapel

Washington Memorial Chapel — located on Pennsylvania Route 23 in Valley Forge National Historical Park — is both a national memorial dedicated to General George Washington and an active Episcopal parish in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. The church was inspired by a sermon preached by Anglican minister Reverend Dr. W. Herbert Burk and first rector of the parish; the building was designed by architect Milton B. Medary, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 1, 2017, is undergoing an active restoration campaign. It is physically located in Upper Merion Township. Reverend Burk was rector of an Episcopal church in nearby Norristown; the money for the chapel was raised in small increments, its stone walls were built a "few feet at a time." In the religious and patriotic zeal of the day, Dr. Burk was active in trying to preserve Valley Forge, in the establishment of the Valley Forge Museum of American History. A previous attempt to build a memorial church at Valley Forge had been launched in 1885 by Baptist minister James M. Guthrie, who raised funds and began building before running out of funds.

On June 19, 1903, the 125th anniversary of the evacuation of the Continental Army from Valley Forge, the cornerstone was laid on property donated by the I. Heston Todd family. A small wood-framed building nearby preceded the present structure. Following President Theodore Roosevelt's visit to the site and address in 1904, the original wooden building was named the "Theodore Roosevelt Chapel." It was demolished after completion of the present chapel. The Chapel's exterior was completed in 1917 and its interior in 1921, it serves as a wayside chapel to those who visit Valley Forge National Historical Park, is open to the public. Noted ironsmith Samuel Yellin produced the wrought iron gates and locks, he was one of many artisans to produce sculptures, stained glass and metal work. The interior woodwork was supplied by Belgian-American cabinetmaker Edward Maene. From the visitor's perspective the Chapel, with its central location, can appear to be a part of the park. However, the Chapel and surrounding property belong to the Episcopal Church.

Across Valley Forge Park Road, standing opposite from the Chapel, is the builder's model of the Washington Monument. This obelisk marks the grave of Lieutenant John Waterman; the original Waterman gravestone had been on display in the visitor's center museum. The Bell Tower houses the DAR Patriot Rolls, listing those that served in the Revolutionary War, the Chapel grounds hosted the World of Scouting Museum until ca. 2013. The National Patriots Bell Tower was a addition to the Chapel, houses its carillon; the 102 ft tower was built with funds raised by members of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution over a period of more than a decade. Construction began in 1941, but was suspended due to World War II, restarted in 1949; the bell tower was completed and dedicated in 1953. The Justice Bell is on permanent display in the bell tower chamber, it was forged in 1915 as a nearly identical replica of the Liberty Bell, became an instrumental symbol of the Women's Suffrage movement.

In 1920, after touring many parts of the country to promote the passing of the 19th Amendment, the bell was stored on the grounds of Valley Forge National Park before being permanently moved to the bell tower chamber in 1943. The bell tower contains a traditional carillon, with a keyboard of 58 bells; the first 14 bells were installed in a temporary wooden tower in 1926, the number of bells expanded over the course of three decades. Fifty-six bells were installed in the bell tower in 1953, expanded to 58 bells in 1963 with two bells from the Fonderie Paccard in France; the bell tower is played by a resident carilloneur. Concerts, both formal and informal, are open to the public. George Washington Window, south wall, Nicola D'Ascenzo, depicts 36 scenes from Washington's life Anthony Wayne Window, west wall, Nicola D'Ascenzo, designer. Depicts 12 scenes of American expansion. Alexander Hamilton Window, east wall, Nicola D'Ascenzo, designer Martha Washington Window, north wall, Nicola D'Ascenzo, designer Washington at Prayer Window, carillon tower chamber, Nicola D'Ascenzo, designer Baptismal font, Milton B.

Medary, designer Pulpit, Milton B. Medary, designer Lectern and Perclose, Milton B. Medary, designer Altar and reredos, Milton B. Medary, designer Litany desk, Milton B. Medary, Edward Maene, carver Pews of the Patriots, Milton B. Medary, Edward Maene, carver; the left front pew is the Presidents' Pew, dedicated to George Washington and James Monroe, the two future Presidents of the United States who endured the Valley Forge encampment. Choir stalls and reredos, Milton B. Medary, Edward Maene, carver Valley Forge, rood screen, Franklin Simmons, sculptor Sacrifice and Devotion, Heckscher Memorial, Cloister of the Colonies Garden, Bela Pratt, sculptor Harrison Memorial Gates, Samuel Yellin, metalworker. Declaration of Independence Tablet, Martha Maulsby Hovenden, sculptor. View a short documentary about the Maulsby/Hovenden/Corson families of Plymouth Meeting, PA. United States Constitution Tablet, na