Philip K. Dick
Philip Kindred Dick was an American writer known for his work in science fiction. His work explored philosophical and political themes, with stories dominated by monopolistic corporations, alternative universes, authoritarian governments, altered states of consciousness, his writing reflected his interest in metaphysics and theology, drew upon his life experiences in addressing the nature of reality, drug abuse and transcendental experiences. Born in Illinois, he moved to California and began publishing science fiction stories in the 1950s, his stories found little commercial success. His 1962 alternative history novel The Man in the High Castle earned Dick early acclaim, including a Hugo Award for Best Novel, he followed with science fiction novels such as Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and Ubik. His 1974 novel Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said won the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for best novel. Following a series of religious experiences in February 1974, Dick's work engaged more explicitly with issues of theology and the nature of reality, as in such novels as A Scanner Darkly and VALIS.
A collection of his non-fiction writing on these themes was published posthumously as The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick, he died at age 53, due to complications from a stroke. Dick's writing produced 44 published novels and 121 short stories, most of which appeared in science fiction magazines during his lifetime. A variety of popular films based on Dick's works has been produced, including Blade Runner, Total Recall, Minority Report, A Scanner Darkly, The Adjustment Bureau, Blade Runner 2049; the Man in the High Castle, was made into a multi-season television series. In 2005, Time named Ubik one of the hundred greatest English-language novels published since 1923. In 2007, Dick became the first science fiction writer to be included in The Library of America series. Philip Kindred Dick and his twin sister, Jane Charlotte Dick, were born six weeks prematurely on December 16, 1928, in Chicago, Illinois, to Dorothy and Joseph Edgar Dick, who worked for the United States Department of Agriculture, his paternal grandparents were Irish.
The death of Philip's twin Jane six weeks after their birth, on January 26, 1929, profoundly affected Philip's life, leading to the recurrent motif of the "phantom twin" in his books. His family moved to the San Francisco Bay Area; when Philip was five, his father was transferred to Nevada. Both parents fought for custody of Philip, awarded to the mother. Dorothy, determined to raise Philip alone, took a job in Washington, D. C. and moved there with her son. Philip was enrolled at John Eaton Elementary School, his lowest grade was a "C" in Written Composition, although a teacher remarked that he "shows interest and ability in story telling". He was educated in Quaker schools. In June 1938, Dorothy and Philip returned to California, it was around this time that he became interested in science fiction. Dick stated that he read his first science fiction magazine, Stirring Science Stories in 1940 at the age of 12. Dick attended Berkeley High School in California, he and fellow science fiction author Ursula K.
Le Guin did not know each other at the time. After graduation, he attended the University of California, with an honorable dismissal granted January 1, 1950. Dick did not declare a major and took classes in history, psychology and zoology. Through his studies in philosophy, he believed that existence is based on internal human perception, which does not correspond to external reality. After reading the works of Plato and pondering the possibilities of metaphysical realms, Dick came to the conclusion that, in a certain sense, the world is not real and there is no way to confirm whether it is there; this question from his early studies persisted as a theme in many of his novels. Dick dropped out according to his third wife Anne's memoir, she says he disliked the mandatory ROTC training. At Berkeley, Dick befriended poet Robert Duncan and poet and linguist Jack Spicer, who gave Dick ideas for a Martian language. Dick claimed to have hosted a classical music program on KSMO Radio in 1947. From 1948 to 1952, Dick worked at a record store on Telegraph Avenue.
Dick sold his first story in 1951, about “a dog who imagined that the garbagemen who came every Friday morning were stealing valuable food which the family had stored away in a safe metal container”, from on wrote full-time. During 1952, his first speculative fiction publications appeared in July and September numbers of Planet Stories, edited by Jack O'Sullivan, in If and The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction that year, his debut novel was Solar Lottery, published in 1955 as half of Ace Double #D-103 alongside The Big Jump by Leigh Brackett. The 1950s were a difficult and impoverished time for Dick, who once lamented, "We couldn't pay the late fees on a library book." He published exclusively within the science fiction genre, but dreamed of a career in mainstream fiction. During the 1950s, he produced a series of non-genre conventional novels. In 1960, he wrote that he was willing to "take twenty to thirty years to succ
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be citizen ownership of equity. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, with social ownership being the common element shared by its various forms. Socialist systems are divided into market forms. Non-market socialism involves the substitution of factor markets and money with engineering and technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing an economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws from those of capitalism. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them.
Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm, or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. The socialist calculation debate concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a socialist system. Socialist politics has been both nationalist in orientation. Originating within the socialist movement, social democracy has embraced a mixed economy with a market that includes substantial state intervention in the form of income redistribution, a welfare state. Economic democracy proposes a sort of market socialism where there is more decentralized control of companies, currencies and natural resources; the socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels, socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production.
By the 1920s, social democracy and communism had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement. By this time, socialism emerged as "the most influential secular movement of the twentieth century, worldwide, it is a political ideology, a wide and divided political movement" and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, some socialists have adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalism and progressivism. In 21st century America, the term socialism, without clear definition, has become a pejorative used by conservatives to taint liberal and progressive policies and public figures.
For Andrew Vincent, "he word ‘socialism’ finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and medieval law was societas; this latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen". The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would be labelled "utopian socialism". Simon coined the term as a contrast to the liberal doctrine of "individualism", which stressed that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another; the original "utopian" socialists condemned liberal individualism for failing to address social concerns during the industrial revolution, including poverty, social oppression and gross inequalities in wealth, thus viewing liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism that harmed community life through promoting a society based on competition. They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources, although their proposals for socialism differed significantly.
Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of modern scientific advancements to the organisation of society. By contrast, Robert Owen proposed the organisation of ownership in cooperatives; the term "socialism" is attributed to Pierre Leroux and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud in France. The modern definition and usage of "socialism" settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words "co-operative", "mutualist" and "associationist", used as synonyms; the term "communism" fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions between socialism and communism from the 1840s. An early distinction between socialism and communism was that the former aimed to only socialise production while the latter aimed to socialise both production and consumption. However, M
Terraforming or terraformation of a planet, moon, or other body is the hypothetical process of deliberately modifying its atmosphere, surface topography or ecology to be similar to the environment of Earth to make it habitable by Earth-like life. The concept of terraforming developed from actual science; the term was coined by Jack Williamson in a science-fiction short story published during 1942 in Astounding Science Fiction, but the concept may pre-date this work. If the environment of a planet could be altered deliberately, the feasibility of creating an unconstrained planetary environment that mimics Earth on another planet has yet to be verified. Mars is considered to be the most candidate for terraforming. Much study has been done concerning the possibility of heating the planet and altering its atmosphere, NASA has hosted debates on the subject. Several potential methods of altering the climate of Mars may fall within humanity's technological capabilities, but at present the economic resources required to do so are far beyond that which any government or society is willing to allocate to it.
The long timescales and practicality of terraforming are the subject of debate. Other unanswered questions relate to the ethics, economics and methodology of altering the environment of an extraterrestrial world; the renowned astronomer Carl Sagan proposed the planetary engineering of Venus in an article published in the journal Science in 1961. Sagan imagined seeding the atmosphere of Venus with algae, which would convert water and carbon dioxide into organic compounds; as this process removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect would be reduced until surface temperatures dropped to "comfortable" levels. The resulting carbon, Sagan supposed, would be incinerated by the high surface temperatures of Venus, thus be sequestered in the form of "graphite or some involatile form of carbon" on the planet's surface; however discoveries about the conditions on Venus made this particular approach impossible. One problem is that the clouds of Venus are composed of a concentrated sulfuric acid solution.
If atmospheric algae could thrive in the hostile environment of Venus's upper atmosphere, an more insurmountable problem is that its atmosphere is far too thick—the high atmospheric pressure would result in an "atmosphere of nearly pure molecular oxygen" and cause the planet's surface to be thickly covered in fine graphite powder. This volatile combination could not be sustained through time. Any carbon, fixed in organic form would be liberated as carbon dioxide again through combustion, "short-circuiting" the terraforming process. Sagan visualized making Mars habitable for human life in "Planetary Engineering on Mars", an article published in the journal Icarus. Three years NASA addressed the issue of planetary engineering in a study, but used the term "planetary ecosynthesis" instead; the study concluded that it was possible for Mars to support life and be made into a habitable planet. The first conference session on terraforming referred to as "Planetary Modeling", was organized that same year.
In March 1979, NASA engineer and author James Oberg organized the First Terraforming Colloquium, a special session at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston. Oberg popularized the terraforming concepts discussed at the colloquium to the general public in his book New Earths. Not until 1982 was the word terraforming used in the title of a published journal article. Planetologist Christopher McKay wrote "Terraforming Mars", a paper for the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society; the paper discussed the prospects of a self-regulating Martian biosphere, McKay's use of the word has since become the preferred term. In 1984, James Lovelock and Michael Allaby published The Greening of Mars. Lovelock's book was one of the first to describe a novel method of warming Mars, where chlorofluorocarbons are added to the atmosphere. Motivated by Lovelock's book, biophysicist Robert Haynes worked behind the scenes to promote terraforming, contributed the neologism Ecopoiesis, forming the word from the Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house", ποίησις, poiesis, "production".
Ecopoiesis refers to the origin of an ecosystem. In the context of space exploration, Haynes describes ecopoiesis as the "fabrication of a sustainable ecosystem on a lifeless, sterile planet". Fogg defines ecopoiesis as a type of planetary engineering and is one of the first stages of terraformation; this primary stage of ecosystem creation is restricted to the initial seeding of microbial life. As conditions approach that of Earth, plant life could be brought in, this will accelerate the production of oxygen, theoretically making the planet able to support animal life. Beginning in 1985, Martyn J. Fogg started publishing several articles on terraforming, he served as editor for a full issue on terraforming for the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society in 1992. In his book Terraforming: Engineering Planetary Environments, Fogg proposed the following definitions for different aspects related to terraforming: Planetary engineering: the application of technology for the purpose of influencing the global properties of a planet.
Geoengineering: planetary engineering applied to Earth. It includes only those macroengineering concepts that deal with the alteration of some global parameter, such as the greenhouse effect, atmospheric composition, insolation or impact flux. Terraforming: a process of planetary engineering directed at enhancing the capacity of an extraterrestrial planetary environment to support li
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism in opposition to social hierarchy. It involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished; the term left-wing can refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were coined during the French Revolution, referring to the seating arrangement in the French Estates General: those who sat on the left opposed the monarchy and supported the revolution, including the creation of a republic and secularization, while those on the right were supportive of the traditional institutions of the Old Regime. Use of the term "Left" became more prominent after the restoration of the French monarchy in 1815 when it was applied to the "Independents"; the word "wing" was appended to Left and Right in the late 19th century with disparaging intent and "left-wing" was applied to those who were unorthodox in their religious or political views.
The term was applied to a number of movements republicanism during the French Revolution in the 18th century, followed by socialism, communism and social democracy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since the term left-wing has been applied to a broad range of movements including civil rights movements, feminist movements, anti-war movements and environmental movements, as well as a wide range of parties. According to former professor of economics Barry Clark, " claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status and wealth are eliminated". In politics, the term "Left" derives from the French Revolution, as the anti-monarchist Montagnard and Jacobin deputies from the Third Estate sat to the left of the presiding member's chair in parliament, a habit which began in the French Estates General of 1789. Throughout the 19th century in France, the main line dividing Left and Right was between supporters of the French Republic and those of the monarchy.
The June Days Uprising during the Second Republic was an attempt by the Left to assert itself after the 1848 Revolution, but only a small portion of the population supported this. In the mid-19th century, socialism and anti-clericalism became features of the French Left. After Napoleon III's 1851 coup and the subsequent establishment of the Second Empire, Marxism began to rival radical republicanism and utopian socialism as a force within left-wing politics; the influential Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848, asserted that all human history is the history of class struggle. They predicted that a proletarian revolution would overthrow bourgeois capitalism and create a classless, post-monetary communist society, it was in this period that the word "wing" was appended to both Right. In the United States, many leftists, social liberals and trade unionists were influenced by the works of Thomas Paine, who introduced the concept of asset-based egalitarianism, which theorises that social equality is possible by a redistribution of resources.
The International Workingmen's Association, sometimes called the First International, brought together delegates from many different countries, with many different views about how to reach a classless and stateless society. Following a split between supporters of Marx and Mikhail Bakunin, anarchists formed the International Workers' Association; the Second International became divided over the issue of World War I. Those who opposed the war, such as Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, saw themselves as further to the left. In the United States after Reconstruction, the phrase "the Left" was used to describe those who supported trade unions, the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement. More in the United States, left-wing and right-wing have been used as synonyms for Democratic and Republican, or as synonyms for liberalism and conservatism respectively. Since the Right was populist, both in the Western and the Eastern Bloc anything viewed as avant-garde art was called leftist in all Europe, thus the identification of Picasso's Guernica as "leftist" in Europe and the condemnation of the Russian composer Shostakovich's opera in Pravda as follows: "Here we have'leftist' confusion instead of natural, human music".
The following positions are associated with left-wing politics. Leftist economic beliefs range from Keynesian economics and the welfare state through industrial democracy and the social market to nationalization of the economy and central planning, to the anarcho-syndicalist advocacy of a council- and assembly-based self-managed anarchist communism. During the industrial revolution, leftists supported trade unions. At the beginning of the 20th century, many leftists advocated strong government intervention in the economy. Leftists continue to criticize what they perceive as the exploitative nature of globalization, the "race to the bottom" and unjust lay-offs. In the last quarter of the 20th century, the belief that government ought to be directly involved in the day-to-day workings of an economy declined in popularity amongst the center-left social democrats who became influenced by "Third Way" ideology. Other leftists believe in Marxian economics; some distinguish Marx's economic theories from his political philos
Davis, known prior to 1907 as Davisville, is a city in the U. S. state of California and the most populous city in Yolo County. It had a population of 65,622 in 2010, not including the on-campus population of the University of California, over 9,400 in 2016; as of 2016, there were 35,186 students enrolled at the university. Davis grew into a Southern Pacific Railroad depot built in 1868, it was known as "Davisville", named after Jerome C. Davis, a prominent local farmer. However, the post office at Davisville shortened the town name to "Davis" in 1907; the name stuck, the city of Davis was incorporated on March 28, 1917. From its inception as a farming community, Davis has been known for its contributions to agricultural policy along with veterinary care and animal husbandry. Following the passage of the University Farm Bill in 1905 by the California State Legislature, Governor George Pardee selected Davis out of 50 other sites as the future home to the University of California's University Farm opening to students in 1908.
The farm renamed the Northern Branch of the College of Agriculture in 1922, was upgraded to become the seventh UC general campus, the University of California, Davis, in 1959. Davis is located in Yolo County, California, 11 mi west of Sacramento, 70 mi northeast of San Francisco, 385 mi north of Los Angeles, at the intersection of Interstate 80 and State Route 113. Neighboring towns include Dixon, Winters and West Sacramento. Davis lies in the Sacramento Valley, the northern portion of the Central Valley, in Northern California, at an elevation of about 52 feet above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.5 square miles. 10.4 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. The topography is flat; the Davis climate resembles that of nearby Sacramento and is typical of California's Central Valley Mediterranean climate region: warm and dry in the spring and autumn, cool and wet in the winter. It is classified as a Köppen Csa climate.
Summer days are hot, ranging from 85 °F to 105 °F, but the nights turn pleasantly cool always dropping below 70 °F. The Delta Breeze, a flow of cool marine air originating from the Pacific Ocean via San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta provides relief in the evening. Winter temperatures reach between 45 °F and 65 °F in the afternoon. Average temperatures range from 46 °F in January to 75 °F in July and August. Thick ground fog called tule fog settles into Davis during late winter; this fog can be dense with visibility nearly zero. As in other areas of northern California, the tule fog is a leading cause of road accidents in the winter season. Mean rainfall per annum is about 20 inches; the bulk of rain occurs between about mid-November to mid-March, with no precipitation falling from mid-June to mid-September. Record temperatures range from a high of 116 °F on July 17, 1925, to a low of 12 °F on December 11, 1932. Davis is internally divided by two freeways, a north–south railroad, an east-west mainline and several major streets.
The city is unofficially divided into six main districts made up of smaller neighborhoods: Central Davis, north of Fifth Street and Russell Boulevard, south of Covell Blvd. East of SR 113, west of the railroad tracks running along G Street. Within these boundaries is the denoted neighborhood of Old North Davis, sometimes considered part of Downtown. Downtown Davis the numbered-and-lettered grid north of I-80, south of Fifth Street, east of A Street, west of the railroad tracks, including the Aggie Village and Olive Drive areas. East Davis, north of I-80, south of east of the railroad tracks, it includes the older,'inner' East Davis of lettered streets and neighborhoods such as Davis Manor and Rancho Yolo, as well as more distinctly identified subdivisions such as Mace Ranch, Lake Alhambra Estates, Wildhorse. North Davis, north of Covell Blvd. North Davis includes Covell Park, Senda Nueva and North Davis Farms. South Davis, south of I-80, includes Willowbank. El Macero, although outside the city limits, is sometimes considered part of South Davis.
West Davis, north of I-80 and west of SR 113. West Davis includes Westwood, Aspen and the eco-friendly Village Homes development, known for its solar-powered houses. Davis in 1984 claimed to be America's First Solar City Babcock Ranch 34 years makes the false claim; the University of California, Davis is located south of Russell Boulevard and west of A Street and south of 1st Street. The land occupied by the university is not incorporated within the boundaries of the city of Davis and lies within both Yolo and Solano Counties. Local energy planning began in Davis after the energy crisis of 1973. A new building code promoted energy efficiency. Energy use in buildings decreased and in 1981 Davis citizens won a $100,000 prize from utility PG&E, for cutting e
A cooperative is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise". Cooperatives may include: businesses owned and managed by the people who use their services organizations managed by the people who work there multi-stakeholder or hybrid cooperatives that share ownership between different stakeholder groups. For example, care cooperatives where ownership is shared between both care-givers and receivers. Stakeholders might include non-profits or investors. Second- and third-tier cooperatives whose members are other cooperatives platform cooperatives that use a cooperatively owned and governed website, mobile app or a protocol to facilitate the sale of goods and services. Research published by the Worldwatch Institute found that in 2012 one billion people in 96 countries had become members of at least one cooperative; the turnover of the largest three hundred cooperatives in the world reached $2.2 trillion.
Cooperative businesses are more economically resilient than many other forms of enterprise, with twice the number of co-operatives surviving their first five years compared with other business ownership models. Cooperatives have social goals which they aim to accomplish by investing a proportion of trading profits back into their communities; as an example of this, in 2013, retail co-operatives in the UK invested 6.9% of their pre-tax profits in the communities in which they trade as compared with 2.4% for other rival supermarkets. Since 2002 cooperatives and credit unions could be distinguished on the Internet by use of a.coop domain. Since 2014, following International Cooperative Alliance's introduction of the Cooperative Marque, ICA cooperatives and WOCCU credit unions can be identified by a coop ethical consumerism label. Cooperation dates back as far. Tribes were organized as cooperative structures, allocating jobs and resources among each other, only trading with the external communities.
In alpine environments, trade could only be maintained in organized cooperatives to achieve a useful condition of artificial roads such as Viamala in 1472. Pre-industrial Europe is home to the first cooperatives from an industrial context; the roots of the cooperative movement can extend worldwide. In the English-speaking world, post-feudal forms of cooperation between workers and owners that are expressed today as "profit-sharing" and "surplus sharing" arrangements, existed as far back as 1795; the key ideological influence on the Anglosphere branch of the cooperative movement, was a rejection of the charity principles that underpinned welfare reforms when the British government radically revised its Poor Laws in 1834. As both state and church institutions began to distinguish between the'deserving' and'undeserving' poor, a movement of friendly societies grew throughout the British Empire based on the principle of mutuality, committed to self-help in the welfare of working people. In 1761, the Fenwick Weavers' Society was formed in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, Scotland to sell discounted oatmeal to local workers.
Its services expanded to include assistance with savings and loans and education. In 1810, Welsh social reformer Robert Owen, from Newtown in mid-Wales, his partners purchased New Lanark mill from Owen's father-in-law David Dale and proceeded to introduce better labour standards including discounted retail shops where profits were passed on to his employees. Owen left New Lanark to pursue other forms of cooperative organization and develop coop ideas through writing and lecture. Cooperative communities were set up in Glasgow and Hampshire, although unsuccessful. In 1828, William King set up a newspaper, The Cooperator, to promote Owen's thinking, having set up a cooperative store in Brighton; the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, is considered the first successful cooperative enterprise, used as a model for modern coops, following the'Rochdale Principles'. A group of 28 weavers and other artisans in Rochdale, England set up the society to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford.
Within ten years there were over a thousand cooperative societies in the United Kingdom. Other events such as the founding of a friendly society by the Tolpuddle Martyrs in 1832 were key occasions in the creation of organized labor and consumer movements. Friendly Societies established forums through which one member, one vote was practiced in organisation decision-making; the principles challenged the idea that a person should be an owner of property before being granted a political voice. Throughout the second half of the nineteenth century there was a surge in the number of cooperative organisations, both in commercial practice and civil society, operating to advance democracy and universal suffrage as a political principle. Friendly Societies and consumer cooperatives became the dominant form of organization amongst working people in Anglosphere industrial societies prior to the rise of trade unions and industrial factories. Weinbren reports that by the end of the 19th century, over 80% of British working age men and 90% of Australian working age men were members of one or more Friendly Society.
From the mid-nineteenth century, mutual organisations embraced these ideas in economic enterprises, firstly amongst tradespeople, in cooperative stores, educational institutes, financial institutions and industrial enterprises. The common thread (enacte
Waukegan is the largest city in and the county seat of Lake County, United States, a part of the Chicago metropolitan area. The city is located 35 miles north of the Loop and 10 miles south of the Wisconsin state border halfway between Chicago and Milwaukee; as of the 2013 United States Census estimate, the city has a population of 88,826, which makes it the ninth most populous city in Illinois. Waukegan is a predominately working-class community with a size-able middle-class population; the site of present-day Waukegan was recorded as Rivière du Vieux Fort and Wakaygagh on a 1778 map by Thomas Hutchins. By the 1820s, the French name had become "Small Fort River" in English, the settlement was known as "Little Fort"; the name "Waukegance" and "Waukegan" was created by John H. Kinzie and Solomon Juneau, the new name was adopted on March 31, 1849. Waukegan had an abolitionist community dating to these early days. In 1853, residents commemorated the anniversary of emancipation of slaves in the British Empire with a meeting.
Waukegan arguably has the distinction of being the only place where Abraham Lincoln failed to finish a speech. During the middle of the 19th century, Waukegan was becoming an important industrial hub. Industries included: ship and wagon building, flour milling, sheep raising, pork packing, dairying. William Besley's Waukegan Brewing Company was one of the most successful of these businesses, being able to sell beyond America; the construction of the Chicago and Milwaukee Railway through Waukegan by 1855 stimulated the growth and rapid transformation and development of the city's industry, so much that nearly one thousand ships were visiting Waukegan harbor every year. During the 1860s, a substantial German population began to grow inside the cityWaukegan's development began in many ways with the arrival of industries such as United States Sugar Refinery, which opened in 1890, Washburn & Moen, a barbed-wire manufacturer that prompted both labor migration and land speculation beginning in 1891, U.
S. Starch Works, Thomas Brass and Iron Works. Immigrants followed hailing from southeastern Europe and Scandinavia, with large groups from Sweden and Lithuania; the town became home to a considerable Armenian population. One member of this community, Monoog Curezhin became embroiled in an aborted plot to assassinate Sultan Abdul Hamid II, reviled for his involvement in massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. Curezhin lost two fingers on his right hand while testing explosives for this purpose in Waukegan in 1904. By the 1920s and 1930s, African-Americans began to migrate to the city from the south; the town was no stranger to racial strife. In June 1920, an African-American boy hit the car of an off-duty sailor from nearby Great Lakes Naval Base with a rock, hundreds of white sailors gathered at Sherman House, a hotel reserved for African-Americans. Although newspaper reports and rumors suggested that the officer's wife was hit with glass from the broken windshield, subsequent reports revealed that the officer was not married.
The sailors cried "lynch'em," but were kept back by the intervention of the police. Marines and sailors renewed their attack on the hotel several days later; the Sherman's residents fled for their lives as the military members carried torches and the American flag. The Waukegan police once again turned them away, but not before firing and wounding two members of the crowd; the police were not always so willing to protect Waukegan's citizens. The chief of police and the state's attorney in the 1920s, for example, were avowed members of the Ku Klux Klan, facts that came to light when a wrongfully convicted African-American war veteran was released from prison on appeal after 25 years. Labor unrest occurred regularly. In 1919, a strike at the US Steel and Wire Company - which had acquired Washburn & Moen - led to a call for intervention from the state militia. Noted organized crime boss Johnny Torrio served time in Waukegan's Lake County jail in 1925, he installed bulletproof covers on the windows of his cell at his own expense for fear of assassination attempts.
The city has retained a distinct industrial character in contrast to many of the residential suburbs along Chicago's North Shore. The unequal distribution of wealth created by the disappearance of manufacturing from the city in part contributed to the Waukegan Riot of 1966. Central to this event and the remainder of Waukegan's 20th century history was Robert Sabonjian, who served as mayor for 24 years, earned the nickname the "Mayor Daley of Waukegan" for his personal and sometimes controversial style of politics. Waukegan is located at 42°22′13″N 87°52′16″W. Waukegan is on the shore of Lake Michigan, about 11 miles south of the border with Wisconsin and 35 miles north of downtown Chicago, at an elevation of about 715 feet above sea level. According to the 2010 census, Waukegan has a total area of 23.879 square miles, of which 23.67 square miles is land and 0.209 square miles is water. Waukegan is located within the humid continental climate zone with warm and hot summers, cold and snowy winters.
The record high is 108 °F, set in July 1934. The record low is -27 °F set in January 1985. Waukegan's proximity to Lake Michigan keeps Waukegan cooler throughout the year; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 89,078 people residing in the city. 53.4% of Waukegan's population was reported to have been Hispani