In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and sulfur dioxide. In astrogeology, these compounds, in their solid state comprise large proportions of the crusts of moons and dwarf planets. In contrast with volatiles and compounds with high boiling points are known as refractory substances. Planetary scientists classify volatiles with exceptionally low melting points, such as hydrogen and helium, as gases, whereas those volatiles with melting points above about 100 K are referred to as ices; the terms "gas" and "ice" in this context can apply to compounds that may be solids, liquids or gases. Thus and Saturn are gas giants, Uranus and Neptune are ice giants though the vast majority of the "gas" and "ice" in their interiors is a hot dense fluid that gets denser as the center of the planet is approached; the Moon is low in volatiles: its crust contains oxygen chemically bound into the rocks, but negligible amounts of hydrogen, nitrogen, or carbon.
In igneous petrology the term more refers to the volatile components of magma that affect the appearance and explosivity of volcanoes. Volatiles in a magma with a high viscosity felsic with a higher silica content, tend to produce eruptions that are explosive. Volatiles in a magma with a low viscosity mafic with a lower silica content, tend to vent and can give rise to a lava fountain; some volcanic eruptions are explosive because the mixing between water and magma reaching the surface, releases energy suddenly. Moreover, in some cases, the eruption is caused by volatiles dissolved in the magma. Approaching the surface, pressure decreases and the volatiles evolve creating bubbles that circulate in the liquid; the bubbles are connected together forming a network. This increments the fragmentation into small drops or spray or coagulate clots in gas. 95-99% of magma is liquid rock. However, the small percentage of gas present, represents a large volume when it expands on reaching atmospheric pressure.
Gas is a preponderant part in a volcano system. Magma in the mantle and lower crust have a lot of volatiles within and water and carbon dioxide are not the only volatiles that volcanoes release, they leak hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is possible to find in basaltic and rhyolite rocks. Volcanoes release a high amount of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride as volatiles. There are three main factors that effect the dispersion of volatiles in magma: confining pressure, composition of magma, temperature of magma. Pressure and composition are the most important parameters. To understand how the magma behaves rising to the surface, the role of solubility within the magma must be known. An empirical law has been used for different magma-volatiles combination. For instance, for water in magma the equation is n=0.1078 P where n is the amount of dissolved gas as weight percentage, P is the pressure in megapascal that acts on the magma. The value changes for example for water in rhyolite where n=0.4111 P and for the carbon dioxide is n=0.0023 P.
These simple equations work. However, in reality, the situation is not so simple because there are multiple volatiles in a magma, it is a complex chemical interaction between different volatiles. Simplifying, the solubility of water in rhyolite and basalt is function of pressure and depth below the surface in absence of other volatiles. Both basalt and rhyolite lose water with decreasing pressure; the solubility of water is higher in rhyolite than in basaltic magma. Knowledge of the solubility allows the determination of the maximum amount of water that might be dissolved in relation with pressure. If the magma contains less water than the maximum possible amount, it is undersaturated in water. Insufficient water and carbon dioxide exist in the deep crust and mantle, so magma is undersaturated in these conditions. Magma becomes saturated. If the magma continues to rise up to the surface and more water is dissolved, it becomes supersaturated. If more water is dissolved in magma, it can be ejected as bubbles or vapor water.
This happens because pressure decreases in the process and velocity increases and the process has to balance between decrease of solubility and pressure. Making a comparison with the solubility of carbon dioxide in magma, this is less than water and it tends to exsolve at greater depth. In this case water and carbon dioxide are considered independent. What affects the behavior of the magmatic system is the depth at which carbon dioxide and water are released. Low solubility of carbon dioxide means that it starts to release bubbles before reaching the magma chamber; the magma is at this point supersaturated. The magma enriched in carbon dioxide bubbles, rises up to the roof of the chamber and carbon dioxide tends to leak through cracks into the overlying caldera. During an eruption the magma loses more carbon dioxide than water, that in the chamber is supersaturated. Overall, water is the main volatile during an eruption. Bubble nucleation happens; the bubbles are composed of molecules that tend to aggregate spontaneously in a process called homogeneous nucleation.
The surface tension acts on the bubbles shrinking the surface
A maar is a broad, low-relief volcanic crater caused by a phreatomagmatic eruption. A maar characteristically fills with water to form a shallow crater lake which may be called a maar; the name comes from a Moselle Franconian dialect word used for the circular lakes of the Daun area of Germany. Maars are shallow, flat-floored craters that scientists interpret as having formed above diatremes as a result of a violent expansion of magmatic gas or steam. Maars range in size from 60 to 8,000 m from 10 to 200 m deep. Most maars have low rims composed of a mixture of loose fragments of volcanic rocks and rocks torn from the walls of the diatreme. Maar lakes referred to as maars, occur when groundwater or precipitation fills the funnel-shaped and round hollow of the maar depression formed by volcanic explosions. Examples of these types of maar are the three maars at Daun in the Eifel mountains of Germany. A dry maar results when a maar lake dries out, becomes aggraded or silted up. An example of the latter is the Eckfelder Maar.
Near Steffeln is the Eichholzmaar which has dried out during the last century and is being renaturalised into a maar. In some cases the underlying rock is so porous. After winters of heavy snow and rainfall many dry maars fill and temporarily with water; the largest known maars are found on the Seward Peninsula in northwest Alaska. These maars range in size from 4,000 to 8,000 m in diameter and a depth up to 300 m; these eruptions occurred in a period of about 100,000 years, with the youngest occurring about 17,500 years ago. Their large size is due to the explosive reaction that occurs when magma comes into contact with permafrost. Hydromagmatic eruptions are explosive when the ratio of water to magma is low. Since permafrost melts it provides a steady source of water to the eruption while keeping the water to magma ratio low; this produces the explosive eruptions that created these large maars. Examples of the Seward Peninsula maars include North Killeak Maar, South Killeak Maar, Devil Mountain Maar and Whitefish Maar.
Maars occur in western North America, Patagonia in South America, the Eifel region of Germany, in other geologically young volcanic regions of Earth. Elsewhere in Europe, La Vestide du Pal in the Ardèche department of France provides a spectacular example of a maar visible from the ground or air. Kilbourne Hole and Hunt's Hole, in southern New Mexico near El Paso, are maars; the Crocodile Lake in Los Baños in the Philippines was thought of as a volcanic crater is a maar. The notorious, carbon dioxide-saturated Lake Nyos in Africa is another example. An excellent example of a maar is Zuni Salt Lake in New Mexico, a shallow saline lake that occupies a flat-floored crater about 6,500 ft across and 400 ft deep, its low rim is composed of loose pieces of basaltic lava and wall rocks of the underlying diatreme, as well as random chunks of ancient crystalline rocks blasted upward from great depths. Maars in Canada are found in the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field of east-central British Columbia and in kimberlite fields throughout Canada.
A notable field of maars is found in the Pali-Aike Volcanic Field in South America. And in the Sudanese Bayuda Volcanic Field; the Auckland volcanic field in the urban area of Auckland, New Zealand has several maars, including the accessible Lake Pupuke in the North Shore suburb of Takapuna. One of the most notable craters misidentified. In the Volcanic Eifel there are about 75 maars; these include water-filled maar lakes. Both types, lake-filled maars and dry maars, are typical of the Volcanic Eifel; the last eruptions took place at least 11,000 years ago and many maars in the Eifel are older. For this reason many are heavily eroded and their shapes and volcanic features are not as obvious as those of more recent or active maars elsewhere in the early; the maars of the Eifel are well preserved. In the Eifel and Volcanic Eifel there are numerous dry maars: Mosbrucher Weiher Booser Doppelmaar Dreiser Weiher Dürres Maar Duppacher Weiher Geeser Maar Eckfelder Maar Eigelbacher Maar Hitsche Maar Immerather Risch Gerolsteiner Maar Schalkenmehrener Maar E Schönfelder Maar Steffelner Laach or "Laach Maar" Dehner Maar Walsdorfer Maar Wollmerather Maar The following volcanic features are colloquially referred to as a "maar" or "maar lake", although they are not speaking, maars: Windsborn Crater Lake and Hinkelsmaar in theManderscheid Volcano Group near Bettenfeld, crater lakes of the Mosenberg Laacher See near Maria Laach, lake in a caldera
A diamond rush is a period of feverish migration of workers to an area that has had a discovery of diamonds. Major diamond rushes took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in South Africa and South-West Africa. In 1871, the discovery of an 83.50 carat diamond on the slopes of Colesberg Kopje on the farm Vooruitzigt in South Africa led to the foundation of Kimberley Mine, the town of Kimberley. This diamond rush was termed the "New Rush". In 1908, the discovery of a diamond near Grasplatz station in German South-West Africa led to a diamond rush developing the town of Lüderitz and creating several mining settlements that today are ghost towns. In the 1990s, several frequency domain heliborne electromagnetic anomalies were discovered by Charles E. Fipke around Lac de Gras, a lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Several mines were established. Gold rush
Almandine known incorrectly as almandite, is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. The name is a corruption of alabandicus, the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda, a town in Caria in Asia Minor. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet, of deep red color, inclining to purple, it is cut with a convex face, or en cabochon, is known as carbuncle. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light, it shows three characteristic absorption bands. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series, with the other end member being the garnet pyrope; the almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al23. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with pyrope-rich composition. Almandine, Fe2+3Al2Si3O12, is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-forming silicates, which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust, upper mantle and transition zone. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d, with unit-cell parameter a ≈ 11.512 Å at 100 K.
Almandine is antiferromagnetic with the Néel temperature of 7.5 K. It contains two equivalent magnetic sublattices. Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka, whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby; when the color inclines to a violet tint, the stone is called Syriam garnet, a name said to be taken from Syriam, an ancient town of Pegu. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found, some years ago, in the Northern Territory of Australia, were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. Almandine is distributed. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of the Zillertal, in Tyrol, are sometimes cut and polished. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. In the United States there are many localities. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska; the coarse varieties of almandine are crushed for use as an abrasive agent.
Connecticut has almandine garnet as its state gemstone
Greene County, Pennsylvania
Greene County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 38,686, its county seat is Waynesburg. Greene County was created on February 9, 1796, from part of Washington County and named for General Nathanael Greene. Greene County is part of the Pittsburgh DMA, it is located in the area of southwestern Pennsylvania, claimed by Virginia, the District of West Augusta. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 578 square miles, of which 576 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles is water. Washington County Fayette County Monongalia County, West Virginia Wetzel County, West Virginia Marshall County, West Virginia As of the census of 2010, there were 38,686 people, 14,724 households, 9,970 families residing in the county; the population density was 67 people per square mile. There were 16,678 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.6 percent White, 3.3 percent Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.3 percent Asian, 0.0 percent Pacific Islander, 0.7 percent from other races, 1.0% from two or more races.
1.2 percent of the population were Latino of any race. There were 14,724 households out of which 29.3 percent had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5 percent were married couples living together, 10.9 percent had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3 percent were non-families. 27.0 percent of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7 percent had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 19.9 percent under the age of 18, 9.9 percent from 18 to 24, 25.5 percent from 25 to 44, 29.3 percent from 45 to 64, 15.3 percent who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.1 years. For every 100 females there were 106.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.6 males. As of November 7th 2017, there were 21,671 registered voters in the county. Democrats hold a majority of 3,621 voters. Blair Zimmerman, Democrat Dave Coder, Democrat Archie Trader, Republican President Judge, Hon. Farley Toothman Associate Judge, Hon. Louis Dayich District Attorney, Marjorie J. Fox, Democrat Sheriff, Brian Tennant, Democrat Coroner, Greg Rohanna, Democrat Clerk of Courts, Sherry Wise, Republican Prothonotary, Susan White, Democrat Recorder of Deeds and Register of Wills, Tom Headlee, Democrat Treasurer, Cory Grandel, Democrat Controller, David Balint, Democrat Pam Snyder, Democrat, 50th district Camera Bartolotta, Republican, 46th district Guy Reschenthaler, Republican, 14th district Pat Toomey, Republican Bob Casey, Jr. Democrat Greene County's development commission has assisted area business since 1998.
The Meadow Ridge office park has served the county since the early 2000s. Waynesburg University Greene County is divided into five public school districts. There are 15 public schools that serve Pennsylvania. Carmichaels Area School District Central Greene School District Jefferson-Morgan School District Southeastern Greene School District West Greene School DistrictSome schools within the five above districts include: Greene County Career Technology Center - Waynesburg East Franklin School - Waynesburg Open Door Christian School in Waynesburg Greene Valley Christian Academy in Rices Landing Eva K Bowlby Public Library in Waynesburg Flenniken Public Library in Carmichaels, Pennsylvania Greene County Library System in Jefferson, Pennsylvania I-79 US 19 PA 18 PA 21 PA 88 PA 188 PA 218 PA 221 PA 231 Greene County Airport is a county-owned, public-use airport located two nautical miles east of the central business district of Waynesburg, Pennsylvania. Under Pennsylvania law, there are four types of incorporated municipalities: cities, townships, and, in at most two cases, towns.
The following boroughs and townships are located in Greene County: Carmichaels Clarksville Greensboro Jefferson Rices Landing Waynesburg Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the U. S. Census Bureau for the purposes of compiling demographic data, they are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law. Other unincorporated communities, such as villages, may be listed here as well; the population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Greene County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Greene County, Pennsylvania Official website
Indiana County, Pennsylvania
Indiana County is a county located in the central west part of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 88,880, its county seat is Indiana. Indiana County compromises the Indiana, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-WV-OH Combined Statistical Area. Prior to the American Revolutionary War, some settlers proposed this as part of a larger, separate colony to be known as Vandalia, but opposing interests and the war intervened. Afterward, claims to the territory by both the states of Virginia and Pennsylvania had to be reconciled. After this land was assigned to Pennsylvania by the federal government according to the Mason–Dixon line, Indiana County was created on March 30, 1803, from parts of Westmoreland and Clearfield counties and was formally organized in 1806. Indiana County derives its name from the so-called "Indiana Grant of 1768" that the Iroquois Six Nations were forced to make to "suffering traders" under the Fort Stanwix Treaty of 1768.
The Iroquois had controlled much of the Ohio River valley as their hunting grounds since the 17th century, Anglo-American colonists were moving into the area and wanted to develop it. Traders arranged to force the Iroquois to grant land under the treaty in relations to losses due to Pontiac's Rebellion; some of the grantees joined forces with the Ohio Company, forming a larger development company based on enlarging their grant of land. They proposed that the entire large area would become a new British colony to be called Pittsylvania or Vandalia, it was to be bordered on the north and west by the Ohio River, made up of what are now parts of eastern Kentucky, northern West Virginia, western Pennsylvania. Anglo-European colonists from Virginia and Pennsylvania had started to move into the area, identified by these various names as Indiana and the other above names on some maps of the late 1700s. Opposition from other interest groups and the American Revolutionary War intervened before Britain approved such a colony.
Afterward, some United States speculators proposed setting up a state in this area to be called Vandalia, or Westsylvania, as appears on some maps of the period. But both the states of Virginia and Pennsylvania claimed the land based on their colonial charters. In establishing the Mason–Dixon line, the federal government assigned the Indiana Grant to Pennsylvania; as population increased after the war, this county was made up in 1803 of territory from Westmoreland and Clearfield counties. Kentucky and West Virginia continued to be associated with Virginia for some time, being separately admitted as states in the early 19th century and during the American Civil War, respectively; the area in Pennsylvania was unrelated to and was physically separated from the named Indiana Territory established north of the Ohio River in 1800 by the new United States. In the 21st century, Indiana County comprises PA Micropolitan Statistical Area; this is included in PA-WV-OH Combined Statistical Area. It is in the defined region of the Pittsburgh media market.
Indiana County is served by three different area codes: 724, 814, 582. The county proclaims itself the "Christmas Tree Capital of the World", shipping over one million trees annually. Agriculture is a major part of its economy. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 834 square miles, of which 827 square miles is land and 7.3 square miles is water. Located in the county is the Buttermilk Falls Natural Area. Jefferson County Clearfield County Cambria County Westmoreland County Armstrong County As of the census of 2000, there were 89,605 people, 34,123 households, 22,521 families residing in the county; the population density was 108 people per square mile. There were 37,250 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.87% White, 1.57% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. 0.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
25.9% were of German, 11.6% Italian, 10.7% Irish, 8.6% American, 7.1% English and 6.8% Polish ancestry. There were 34,123 households out of which 27.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.30% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.00% were non-families. 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.10% under the age of 18, 16.60% from 18 to 24, 24.80% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.60 males. The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Indiana County as the Indiana, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 U. S. Census the micropolitan area ranked 4th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 50th most populous in the United States with a population of 88,880.
Indiana County is a part of the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV Combined Statistical Area, which combines the population of Indiana, as well as the Allegheny, Beaver, Fayette, Lawrence and Westmorelan
Kimberley, Northern Cape
Kimberley is the capital and largest city of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. It is located 110 km east of the confluence of the Vaal and Orange Rivers; the city has considerable historical significance due to its diamond mining past and the siege during the Second Boer War. British businessmen Cecil Rhodes and Barney Barnato made their fortunes in Kimberley, Rhodes established the De Beers diamond company in the early days of the mining town. On September 2, 1882, Kimberley was the first city in the Southern Hemisphere and the second in the world after Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States to integrate electric street lights into its infrastructure; the first Stock Exchange in Africa was built in Kimberley, as early as 1881. In 1866, Erasmus Jacobs found a small brilliant pebble on the banks of the Orange River, on the farm De Kalk leased from local Griquas, near Hopetown, his father's farm, he showed the pebble to his father. The pebble was purchased from Jacobs by Schalk van Niekerk, who sold it.
It proved to be a 21.25-carat diamond, became known as the Eureka. Three years in 1869, an 83.5-carat diamond, which became known as the Star of South Africa, was found nearby. This diamond was sold by van Niekerk for £11,200 and resold in the London market for £25,000. Henry Richard Giddy recounted how Esau Damoense, the cook for prospector Fleetwood Rawstone's "Red Cap Party", found diamonds in 1871 on Colesberg Kopje after he was sent there to dig as punishment. Rawstorne took the news to the nearby diggings of the De Beer brothers — his arrival there sparking off the famous "New Rush" which, as historian Brian Roberts puts it, was a stampede. Within a month 800 claims were cut into the hillock which were worked frenetically by two to three thousand men; as the land was lowered so the hillock became a mine – in time, the world-renowned Kimberley Mine. The Cape Colony, Orange Free State and the Griqua leader Nicolaas Waterboer all laid claim to the diamond fields; the Free State Boers in particular wanted the area as it lay inside the natural borders created by Orange and Vaal Rivers.
Following the mediation, overseen by the governor of Natal, the Keate Award went in favour of Waterboer, who placed himself under British protection. The territory known as Griqualand West was proclaimed on 27 October 1871. Colonial Commissioners arrived in New Rush on 17 November 1871 to exercise authority over the territory on behalf of the Cape Governor. Digger objections and minor riots led to Governor Barkly's visit to New Rush in September the following year, when he revealed a plan instead to have Griqualand West proclaimed a Crown Colony. Richard Southey would arrive as Lieutenant-Governor of the intended Crown Colony in January 1873. Months passed however without any sign of the proclamation or of the promised new constitution and provision for representative government; the delay was in London where Secretary of State for the Colonies, Lord Kimberley, insisted that before electoral divisions could be defined, the places had to receive "decent and intelligible names. His Lordship declined to be in any way connected with such a vulgarism as New Rush and as for the Dutch name, Vooruitzigt … he could neither spell nor pronounce it."
The matter was passed to Southey who gave it to his Colonial Secretary J. B. Currey. Roberts writes, he made quite sure that Lord Kimberley would be able both to spell and pronounce the name of the main electoral division by, as he says, calling it'after His Lordship'." New Rush became Kimberley, by Proclamation dated 5 July 1873. Digger sentiment was expressed in an editorial in the Diamond Field newspaper when it stated "we went to sleep in New Rush and waked up in Kimberley, so our dream was gone."Following agreement by the British government on compensation to the Orange Free State for its competing land claims, Griqualand West was annexed to the Cape Colony in 1877. The Cape Prime Minister John Molteno had serious doubts about annexing the indebted region, after striking a deal with the Home Government and receiving assurances that the local population would be consulted in the process, he passed the Griqualand West Annexation Act on 27 July 1877; as miners arrived in their thousands the hill disappeared and subsequently became known as the Big Hole or, more formally, Kimberley Mine.
From mid-July 1871 to 1914, 50,000 miners dug the hole with picks and shovels, yielding 2,722 kg of diamonds. The Big Hole is 463 metres wide, it was excavated to a depth of 240 m, but partially infilled with debris reducing its depth to about 215 m. Beneath the surface, the Kimberley Mine underneath the Big Hole was mined to a depth of 1097 metres. A popular local myth claims that it is the largest hand-dug hole on the world, however Jagersfontein Mine appears to hold that record; the Big Hole is the principal feature of a May 2004 submission which placed "Kimberley Mines and associated early industries" on UNESCO's World Heritage Tentative Lists. By 1873 Kimberley was the second largest town in South Africa, having an approximate population of 40,000; the various smaller mining companies were amalgamated by Cecil Rhodes and Charles Rudd into De Beers, The Kimberley under Barney Barnato. In 1888, the two companies merged to form De Beers Consolidated Mines, which once had a monopoly over the world's diamond market.
Kimberley became the largest city in the area due to a massive African migration to the area from all over t