The Hollywood blacklist was the popular term for what was in actuality a broader entertainment industry blacklist put in effect in the mid 20th century in the United States during the early part of the Cold War. The blacklist involved the practice of denying employment to entertainment industry professionals believed to be or to have been Communists or sympathizers. Not just actors, but screenwriters, directors and other American entertainment professionals were barred from work by the studios; this was done on the basis of their membership, alleged membership in, or just sympathy with the Communist Party USA, or on the basis of their refusal to assist congressional investigations into the party's activities. During the period of its strictest enforcement, from the late 1940s through to the late 1950s, the blacklist was made explicit or verifiable, but it and directly damaged or ended the careers and income of scores of individuals working in the film industry; the first systematic Hollywood blacklist was instituted on November 25, 1947, the day after ten writers and directors were cited for contempt of Congress for refusing to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee.
These personalities were subpoenaed to appear before the House Un-American Activities Committee in October. The contempt citation included a criminal charge, which led to a publicized trial and an eventual conviction with a maximum of one year in jail in addition to a $1,000 fine; the Congressional action prompted a group of studio executives, acting under the aegis of the Association of Motion Picture Producers, to fire the artists – the so-called Hollywood Ten – and made what has become known as the Waldorf Statement. It was announced via a news release after the major producers met at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel and it included a condemnation of the personalities involved ostracizing those named from the industry; these producers instituted a compulsory oaths of loyalty from among its employees with the threat of a blacklist. On June 22, 1950, a pamphlet entitled Red Channels was published. Focused on the field of broadcasting, it identified 151 entertainment industry professionals in the context of "Red Fascists and their sympathizers".
Soon, most of those named, along with a host of other artists, were barred from employment in most of the entertainment field. The blacklist lasted until 1960, when Dalton Trumbo, a Communist Party member from 1943 to 1948 and member of the Hollywood Ten, was credited as the screenwriter of the successful film Exodus, publicly acknowledged by actor Kirk Douglas for writing the screenplay for the movie Spartacus. A number of those blacklisted, were still barred from work in their professions for years afterward; the Hollywood blacklist was rooted in events of the 1930s and the early 1940s, encompassing the height of the Great Depression and World War II. Two major film industry strikes during the 1930s increased tensions between the Hollywood producers and the unions the Screen Writers Guild; the American Communist Party lost substantial support after the Moscow show trials of 1936–1938 and the German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact of 1939. The U. S. government began turning its attention to the possible links between Hollywood and the party during this period.
Under then-chairman Martin Dies, Jr. the House Un-American Activities Committee released a report in 1938 claiming that communism was pervasive in Hollywood. Two years Dies took testimony from a former Communist Party member, John L. Leech, who named forty-two movie industry professionals as Communists. After Leech repeated his charges in supposed confidence to a Los Angeles grand jury, many of the names were reported in the press, including those of stars Humphrey Bogart, James Cagney, Katharine Hepburn, Melvyn Douglas and Fredric March, among other well-known Hollywood figures. Dies said he would "clear" all those who co-operated by meeting with him in what he called "executive session". Within two weeks of the grand jury leak, all those on the list except for actress Jean Muir had met with the HUAC chairman. Dies "cleared" everyone except actor Lionel Stander, fired by the movie studio, Republic Pictures, where he was contracted. In 1941, producer Walt Disney took out an ad in Variety, the industry trade magazine, declaring his conviction that "Communist agitation" was behind a cartoonists and animators' strike.
According to historians Larry Ceplair and Steven Englund, "In actuality, the strike had resulted from Disney's overbearing paternalism, high-handedness, insensitivity." Inspired by Disney, California State Senator Jack Tenney, chairman of the state legislature's Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, launched an investigation of "Reds in movies". The probe fell flat, was mocked in several Variety headlines; the subsequent wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union brought the American Communist Party newfound credibility. During the war, membership in the party reached a peak of 50,000; as World War II drew to a close, perceptions changed again, with communism becoming a focus of American fears and hatred. In 1945, Gerald L. K. Smith, founder of the neofascist America First Party, began giving speeches in Los Angeles assailing the "alien minded Russian Jews in Hollywood". Mississippi congressman John E. Rankin, a member of HUAC, held a press conference to declare that "one of the most dangerous plots instigated for the overthrow of this Government has its headquarters in Hollywood... the greatest hotbed of subversive activities in the United States".
Rankin promised, "We're on the trail of the tarantula now". Reports of Soviet repression in Eastern and Central Europe in the war's aftermath added more fuel t
The chimpanzee known as the common chimpanzee, robust chimpanzee, or "chimp", is a species of great ape, with four confirmed subspecies and a fifth proposed subspecies. The chimpanzee, along with the related bonobo, are classified in the genus Pan. Evidence from fossils and DNA sequencing shows that Pan is a sister taxon to the human lineage and are humans' closest living relatives; the chimpanzee is covered in coarse black hair, but has a bare face, toes, palms of the hands, soles of the feet. It is more robust than the bonobo, measuring about 63 to 94 cm, its gestation period is eight months. The infant is weaned at about three years old, but maintains a close relationship with its mother for several more years, it lives in groups which range in size from 15 to 150 members, although individuals travel and forage in much smaller groups during the day. The species lives in a male-dominated, strict hierarchy, which means disputes can be settled without the need for violence. Nearly all chimpanzee populations have been recorded using tools, modifying sticks, rocks and leaves and using them for acquiring honey, ants and water.
The species has been found creating sharpened sticks to spear small mammals. The chimpanzee is listed on the IUCN Red List as an endangered species. Between 170,000 and 300,000 individuals are estimated across its range in the forests and savannahs of West and Central Africa; the biggest threats to the chimpanzee are habitat loss and disease. Chimpanzees appear in Western popular culture as stereotyped clown-figures, have featured in entertainments such as chimpanzees' tea parties, circus acts and stage shows, they are sometimes kept as pets, though their strength and aggressiveness makes them dangerous in this role. Some hundreds have been kept in laboratories for research in America. Many attempts have been made to teach languages such as American Sign Language to chimpanzees, with limited success; the English name "chimpanzee" is first recorded in 1738. It is derived from Vili ci-mpenze or Tshiluba language chimpenze, with a meaning of "mockman" or just "ape"; the colloquialism "chimp" was most coined some time in the late 1870s.
The first great ape known to Western science in the 17th century was the "Orang-Outang", the local Malay name being recorded in Java by the Dutch physician Jacobus Bontius. In 1641, the Dutch anatomist Nicolaes Tulp applied the name to a chimpanzee or bonobo brought to the Netherlands from Angola. Another Dutch anatomist, Peter Camper, dissected specimens from Central Africa and Southeast Asia in the 1770s, noting the differences between the African and Asian apes; the German naturalist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach classified the common chimpanzee as Simia troglodytes by 1775. The name troglodytes was taken from a mythical race of cave-dwellers. Another German naturalist, Lorenz Oken, coined the genus Pan, from the Greek god, in 1816. Despite a large number of Homo fossil finds, chimpanzee fossils were not described until 2005. Existing chimpanzee populations in West and Central Africa do not overlap with the major human fossil sites in East Africa, but chimpanzee fossils have now been reported from Kenya.
This indicates that both humans and members of the Pan clade were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene. DNA evidence suggests the bonobo and common chimpanzee species separated from each other less than one million years ago. A 2017 genetic study suggests ancient gene flow between 200 and 550 thousand years ago from the bonobo into the ancestors of central and eastern chimpanzees; the chimpanzee line split from the last common ancestor of the human line around six million years ago. Because no species other than Homo sapiens has survived from the human line of that branching, both chimpanzee species are the closest living relatives of humans. A 2003 study argues the common chimpanzee should be included in the human branch as Homo troglodytes, notes "experts say many scientists are to resist the reclassification in the emotionally-charged and disputed field of anthropology". Four subspecies of the common chimpanzee have been recognised, with the possibility of a fifth: Central chimpanzee or tschego, Pan troglodytes troglodytes, in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo Western chimpanzee, P. troglodytes verus, in Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, P. troglodytes ellioti, in Nigeria and Cameroon Eastern chimpanzee, P. troglodytes schweinfurthii, in the Central African Republic, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi and Zambia Southeastern chimpanzee, P. troglodytes marungensis, in Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda: Colin Groves argues that this is a subspecies, created by enough variation between the northern and southern populations of P. t. schweinfurthii.
Human and chimpanzee DNA is similar. A Chimpanzee Genome Project was initiated after the completion of the Human Genome Project. In December 2003, a preliminary analysis of 7600 genes shared between the two genomes confirmed that certain genes, such as the forkhead-box P2 transcription factor, involved in speech development, have undergone rapid evolution in t
Planet of the Apes (1968 film)
Planet of the Apes is a 1968 American science fiction film directed by Franklin J. Schaffner, it stars Charlton Heston, Roddy McDowall, Kim Hunter, Maurice Evans, James Whitmore, James Daly and Linda Harrison. The screenplay by Michael Wilson and Rod Serling was loosely based on the 1963 French novel La Planète des Singes by Pierre Boulle. Jerry Goldsmith composed the groundbreaking avant-garde score, it was the first in a series of five films made between 1968 and 1973, all produced by Arthur P. Jacobs and released by 20th Century Fox; the film tells the story of an astronaut crew who crash-lands on a strange planet in the distant future. Although the planet appears desolate at first, the surviving crew members stumble upon a society in which apes have evolved into creatures with human-like intelligence and speech; the apes have assumed the role of the dominant species and humans are mute creatures wearing animal skins. The script was written by Rod Serling, but underwent many rewrites before filming began.
Directors J. Lee Thompson and Blake Edwards were approached, but the film's producer Arthur P. Jacobs, upon the recommendation of Charlton Heston, chose Franklin J. Schaffner to direct the film. Schaffner's changes included an ape society less advanced—and therefore less expensive to depict—than that of the original novel. Filming took place between May 21 and August 10, 1967, in California and Arizona, with desert sequences shot in and around Lake Powell, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area; the film's final "closed" cost was $5.8 million. The film was released on February 8, 1968, in the United States and was a commercial success, earning a lifetime domestic gross of $32.6 million. The film was groundbreaking for its prosthetic makeup techniques by artist John Chambers and was well received by critics and audiences, launching a film franchise, including four sequels, as well as a short-lived television show, animated series, comic books, various merchandising. In particular, Roddy McDowall had a long-running relationship with the Apes series, appearing in four of the original five films, in the television series.
The original series was followed by Tim Burton's remake Planet of the Apes in 2001 and the reboot Rise of the Planet of the Apes in 2011. In 2001, Planet of the Apes was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Astronauts Taylor and Dodge are in deep hibernation when their spaceship crashes in a lake on an unknown planet after a long near-light speed voyage, during which they aged 18 months due to time dilation while their fourth crewmate Stewart died and decayed due to a malfunction; the three survivors abandon ship when it starts sinking, Taylor remaining on long enough to see the date is November 25, 3978 two millennia after their departure in 1972. Once ashore, Dodge pronounces the soil incapable of sustaining life. After abandoning their raft, the astronauts set off through a desolate wasteland in hopes of finding food and water before their provisions run out, they encounter plant life and go swimming at an oasis at the edge of the desert, ignoring eerie scarecrow-like figures around the edge.
While they are swimming, their clothes are stolen. The astronauts pursue the thieves, finding their clothes torn to shreds and their supplies pillaged as the perpetrators, a group of mute primitive humans, raid a cornfield; the primitive humans are set upon by armed gorillas on horseback who capture some of them while killing the rest, Dodge being killed in the chaos while Landon is rendered unconscious. Taylor is shot in the throat and captured alongside the primitive humans, taken to Ape City where his life is saved after a blood transfusion administered by two chimpanzees: animal psychologist Zira and surgeon Galen. While unable to speak as his throat wound is healing, called "Bright Eyes" by Zira and placed with one of the captive primitive humans he names "Nova", Taylor observes the enhanced society of talking apes and in a strict caste system: the gorillas being the military police and workers. While their society is a theocracy similar to the beginnings of the human Industrial Era, the apes consider the primitive humans as vermin that are hunted, either killed outright, enslaved, or used in scientific experiments.
Taylor gets Zira's attention, convincing her of his intelligence as she and her fiancé Cornelius, an archaeologist, take an interest in him. The couple's orangutan superior, Dr. Zaius, arranges for Taylor to be castrated. Taylor escapes before the castration can occur, passing through a museum during his desperate flight through Ape City where he finds Dodge's stuffed and eyeless corpse on display; when Taylor is recaptured by gorillas, he overcomes his throat injury while roaring: "Take your stinking paws off me, you damn dirty ape!" A hearing to determine Taylor's origins is convened by the president of the Assembly, Dr. Zaius, Maximus. Dr. Honorious is the prosecutor. Taylor mentions his two comrades at this time, learning that Landon was subjected to a lobotomy that has rendered him catatonic and unable to speak. After the tribunal, believing Taylor to be of a human tribe from beyond their borders, Zaius threatens to
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry; the award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Supporting Actor winner. At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony held in 1937, Gale Sondergaard was the first winner of this award for her role in Anthony Adverse. Winners in both supporting acting categories were awarded plaques instead of statuettes. Beginning with the 16th ceremony held in 1944, winners received full-sized statuettes. Nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS. Since its inception, the award has been given to 81 actresses. Dianne Wiest and Shelley Winters have received the most awards in this category with two awards each. Despite winning no awards, Thelma Ritter was nominated on six occasions, more than any other actress.
As of the 2019 ceremony, Regina King is the most recent winner in this category for her role as Sharon Rivers in If Beale Street Could Talk. In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, correspond to the year of film release in Los Angeles County. All Academy Award acting nominees BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Female Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Supporting Actress Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role Crouse, Richard. Reel Winners: Movie Award Trivia. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-574-3. Kinn, Gail. Inside Oscar: The Unofficial History of the Academy Awards. New York, United States: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-34540-053-6. OCLC 779680732. Oscars.org Oscar.com The Academy Awards Database
Rawhide (TV series)
Rawhide is an American Western TV series starring Eric Fleming and Clint Eastwood. The show aired for eight seasons on the CBS network on Friday nights, from January 9, 1959, to September 3, 1965, before moving to Tuesday nights from September 14, 1965, until January 4, 1966, with a total of 217 black-and-white episodes; the series was produced and sometimes directed by Charles Marquis Warren, who produced early episodes of Gunsmoke. Spanning seven and a half years, Rawhide was the sixth-longest-running American television Western, exceeded only by eight years of Wagon Train, nine years of The Virginian, fourteen years of Bonanza, eighteen years of Death Valley Days, twenty years of Gunsmoke. Set in the 1860s, Rawhide portrays the challenges faced by the drovers of a cattle drive. Most episodes are introduced with a monologue by trail boss. In a typical Rawhide story, the drovers come upon people on the trail and are drawn into solving whatever problem they present or confront. Sometimes, one or more of the crew venture into a nearby town and encounter some trouble from which they need to be rescued.
Rowdy Yates was young and at times impetuous in the earliest episodes, Favor had to keep a tight rein on him. Favor is a savvy and strong leader who always plays "square" with his fellow men - a tough customer who can handle the challenges and get the job done. Although Favor had the respect and loyalty of the men who worked for him, the people, including Yates, are insubordinate to him a few times, after working too hard or after receiving a tongue lashing. Favor has to fight at times and wins; some Rawhide stories were easy in production terms, but the peak form of the show was convincing and naturalistic, sometimes brutal. Its story lines ranged from parched plains to anthrax, ghostly riders to wolves, cattle raiding, bandits and others. A frequent story line was the constant need to find water for the cattle; the scout spent much of his time looking for water, sometimes finding that water holes and rivers had dried up. In some ways, the show was similar to the TV series Wagon Train, which had debuted on NBC on September 18, 1957.
Rawhide dealt with controversial topics. Robert Culp played an ex-soldier on the drive. Mexican drover Jesús faced racism at times. Several shows deal with the aftermath of the American Civil War; the "Poco Tiempo" episode reveals that Yates' father's name was Dan, that Yates' came from Southwestern Texas, that he joined the Confederate States Army at 16, that he was held in a federal prison camp. Favor served in the CSA as a captain. "Incident on the Edge of Madness" in season one, guest-starring Lon Chaney Jr. had Favor's old commanding officer attempting to enlist the aid of Favor and his men to start the "New Confederacy of Panama" much to Favor's dismay. In that same episode Favor and Nolan were revealed to have been in the Confederate forces up on Marye's Heights at the Battle of Fredericksburg, they "felt shamed" at killing so many Union soldiers; some American Indians demanded cattle as payment for going through their land. Rough characters were in the shows, in one episode Gil Favor is tortured by having his face held near a fire.
In "Incident of the Town in Terror," people think that a sick Yates has "the plague" and they enforce by gunpoint a quarantine of the cattle drovers outside the town. Cattle rustlers were around, including Commancheros. On occasions, Rawhide was eerily atmospheric. "Incident with an Executioner" featured a mysterious dark rider seen on the hillside following the herd, "Incident of the Haunted Hills" featured a sacred Indian burial ground, "Incident of the Druid Curse" and season two's "Incident of the Murder Steer". The series featured episodes with ghost towns, cattle with horns lit up by St. Elmo's fire at dusk, cowboys struck by lightning, plus a strange enclosed gypsy wagon steering itself turning up, all stand out as curiously "spooky" tales for a bustling dusty cattle drive. In episode 67, "Incident Near the Promised Land", the cattle drive reached Sedalia for the first time in the series. Unusually, episode 68 continues on from that, where the cattle have been sold and the men celebrate in town and decide on their futures with Favor thinking of leaving the business.
Instead of the usual ending, wherein Favor gives the command "Head'em up! Move'em out!" and the cattle move off, this episode had the end titles over a view of a Sedalia street. Episode 69 has Favor visiting his two daughters and Maggie, who live with their aunt Eleanor Bradley in Philadelphia. In episode 70, a number of the men are back together and heading back to San Antonio about 650 miles away, with a herd of horses instead of cattle. Episode 71 has a new cattle drive ready to go, but the owner of 1600 of the cattle wants to be in charge, so Favor reluctantly signs on as a ramrod, but after problems, Favor becomes boss again at the end of the show; these five episodes made up one storyline instead of the usual single-episode stories which could have been set anywhere in the West. Favor had many bad moments in the series, but none worse than the "Lost
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume