Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Kilfenora is a village and a civil parish in County Clare, Ireland. It is situated south of the karst limestone region known as the Burren. Since medieval times when it was the episcopal see of the Bishop of Kilfenora, it has been known as the "City of the Crosses" for its seven high crosses; the village had around 220 inhabitants in 2011. Much of the TV show. Cill Fhionnúrach is translated as "Church of the Fertile Hillside", "Church of the White Brow" or "Church of the White Meadow"; the village and diocese of Kilfenora have been referred to as Fenebore, Finneborensis or Collumabrach. According to the Census of 2011, 463 people lived in the Kilfenora area, up from 409 in 2006. However, most of them do not live inside the village. In 2011, there were just 220 inhabitants in the village proper, up from 169 in 2006 and only around 100 in 1980. In 1975 the "Burren Display Centre", an interpretative centre displaying the botany and wildlife of The Burren, in the former National School building, was opened by president Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh.
It was the first interpretative centre in Ireland and was built with funds from Fáilte Ireland and the Clare County Council. The TV show; this gave rise to a "Father Ted Festival", first held in 2007. Kilfenora gave its name to the Kilfenora Ceili Band. Kilfenora Cathedral is dedicated to St. Fachtna and the present structure dates to between 1189 and 1200, it was built in the so-called transitional style with a chancel. These were separated and by 1839, "thirty-six feet of the east end" were roofless; the nave is now used for worship by the Church of Ireland, for which it was reconstructed around 1850. It features a bishop's throne, donated in 1981. There is a large square stone baptismal font. In addition, the church contains various tombs, but the interior is devoid of ornamentation. According to local tradition, the chancel was roofed with an oak ceiling until the end of the 18th century, it is roofless today and features a 15th-century doorway, a 15th-century Gothic sedilia as well as a Romanesque three-light east window with its triangular pillars topped by carved capitals.
On both sides of the window is a carved effigy: a bishop with his right hand raised in blessing, to the north. The chancel contains several tombs and the remains of high crosses; the "Lady Chapel" was in a rectangular wing leading to the north of the chancel. It shares the building date of the main building and may have served as a sort of transept in the past. Two lancet-type windows and a broken two-light one are left in the eastern wall. There are fragments of a high cross. Today, the cathedral remains in ruined state, although restoration work was done by the National Monument Service in the early 2000s; the transept was fitted with a glass roof in 2005 to protect the remains of the three high crosses moved there. Although tradition maintains that there were once seven crosses, only the remains of five of them were extant in modern times. Three of those, including the one known as the "Doorty Cross", were located within the graveyard of the cathedral; the Doorty Cross is so named, because its shaft was used as the tomb stone of the Doorty family grave until the 1950s when the two parts of this mid-12th century cross were reunited.
A shaft of a 13th- or 14th-century cross stood near the doorway of the cathedral. Near the graveyard gate was a simple cross; the third cross is located within the chancel. West of the graveyard and halfway between the cathedral and the modern Catholic church is the fourth high cross, standing in a field; the fifth cross was removed in 1821, by Dr. Richard Mant, Bishop of Kilfenora and Killaloe, to Killaloe, County Clare where it is still on display at St. Flannan's Cathedral and known as the "Kilfenora High Cross". In 2003, three high crosses from the site were removed for conservation by the Office of Public Works and from 2005 have been on display in the transept of the cathedral; the ruins of Ballyshanny Castle are located in the eponymous townland, around 600 meters from the village. It was built in a ringfort and was an O'Brien castle. In 1631 it was owned by Dean of Kilfenora. Remains of two upper floors and a vaulted lower floor are still extant. To the west of Ballyshanny, in Ballykeel South townland, lie the outhouses of the Ballykeel estate, one of the few "big houses" in northwestern Clare.
It was built by George Lysaght of Woodmount, Ennistymon in the late 18th century. It was replaced in the early 19th century by the Blake Foster family with a classical house of cut stone with a central bow. A large ring fort surrounded by chevaux de frise in Ballykinvarga townland is named after the townland; the fort itself has not been conclusively dated. Due to its size it has been considered the seat of a regional "cattle baron", was described in detail by antiquarian Thomas Johnson Westropp in 1897; the former Burren Display Centre today provides an updated exhibition on the Burren, a film, tea rooms and a craft store. Kilfenora civil parish is on the east side of barony of Corcomroe; the parish is 5.3 by 5 miles and covers 10,776 acre
Augustine of Hippo
Saint Augustine of Hippo was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius in north Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Period. Among his most important works are The City of De doctrina Christiana and Confessions. According to his contemporary Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith". In his youth he was drawn to Manichaeism and to neoplatonism. After his baptism and conversion to Christianity in 386, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives. Believing that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, he helped formulate the doctrine of original sin and made seminal contributions to the development of just war theory; when the Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate, Augustine imagined the Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly City.
His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview. The segment of the Church that adhered to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople identified with Augustine's On the Trinity. Augustine is recognized as a saint in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Christian Church, the Anglican Communion and as a preeminent Doctor of the Church, he is the patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated on 28 August, the day of his death. Augustine is the patron saint of brewers, theologians, the alleviation of sore eyes, a number of cities and dioceses. Many Protestants Calvinists and Lutherans, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of the Protestant Reformation due to his teachings on salvation and divine grace. Protestant Reformers and Martin Luther in particular, held Augustine in preeminence among early Church Fathers. Luther himself was, from 1505 to 1521, a member of the Order of the Augustinian Eremites. In the East, his teachings are more disputed, were notably attacked by John Romanides.
But other theologians and figures of the Eastern Orthodox Church have shown significant approbation of his writings, chiefly Georges Florovsky. The most controversial doctrine associated with him, the filioque, was rejected by the Orthodox Church. Other disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, predestination. Though considered to be mistaken on some points, he is still considered a saint, has had influence on some Eastern Church Fathers, most notably Saint Gregory Palamas. In the Orthodox Church his feast day is celebrated on 15 June. Historian Diarmaid MacCulloch has written: " impact on Western Christian thought can hardly be overstated. Augustine of Hippo known as Saint Augustine, Saint Austin, is known by various cognomens throughout the Christian world across its many denominations including Blessed Augustine, the Doctor of Grace Hippo Regius, where Augustine was the bishop, was in modern-day Annaba, Algeria. Augustine was born in the year 354 AD in the municipium of Thagaste in the Roman province of Numidia.
His mother, Monica or Monnica, was a devout Christian. Augustine considered the father like a stranger. Scholars agree that Augustine and his family were Berbers, an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, but that they were Romanized, speaking only Latin at home as a matter of pride and dignity. In his writings, Augustine leaves some information as to the consciousness of his African heritage. For example, he refers to Apuleius as "the most notorious of us Africans," to Ponticianus as "a country man of ours, insofar as being African," and to Faustus of Mileve as "an African Gentleman". Augustine's family name, suggests that his father's ancestors were freedmen of the gens Aurelia given full Roman citizenship by the Edict of Caracalla in 212. Augustine's family had been Roman, for at least a century when he was born, it is assumed that his mother, was of Berber origin, on the basis of her name, but as his family were honestiores, an upper class of citizens known as honorable men, Augustine's first language is to have been Latin.
At the age of 11, Augustine was sent to school at Madaurus, a small Numidian city about 19 miles south of Thagaste. There he became familiar with Latin literature, as well as pagan practices, his first insight into the nature of sin occurred when he and a number of friends stole fruit they did not want from a neighborhood garden. He tells this story in The Confessions, he remembers that he did not steal the fruit because he was hungry, but because "it was not permitted." His nature, he says, was flawed.'It was foul, I loved it. I loved my own error—not that for which I erred, but the error itself." From this incident he concluded the human person is inclined to sin, in need of the grace of Christ. At the age of 17, through the generosity of his fellow citizen Romanianus, Augustine went to Carthage to continue his education in rhetoric, though it was above the financial means of his family. In spite of the good warnings of his mother, as a youth Augustine lived a hedonistic lif
Civil parishes in Ireland
Civil parishes are units of territory in the island of Ireland that have their origins in old Gaelic territorial divisions. They were adopted by the Anglo-Norman Lordship of Ireland and by the Elizabethan Kingdom of Ireland, were formalised as land divisions at the time of the Plantations of Ireland, they no longer correspond to the boundaries of Roman Catholic or Church of Ireland parishes, which are larger. Their use as administrative units was replaced by Poor Law Divisions in the 19th century, although they were not formally abolished. Today they are still sometimes used for legal purposes; the Irish parish was based on the Gaelic territorial unit called a túath orTrícha cét. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the Anglo-Norman barons retained the tuath renamed a parish or manor, as a unit of taxation; the civil parish was formally created by Elizabethan legislation. Accounts were kept of income and expenditures for each parish including poor relief. Statutes were based on ecclesiastical parishes, although it is not known how well-defined such parishes were.
At the time of the English Civil War, in 1654–56 a Civil Survey was taken of all the lands of Ireland. It proved inaccurate, in 1656–58 the Down Survey was conducted, using physical measurements to make as accurate a map as was possible at the time of townlands and baronies; this became the basis for all future land claims. Parishes are an intermediate subdivision, with multiple townlands per parish and multiple parishes per barony. A civil parish is made up of 25–30 townlands, it may include urban areas such as villages. A parish may cross the boundaries of both counties. Civil parishes had some use in local taxation, they were included on the nineteenth-century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. The Local Government Act 1898 established administrative counties divided into county districts making parishes obsolete, they were removed from subsequent editions of OS maps. For poor law purposes district electoral divisions replaced the civil parishes in the mid-nineteenth century. Townlands are the smallest land unit in Ireland, were the most precise address that most rural people had until the 2015 introduction of postcodes.
An 1871 report to parliament noted that there were three classes of parish in Ireland: the civil parish, the Church of Ireland parish and the Roman Catholic parish. The first two but not always had the same boundaries, while the third did not; as a result of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, the Roman Catholic church had to adapt to a structure based on towns and villages, with parishes that were larger than the old parishes. A Tudor statute, renewed in 1695 by the Irish parliament, said that land should be granted in each parish for a resident Protestant schoolmaster; the Union of Parishes Act 1827 defined rules for redefining parish boundaries, erecting Chapels of Ease and making Perpetual Cures. It has since in part repealed. While the boundaries of the parishes of the Church of Ireland changed following the disestablishment of the church in 1869, this did not affect the boundaries of the civil parishes; the 1871 report noted that ecclesiastical parish boundaries must be flexible to meet the requirements of the cure of souls, but that for statistical and administrative purposes the boundaries of civil parishes should be fixed, or at least should change.
By 1800 civil parishes had replaced the ecclesiastical parishes for administrative purposes. Although the timing and method of the change is not well-documented; the civil parish was used for taxation purposes. The civil parishes were included on the nineteenth-century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. At the time of the 1861 census there were 2,428 civil parishes in Ireland. Poor Law districts were created in 1838, each centered on a large town. There were 130 poor law unions with 829 registration districts and 3,751 district electoral divisions for census purposes. In 1898 poor law unions replaced civil parishes as the basic local government unit. "parish councils" which gained a modicum of official recognition were based on Roman Catholic parishes: first those recognised by the Congested Districts Board for Ireland. Civil parishes have not been formally abolished in either Northern Ireland or the Republic of Ireland, are still used in some legal contexts. One example where the parish is still referenced in Republic of Ireland law is the Intoxicating Liquor Act, 1988, which allows "any person resident in the parish in which the club premises are situated" to object to the granting of an alcohol licence to a club.
Until 1981 the Republic's official census reports included the populations of civil parishes in and near cities, because "numerous requests" were still being made for them. In 2001 there were 2,508 civil parishes. Old records of marriages, births etc. are organised by civil parish. Church of Ireland parishes conform to civil parish boundaries. List of civil parishes of Ireland Citations Sources "Historic 6-inch map". Mapviewer. Ordnance Survey of Ireland. 1833–46. Retrieved 8 November 2014. "Memorial Atlas of Ireland". NUI Galway. 2014. County maps include colour-coded parishes "Alphabetical index to
Ennistymon or Ennistimon is a country market town in County Clare, near the west coast of Ireland. A popular tourist spot, it has a typical Irish main street, with many traditional pubs; the River Inagh, with its small rapids known as the Cascades, runs through the town, behind the main street. A bridge across the river leads on the N67 national secondary road; the town is connected to Ennis by the N85. The town's official name is Ennistimon, although Ennistymon is the spelling most used, it was spelled Inishdymon. This is believed to derive from Inis Diomáin meaning "Diomán's island". However, Míchéal Ó Raghallaigh argues that the name is derived from Inis Tí Méan meaning "island of the middle house" or "river meadow of the middle house". Ennistymon is located on the border of the upland area of County Clare known as the Burren; the Cullenagh River is called Inagh after the Ennistymon cascades. Ennistymon grew from just three cabins in 1775 to 120 houses in 1810; the oldest part of town is the narrow street near the bridge.
A Christian Brothers Monastery, Mount St. Joseph's, was established in 1824. There are many shops in Ennistymon including a large SuperValu supermarket, an Aldi supermarket, several hairdressers, a butcher, a hardware shop, print shop, dry cleaners, builders' suppliers, several cafés and restaurants and one hotel along with numerous B&Bs. There are numerous pubs, many of which host Irish traditional musicians. Two Bus Éireann routes, 333 and 350, serve the town. Route 350 links Ennistymon to Ennis, Cliffs of Moher, Doolin and Galway. There are a number of journeys each way daily. Onward rail and bus connections are available at Galway. Route 333 links the town to Kilfenora, Miltown Malbay and Doonbeg; the West Clare Railway passed through the town, connecting it to Ennis and the West Clare coastal towns and villages. Ennistymon railway station opened on 2 July 1887; the railway closed on 1 February 1961. Teach Ceoil Saint Andrews, Gothic Revival Church of Ireland from the 1830s, converted to a hall in 1989 The Falls or Cascades The Falls Hotel A number of the town houses are deemed architecturally interesting/valuable and are listed in the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage Ruined church and graveyard.
Located on a hill, the nave-and-chancel church was built in 1778 and fell into disuse after the new Church of Ireland was constructed in the 1830s. It features three windows on the north and one the east side; the building measures 7 by 14 meters. This was a Protestant church, built by the Archdeacon of James Kenny. Ruins of Glen Castle, near the road to Ennis The An Gorta Mór Memorial was erected a mile outside Ennistymon on the road to Lahinch to commemorate the memory of the victims of the Great Famine from 1845 to 1850, it was dedicated on 20 August 1995 – the 150th anniversary of the Famine. Located across from Palladian Ennistymon Hospital, itself built on the grounds of the local workhouse, it was erected by a combined effort of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, Board of Erin, Board of America and Clare County Council; the monument was designed by an artist from Co Kerry and depicts an account found in the Minutes of the Meetings of the Boards of Guardians for Ennistymon Union held in the County Archives.
The account centered on a note, pinned to the torn shirt of a barefoot orphan boy, left at the workhouse door on the freezing cold morning of 25 February 1848. The note read: Gentlemen, There is a little boy named Michael Rice of Lahinch aged about 4 years, he is an orphan, his father having died last year and his mother has expired on last Wednesday night, now about to be buried without a coffin!! Unless ye make some provision for such; the child in question is now at the Workhouse Gate expecting to be admitted. -- Rob S. Constable" One side of the memorial depicts a child standing before the workhouse door, while across from, the head of an anguished mother and two hands clenched in frustration or anger above the sorrowful text of the pleading note. Ennistymon has two primary schools: Scoil Mhainchin/Ennistymon National School and Mol an Oige Steiner School. Mol an Oige Steiner National School became the first Steiner method school in Ireland to be given permanent recognition as a national school by the Department of Education.
Scoil Mhainchin is in an amalgamation of the CBS Primary School and The Convent of Mercy National School. There are three secondary schools in the town: Ennistymon CBS, the only all-boys school in the county, the Vocational School and Scoil Mhuire provide secondary education. Plans are in place to amalgamate these three schools; the Parish of Ennistymon has three churches. The church in Furglan was closed reducing the number of churches from four to three; the Church of Ireland church at Ennistymon was built in 1831. The current Roman Catholic church in Ennistymon, Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Michael, was built in 1952-1954. William O'Brien, 2nd Marquess of Thomond, Irish peer Kootenay Brown, Irish-Canadian polymath, soldier and conservation advocate Martin Conway, Irish Fine Gael politician Seamus Mac Cruitín, Irish poet and bard Marie Davenport, Irish former female long-distance runner Brian Merriman, Irish language poet and teacher (a statue of him stands outside St
Liscannor is a coastal village in County Clare, Ireland. Lying on the west coast of Ireland, on Liscannor Bay, the village is located on the R478 road between Lahinch, to the east, Doolin, to the north; the Cliffs of Moher are about 5 km north west of the village. Between Lahinch and Liscannor lies the small village of Moymore. Liscannor is located in the civil parish of Kilmacrehy. Liscannor takes its name from an old fort, located here. Lis meaning a "fort" and Cannor a corruption of the name "Connor"; the area around Liscannor was part of the Barony of Corcomroe, controlled by the O’Connor family. At least 30 ships of the Spanish Armada, sent to invade England in the summer of 1588, were lost along the coast of Ireland along the western seaboard; the oar-powered galleass Zuñiga was damaged, anchored off-shore of Liscannor. The ship came under surveillance by the High Sheriff of Clare and by crown forces and had to withdraw to their ship. One captive was sent for interrogation; the Zuñiga escaped the coast with favorable winds, reached Le Havre.
The village of Liscannor is of late 18th century origin. According to an 1814 survey there were nearly 200 houses in it at the time, about ten of them had flag roofs. 40 houses were used by fishermen. The Cliffs of Moher are one of Ireland's top visitor attractions, include a protected colony of cliff-nesting seabirds; the area was designated as a Refuge for Fauna in 1988, as a Special Protection Area for Birds under the EU Birds Directive in 1989. Cill MacCreiche is first documented in the 14th century, but some of the current Gothic ornamentation is later; this was an O'Connor stronghold, which like Dough Castle passed to the O'Briens. In 1712, the Earl of Thomond let the estate to William Fitzgerald. Under the Fitzgerald family, the town began to grow in the 18th century; the ruined remains include a six-story tower with a spiral stairway to the east and a lower main building next to it. This latter was described in some detail by Thomas Johnson Westropp in the late 19th century, who noted that it had five floors.
Located at a site of pre-Christian Lughnasadh celebrations, Dabhach Bhríde is located near the Cliffs of Moher. Behind the well, on a higher level to which steps lead, is an ancient cemetery. There is a large cross here and a circular path around it, part of the Rite of the Holy Well is performed in this area known as the Ula Uachtarach or upper sanctuary; the well, dedicated to Brigid of Kildare, is in the lower ground, the Ula íochtarach or lower sanctuary, enclosed in a little house which contains votive offerings left by pilgrims. The well has been a pilgrimage site since at least the 1830s, when following a personal cure which he attributed to the waters of the well, Cornelius O'Brien had the well house built. Pilgrims from elsewhere in County Clare and from the Aran Islands came to Liscannor. Pattern Days on which large groups attended included Garland Sunday; the harbour was built between 1831 for £ 2,900, of which £ 2,000 was a government grant. In modern times, the harbour has a number of fishing vessels moored there as well as smaller boats using it is a launching site for sea fishing/recreational sports.
During summer months there is a ferry service to the base of the Cliffs of Moher as well as to the Aran Islands. In the past the harbour was a hub for fishing vessels as well as a location to export locally quarried Liscannor Stone and to receive in coal supplies; some historical documents note that due to the silting of the harbour, ships could only carry 380 tonnes into port. At low tides ships had to be winched into harbour. A currach would bring the rope out to the ship. Locally quarried flag was polished beside the harbour and winched onto ships by steam crane; these slabs were transported to several British cities. Coal was delivered directly to Liscannor up until the mid-1960s for Griffins coal yard in Ennistymon. However, in the mid-1960s a boat sank; the insurance became too expensive, coal was delivered to Ennistymon via Clarecastle. The engineer John Philip Holland was born in Liscannor, developed some of the first submarines commissioned by the US Navy and Royal Navy. A visitor centre, the "John P Holland Centre", was opened in Liscannor in 2016.
Holland is the subject of a memorial donated by the Submarine Veterans of the US Navy. St Brigid's Church in Liscannor was built in 1858, it is a four-bay church built of rubble masonry. A new roof was added but the gallery, y-mullioned windows and semi-Tudor door were retained. Although the construction of a round tower was suggested in the 1920s, this Touheran tower which would have housed the bell as well as cottage industries on the lower floors was never built. Liscannor has been referred to as "the Pope's Own Parish". Located in the Diocese of Kilfenora, of which the Pope is the Bishop and the Bishop of Galway is the Apostolic Administrator, Liscannor is a mensal parish, i.e. directly under the direct authority of the bishop. The church of Moymore was built on an elevated site overlooking the bay. There was no church at this location. Before that the people of the area attended Mass in a small thatched chapel a quarter mile to the east in Caheraderry; the Caheraderry church dates from the 17th century penal times, built either to facilitate travelling friars or as an out-chapel or hermitage for Kilmacreehy Church.
Beside the ruins stand. According to local tradition, one of these cottages was a sheebeen known as
Kilkee is a small coastal town in County Clare, Ireland. It is in the parish of Kilkee Kilfearagh. Kilkee is midway between Doonbeg on the N67 road; the town is popular as a seaside resort. The horseshoe bay is protected from the Atlantic Ocean by the Duggerna Reef. During the early part of the 19th century, Kilkee was just a small fishing village but in the 1820s when a paddle steamer service from Limerick to Kilrush was launched, it began to attract visitors, it has been a resort since and was featured on the front page of the Illustrated London News as the premier bathing spot in what was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. As the town was more accessible to people from Limerick rather than Clare, holidaying in Kilkee became more of a Limerick custom, due to steamboats travelling daily up and down the River Shannon; the town grew as wealthy merchants from Limerick wanted holiday homes by the sea, resulting in a building boom in the 1830s. As demand for lodgings in Kilkee grew, several hotels were built.
Along with these, three churches were built, a Roman Catholic church in 1831, a Protestant church in 1843 and a Methodist church in 1900, reflecting the cosmopolitan feel of the town in that era. On 30 January 1836 the Intrinsic, a ship from Liverpool bound for New Orleans, was blown into a bay near Bishops Island in Kilkee; the ship was dashed against the cliffs and sank along with her crew of 14, of whom none survived. The shipwreck site is now called'Intrinsic Bay'. A chartered passenger sailing vessel named the Edmond sank at Edmond Point on 19 November 1850; the ship was driven into Kilkee Bay by a storm. As the tide was high, the ship was driven all the way to Edmond Point, where it split in two. Of the 216 on board, 98 drowned in the disaster. 50 years to the day after the Intrinsic sank, on 30 January 1886, the Fulmar sank just north of Kilkee in an area known as Farrihy Bay. The ship was a cargo vessel transporting coal from Troon in Scotland to Limerick, but never reached its destination.
Of the 17 crew members aboard only one body was recovered. Between 28 and 29 December 1894, the Inishtrahull went missing somewhere near the Kilkee coast. At the time of the disappearance the ship was transporting a consignment of coal from Glasgow to Limerick but never reached its intended destination; the ship was only confirmed to have sunk on 3 January 1985, when a section of a port bow from a ship with a brass plate marked "Glasgow" was picked up by the Kilkee coastguards. In the 1890s, Kilkee had yet again another boom, when the West Clare Railway opened up to goods transport, improving commercial life in the area, as well as providing a fast means of travel to and from the town. Many prominent people in society travelled to Kilkee including Sir Aubrey de Vere, Charlotte Brontë, Sir Henry Rider Haggard, Alfred, Lord Tennyson. In 1896, the Crown Princess of Austria visited the town; the entertainer Percy French was a regular performer in the town and an incident on the West Clare Railway on the way to Kilkee prompted him to write the song "Are Ye Right There Michael".
Although it has become more developed and modern in recent years, the town retains some of its 19th-century Victorian feel. Kilkee has been awarded the Blue Flag by the European Commission. In 2006, a statue of Richard Harris was unveiled in Kilkee by actor Russell Crowe. Over the more recent years, during a period of rapid economic growth in Ireland known as the'Celtic Tiger', Kilkee underwent considerable expansion with the development of hotels and other forms of housing. During this period, the beach or "horse shoe" bay was crowded as the population expanded to 25,000 during the summer months, although this peak has fallen from 2008 onwards as the Irish financial crisis has prevented as much people from visiting the town for the summer; the town's main source of income is still the tourism sector and therefore many recreational places have been established, including restaurants and cafés. After the last weekend of August the town empties and many businesses close until the next summer, creating a much slower pace of life compared to the hectic summer months.
This means that if the local businesses do not have a good summer in terms of sales, they might suffer financially for the rest of the year. Summer holidays in 1950s Kilkee are evocatively described in Rathcormick. Along with bathing on the strand, swimmers can choose from the Pollock Holes, New Found Out and Byrnes Cove; the Pollock Holes, known as Duggerna Reef, are three natural rock-enclosed pools, with water, changed by every tide. This not only brings in fresh water, but replenishes the marine life in the many rock pools surrounding it; the diving boards at New Found Out allow for dives of up to 13 metres into the open sea. The annual diving competition is held at these boards; every year there are many participants in the Bay Swim, a race of a mile from the east end of the town to the west across the bay. The race starts at Byrnes Cove, a sheltered cove situated close to George's Head, a prominent headland in the town. In 2011 nearly 200 people took part in the swim. There is a mini bay swim for children under fourteen, from Sandy Cove to the Pier.
The last weekend in June sees an influx of triathletes as Kilkee hosts the "Hell of the West Triathlon", the longest-running triathlon in the country. This is one of the biggest and toughest triathlons on the Irish Triathlon calendar with upwards of 600 athletes taking part in a 1500-metre swim, 45 km cycle and finishing with a 10 km road race. Kilkee