A cruise ship is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, sometimes the different destinations along the way, form part of the passengers' experience. Transportation is not the only purpose of cruising on cruises that return passengers to their originating port. On "cruises to nowhere" or "nowhere voyages", cruise ships make 2-to-3 night round trips without any ports of call. In contrast, dedicated transport-oriented ocean liners do "line voyages" and transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. Traditionally, shipping lines build liners for the transoceanic trade to a higher standard than that of a typical cruise ship, including higher freeboard and stronger plating to withstand rough seas and adverse conditions encountered in the open ocean, such as the North Atlantic. Ocean liners usually have larger capacities for fuel and other stores for consumption on long voyages, compared to dedicated cruise-ships, but few ocean liners remain in existence—note the preserved liners and Queen Mary 2, which make scheduled North Atlantic voyages.
Although luxurious, ocean liners had characteristics that made them unsuitable for cruising, such as high fuel-consumption, deep draughts that prevented their entering shallow ports, enclosed weatherproof decks inappropriate for tropical weather, cabins designed to maximize passenger numbers rather than comfort. The gradual evolution of passenger-ship design from ocean liners to cruise ships has seen passenger cabins shifted from inside the hull to the superstructure and provided with private verandas. Modern cruise ships, while sacrificing some qualities of seaworthiness, have added amenities to cater to water tourists, recent vessels have been described as "balcony-laden floating condominiums"; the distinction between ocean liners and cruise ships has blurred with respect to deployment, although differences in construction remain. Larger cruise ships have engaged in longer trips, such as transoceanic voyages which may not return to the same port for months; some former ocean liners operate as cruise ships, such as Marco Polo, although this number is diminishing.
The only dedicated transatlantic ocean liner in operation as a liner as of December 2013 is Queen Mary 2 of the Cunard Line. She has the amenities of contemporary cruise ships and sees significant service on cruisesCruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, accounting for U. S.$29.4 billion, with over 19 million passengers carried worldwide as of 2011.. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets, such as the Asia-Pacific region, are serviced by older ships; these are displaced by new ships in the high-growth areas. As of 2019 the world's largest cruise-ship was Royal Caribbean International's Symphony of the Seas along with its three sister ships Harmony of the Seas, Allure of the Seas, Oasis of the Seas which round out the top 4 largest cruise liners in the world; the birth of leisure cruising began with the formation of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company in 1822.
The company started out as a shipping line with routes between England and the Iberian Peninsula, adopting the name Peninsular Steam Navigation Company. It won its first contract to deliver mail in 1837. In 1840, it began mail delivery to Alexandria, via Gibraltar and Malta; the company was incorporated by Royal Charter the same year, becoming the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. P&O first introduced passenger cruising services in 1844, advertising sea tours to destinations such as Gibraltar and Athens, sailing from Southampton; the forerunner of modern cruise holidays, these voyages were the first of their kind, P&O Cruises has been recognised as the world's oldest cruise line. The company introduced round trips to destinations such as Alexandria and Constantinople, it underwent a period of rapid expansion in the latter half of the 19th century, commissioning larger and more luxurious ships to serve the expanding market. Notable ships of the era include the SS Ravenna built in 1880, which became the first ship to be built with a total steel superstructure, the SS Valetta built in 1889, the first ship to use electric lights.
Some sources mention Francesco I, flying the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, as the first cruise ship. She was built in 1831 and sailed from Naples in early June 1833, preceded by an advertising campaign; the cruise ship was boarded by nobles and royal princes from all over Europe. In just over three months, the ship sailed to Taormina, Syracuse, Corfu, Delphi, Athens, Constantinople, delighting passengers with excursions and guided tours, card tables on the deck and parties on board. However, it was not a commercial endeavour; the cruise of the German ship Augusta Victoria in the Mediterranean and the Near East from 22 January to 22 March 1891, with 241 passengers including Albert Ballin and wife, popularized the cruise to a wider market. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an illustrated account of it as Backschisch; the first vessel built for luxury cruising, was Prinzessin Victoria Luise of Germany, designed by Albert Ballin, general manager of Hamburg-America Line. The ship was completed in 1900.
The practice of luxury cruising made steady inroads on the more established market for transatlantic crossings. In the competition fo
Jessica Lynn Sutta known as J Sutta, is an American singer, dancer and actress. She is known as a member of the Pussycat Dolls, she left the group in January 2010 to embark on her solo career. Sutta's debut single, "Show Me", reached number one on the Billboard Dance Club Songs Chart in the United States, her official debut solo album I Say Yes, was released on March 3, 2017. Sutta was born in Miami, Florida on May 15, 1982, her mother is of Irish descent and of Catholic faith and her father is Jewish. She grew up in Cutler Bay, Florida with two older brothers and Kevin, she started dance classes at the age of three. She was a child model in a dance wear catalog/magazine in Miami called Star Style. Sutta studied dance at Miami City Ballet in Florida. At New World School of the Arts, she studied dance, she switched to theater studies, before returning to dance. She joined the NBA's cheerleading squad Miami Heat in 1999 and became captain in 2001. In 2003, she moved to L. A. and three months was on a dance audition for a PSA involving Smokey Bear when she came to the attention of choreographer Robin Antin, who cast her with the Pussycat Dolls in 2003.
From the moment Sutta joined the Pussycat Dolls, she says: "This is. I thought. I am so blessed to be a part of this group." Sutta sang co-lead along with Carmit Bachar and Ashley Roberts in the "Stickwitu" single B-side, "Santa Baby". After the departure of Bachar from the group, Sutta took the parts that Bachar used to sing, co-leads with Melody. For the Deluxe Edition of the Dolls' second studio album Doll Domination, Sutta sang co-lead on the songs "Top of the World" and "Painted Windows", she recorded a solo song, "If I Was a Man". The song is produced by Smidi, Ron Fair, Stefanie Ridel. During the hiatus of the Pussycat Dolls in 2007, Sutta was featured on two tracks, "Make It Last" and "White Lies". Both managed to chart on the Hot Dance Club Play chart, reaching the top three while "White Lies" was successful in Europe, it made Sutta the second artist to have two concurrent top 10 Club Play singles. "White Lies" peaked at No. 1 for four weeks on Billboard's Hot Dance Singles Sales chart. On January 29, 2010, Sutta revealed.
In an interview with E! Online Sutta revealed that she broke a rib while on tour with the group and the group's management failed to provide her with any accommodation, so the "almost homeless" singer had to crash on a friend's couch as she recovered from a broken rib. In Life & Style magazine she stated: "I felt like nothing more than a glorified back-up dancer after seven years with the group. I wasn't feeling, it was something. Breaking my rib is what sent me over the edge." Sutta told MTV News. "They were supportive of me. It was a big decision, but it was the best decision." She said she can be her own woman. On September 19, 2010, she released her first solo single, "I Wanna Be Bad", which she wrote and produced with Tearce Keaz. On September 24, 2010, she debuted the song at the West Hollywood Gay bar, Here Lounge. On October 18, 2010, the music video for the single directed by Frank E. Flowers, premiered on Radar Online. On December 26, 2010, she debuted and performed two new tracks titled, "Good Boy" and "Jack in the Box", at the Dolphins vs. Lions Game at Sun Life Stadium in Miami, Florida.
On March 3, 2011, she revealed a collaboration with DJ Erick Morillo on a track titled "Pin-up Girl". The song was written by VASSY & Jamie Hartman, produced by Morillo, Harry Romero and José Nunez, it features American rapper Stone Wallace. On March 27, 2011, she performed the track alongside Morillo at Ultra Music Festival. Cedric Gervai's, "Where Ever U Are." which features Sutta was released on August 2, 2011 and appears on Gervais' album Miamication. On June 3, 2011, she announced on Twitter that she had signed to "Hollywood Records", home to several Disney artists. Sutta's first single "Show Me" premiered on Idolator on August 3, 2011; the video premiered on Saturday, August 6 on ABC Family. Following that, the song became available digitally on August 23; the song peaked at number one on the Hot Dance Club Songs in the United States, becoming Sutta's first number-one single as a solo artist. She is working on her debut solo album, Sutta Pop, which does not have a release date. In 2012, she performed at various corporate and other performance venues, achieving critical acclaim for her performance at Chicago's Halsted Market Days.
In June 2012, Sutta revealed to The Morning Show that she was working with RedOne on her upcoming album. On August 5, 2012, Sutta announced that she was planning to release, "Make It Loud", as her second single in September of the same year. However, the single was not released. On October 6, 2012, Sutta revealed on Ustream that she was no longer working with RedOne and had left Hollywood Records. On December 13, 2012, Sutta revealed that she would be releasing new music in early 2013. In February 2013, Sutta announced the release of her new single called "Again" in March, it was released on March 26 via Citrusonic Stereophonic."Again" peaked at number 4 on the Hot Dance Club Songs in the United States. The song received fan and media praise, while Billboard Magazine called "Again" an intriguing next step; the third promotional single "Lights Out" was released via Citrusonic Stereophoic on August 20, with a bright, glow in the dark lyric video. It peaked at number 3 on the Hot Dance Club Songs in United States.
Sutta continued to p
Dance music is music composed to facilitate or accompany dancing. It can be either part of a larger musical arrangement. In terms of performance, the major categories are recorded dance music. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. In the classical music era, the minuet was used as a third movement, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing; the waltz arose in the classical era. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle, ecossaise and polonaise. Modern popular dance music emerged from late 19th century's Western ballroom and social dance music. During the early 20th century, ballroom dancing gained popularity among the working class who attended public dance halls.
Dance music became enormously popular during the 1920s. In the 1930s, called the Swing era, Swing music was the popular dance music in America. In the 1950s, rock and roll became the popular dance music; the late 1960s saw the rise of R&B music. The rise of disco in the early 1970s led to dance music becoming popular with the public. By the late 1970s, electronic dance music was developing; this music, made using electronics, is a style of popular music played in nightclubs, radio stations and raves. Many subgenres of electronic dance music have evolved. Folk dance music is music accompanying traditional dance and may be contrasted with historical/classical, popular/commercial dance music. An example of folk dance music in the United States is the old-time music played at square dances and contra dances. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances such as carols and the Estampie.
The earliest of these surviving dances are as old as Western staff-based music notation. The Renaissance dance music was written for instruments such as the lute, tabor and the sackbut. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. Examples of dances include the French courante, sarabande and gigue. Collections of dances were collected together as dance suites. In the classical music era, the minuet was used as a third movement in four-movement non-vocal works such as sonatas, string quartets, symphonies, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing; the waltz arose in the classical era, as the minuet evolved into the scherzo. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle and polonaise. In the romantic music era, the growth and development of ballet extended the composition of dance music to a new height. Dance music was a part of opera. Modern popular dance music emerged from late 19th century's Western ballroom and social dance music.
Dance music works bear the name of the corresponding dance, e.g. waltzes, the tango, the bolero, the can-can, salsa, various kinds of jigs and the breakdown. Other dance forms include contradance, the merengue, the cha-cha-cha, it is difficult to know whether the name of the music came first or the name of the dance. Ballads are chosen for slow-dance routines; however ballads have been deemed as the opposite of dance music in terms of their tempo. The ballad was a type of dance as well. Ballads are still danced on the Faeroe Islands. "Dansband" is a term in Swedish for bands who play a kind of popular music, "dansbandsmusik", to partner dance to. These terms came into use around 1970, before that, many of the bands were classified as "pop groups"; this type of music is popular in the Nordic countries. Disco is a genre of dance music containing elements of funk, soul and salsa, it was most popular during the mid to late 1970s. It inspired the electronic dance music genre. By 1981, a new form of dance music was developing.
This music, made using electronics, is a style of popular music played in dance music nightclubs, radio stations and raves. During its gradual decline in the late 1970s, disco became influenced by computerization. Looping and segueing as found in disco continued to be used as creative techniques within trance music, techno music and house music. Electronic dance music experienced a boom after the proliferation of personal computers in the 1980s, manifest in the dance element of Tony Wilson's Haçienda scene and London clubs like Delirium, The Trip, Shoom; the ongoing influence of Shoom can be seen in its 25th anniversary party, held at Cable Nightclub on 8 December 2012, which sold out in four days. The scene expanded to the Summer Of Love in Ibiza, which became the European capital of house and trance. Clubs like Sundissential and Manumission became househo
Paula Julie Abdul is an American dancer, singer and television personality. She began her career as a cheerleader for the Los Angeles Lakers at the age of 18 and became the head choreographer for the Laker Girls, where she was discovered by The Jacksons. After choreographing music videos for Janet Jackson, Abdul became a choreographer at the height of the music video era and soon thereafter she was signed to Virgin Records, her debut studio album Forever Your Girl became one of the most successful debut albums at that time, selling 7 million copies in the United States and setting a record for the most number-one singles from a debut album on the Billboard Hot 100 chart: "Straight Up", "Forever Your Girl", "Cold Hearted", "Opposites Attract". Her six number one singles on the Billboard Hot 100 tie her with Diana Ross for seventh among the female solo performers who have topped the chart. Abdul was one of the original judges on the television series American Idol from 2002 to 2009, has since appeared as a judge on The X Factor, Live to Dance, So You Think You Can Dance.
Notably, she received choreography credits in numerous films, including Can't Buy Me Love, The Running Man, Coming to America, Action Jackson, The Doors, Jerry Maguire, American Beauty. She has received five MTV Video Music Award nominations, winning twice, as well as receiving the Grammy Award for Best Music Video for "Opposites Attract" in 1991, she received the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Choreography twice for her work on The Tracey Ullman Show, her own performance at the American Music Awards in 1990. Abdul was honored with her own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, is the first entertainer to be honored with the Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards' Hall of Fame Award. Abdul was born in California to Jewish parents. Abdul's father, Harry Abdul, born into the Syrian Jewish community in Aleppo, was raised in Brazil, subsequently immigrated to the United States, her mother, the concert pianist Lorraine M. Rykiss, grew up in one of the two Jewish families in Minnedosa and has Ashkenazi Jewish ancestors from Ukraine.
She has a sister named Wendy. As an avid dancer, Abdul was inspired towards a show business career by Gene Kelly in the film Singin' in the Rain. Abdul began taking dance lessons at an early age in ballet and tap, she attended Van Nuys High School, where she was an honor student. At 15, she received a scholarship to a dance camp near Palm Springs, in 1978 appeared in a low-budget Independent musical film, Junior High School. In 1980, she graduated from Van Nuys High School. Abdul studied broadcasting at Northridge. During her freshman year, she was selected from a pool of 700 candidates for the cheerleading squad of the Los Angeles Lakers NBA basketball team—the famed Laker Girls. Within a year, she became head choreographer.' Abdul was discovered by The Jacksons, after a few of the band members had watched her while attending a Los Angeles Lakers game. She was signed to do the choreography for the video to their single "Torture". Abdul recalled feeling intimidated by having to tell the Jacksons how to dance, stating that she was "not quite sure how got through that."
The success of the choreography in the video led to Abdul's career as choreographer of music videos, notably Janet Jackson's "Nasty" and "Control" videos. It was due to the success of the video that Abdul was chosen to be the choreographer for the Jacksons' Victory tour. Abdul choreographed sequences for the giant keyboard scene involving Tom Hanks's character in Big. In 1987, Abdul used her savings to make a singing demo. Soon thereafter, she was signed to the newly formed Virgin Records by Jeff Ayeroff, who had worked in marketing at A&M Records with Janet Jackson. Although she was a skilled dancer and choreographer, Abdul was a untrained singer, worked with various coaches and record producers to develop her vocal ability, with her vocal range defined as mezzo-soprano. Ayeroff recalled signing Abdul to a recording contract years stating: "She said,'I can sing, you know. I want to do an album.' Paula's in our industry. Here's someone with a personality and she's gorgeous, she can dance. If she can sing, she could be a star.
So she went into the studio and cut a demo record and she could sing." Her debut studio album, Forever Your Girl, would become the most successful debut album in history at that time, reaching number one on the Billboard 200 chart after 64 weeks, set a record for the most singles from a debut album to reach number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in the United States. The album was certified platinum in 1989. A remix album, Shut Up and Dance: Mixes, was released and reached number seven in the United States, becoming one of the most successful remix albums to date. At the 32nd Grammy Awards, Abdul won her first Grammy for Best Music Video for "Opposites Attract", she was nominated for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance for "Straight Up", but lost to Bonnie Raitt's "Nick of Time". In 1991, singer Yvette Marine filed a lawsuit against Abdul and the Virgin label, alleging that it was her vocals that were used on several tracks from Forever Your Girl, most notably "Opposites Attract". A jury sided with Abdul and the label two years in 1993, rejecting Marine's claim to credit and copyright compensation.
Abdul saw continued success with her second studio album Spellbound, which saw two additional number-one singles: "Rush Rush" and "The Promise of a New Day". Spellbound retained the dance-pop sound from Forever Your Girl and introduced elements of R&B, and
The Pussycat Dolls
The Pussycat Dolls were an American girl group and dance ensemble, founded in Los Angeles, California, by choreographer Robin Antin in 1995 as a burlesque troupe. After attracting media attention, Antin negotiated a record deal with Interscope Geffen A&M Records in 2003 turning the group into a music franchise comprising Nicole Scherzinger, Carmit Bachar, Ashley Roberts, Jessica Sutta, Melody Thornton, Kimberly Wyatt. Overseen by Antin and various partners, the group was transformed into a global image and commercial brand; the Pussycat Dolls achieved worldwide success with hit singles "Don't Cha", "Buttons", "Stickwitu", their first album PCD. However, despite their commercial success, the group was plagued by internal conflict due to the emphasis on Scherzinger, the group's lead vocalist, the subordinate treatment of the other members. Bachar's departure from the group preceded the release of their second and final studio album Doll Domination, which contains singles "When I Grow Up", "I Hate This Part", "Jai Ho!".
In 2009, they announced a minor hiatus, revealed to be an official break-up. The Dolls brand diversified into merchandise, reality television programs, a Las Vegas act, product endorsements, spin-off recording groups and other ventures. Billboard ranked the Pussycat Dolls as the 80th most successful musical act of the 2000s; the group has sold 54 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling girl groups of all time. In 2012, The Pussycat Dolls ranked 100th on VH1's 100 Greatest Women in Music, as the tenth all-girl group. Antin began exploring the idea of a modern burlesque troupe during 1990 with Carla Kama and Christina Applegate as performers; the troupe began to perform in 1995, with a repertoire of 1950s and 1960s popular music standards while dressed in lingerie or old-fashioned pin-up costumes. They secured a Thursday night residency at a Los Angeles nightclub, the Viper Room, where they stayed from 1995 to 2001, they appeared in the 1998 films Matters of Consequence, The Treat.
From 1995 to 2003 there were numerous guest vocalists, many changes to the dance personnel. The troupe received wider press coverage during June 1999, when Playboy featured a Pussycat Dolls pictorial, featuring at least seven contemporary members posing semi-nude. Three years The Pussycat Dolls moved to the Roxy, they were featured in magazines, television specials for MTV and VH1, ad campaigns, films. Some of The Pussycat Dolls appeared in the 2003 film Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle, dancing to Mancini's "The Pink Panther Theme", they were featured in Pink's "Trouble" music video. Along with Applegate, Christina Aguilera and Carmen Electra the troupe was featured in a Maxim magazine shoot in 2002, which increased public interest in them. Following their growing popularity, Interscope Geffen A&M Records music producers Jimmy Iovine and Ron Fair became involved with the group helping them to transform into a franchise after Gwen Stefani was asked to perform with the dolls; the former dance troupe evolved into a popular music recording group and became employees of Iovine's label Interscope Records.
The only troupe members who remained after the re-casting process were Robin Antin, Carmit Bachar, Cyia Batten, Kasey Campbell, Ashley Roberts, Jessica Sutta and Kimberly Wyatt. Electra, when asked about her lack of involvement with the group's evolution into a popular music group, said, "I was part of for over two years and did every show with them but financially, I couldn't become part of their new music project It was a sacrifice I couldn't make." During 2003, Antin struck a joint venture with Interscope Records to develop The Pussycat Dolls into a brand, with Jimmy Iovine assigning the project to Ron Fair. Auditions followed suit, for a separate group. Singers Nicole Scherzinger, Melody Thornton and Kaya Jones were recruited, joining Carmit Bachar, Ashley Roberts, Jessica Sutta and Kimberly Wyatt to form a new recording group. In February 2004 they performed. In 2004, they recorded "We Went as Far as We Felt Like Going" for the Shark Tale soundtrack and recorded the single, "Sway", featured on the soundtrack of Shall We Dance?
Jones left the group in September 2004, while Batten and Campbell left in January 2005. The group's debut album, PCD, was released in September 2005 and sold 3 million copies in the United States; the album's lead single, "Don't Cha", was a commercial success, topping the charts worldwide, reaching number two on the Billboard Hot 100. The group's second single, "Stickwitu", peaked at number five on the Billboard Hot 100 and earned a Grammy nomination for Best Pop Performance By a Duo or Group, but lost, it was the group's second consecutive number one in the United Kingdom. The group became one of the top-selling artists in 2006, while the album appeared at number twelve on the Billboard 200-year-end chart that year. "Beep" reached number two in the United Kingdom and number thirteen on Billboard Hot 100. To date, PCD has sold over 9 million copies worldwide; the group was selected to perform for the introduction for ABC's coverage of the NBA. The Pussycat Dolls first opened for the Black Eyed Peas Honda Civic Tour in North America.
The Circus Starring Britney Spears
The Circus Starring Britney Spears referred to as the Circus Tour, was the seventh concert tour by American singer Britney Spears. It was launched in support of Circus. Rumors of a tour arose as early as October 2007, after Spears released her fifth studio album Blackout; the tour was announced in December 2008, with dates for American and British venues revealed. The stage was set in-the-round to resemble an actual circus. Fashion designers Dean and Dan Caten created the costumes. A giant cylinder screen was set above the stage to showcase backdrops. Effects were provided by Solotech. Magician Ed Alonzo joined Spears during the second act; the setlist was composed from her albums In the Zone and Circus. Spears announced she would tour Australia for the first time in June 2009; the Circus Starring Britney Spears was described as a "pop extravaganza". It was divided into five segments; the Circus featured a metamorphosis of Spears from as a ringmaster to a slave, while being surrounded by different performers.
House of Fun displayed a series of upbeat numbers with different themes, including magic and military. It ended with a Bollywood-inspired performance and a ballad in which Spears performed while floating on a giant umbrella. Freakshow/Peepshow featured a video interlude set to heavy metal music, continued with dark and sexual performances. Electro Circ displayed energetic dance routines, the encore consisted of a video montage of Spears's music videos and a police-themed performance; some changes were made to the show throughout the tour. Several songs were remixed; the Circus Starring Britney Spears generated positive to mixed reception from critics. While some praised its aesthetics and deemed it as an entertaining show, others criticized Spears' lack of involvement during some segments; the tour was a commercial success, with a total gross of $131.8 million. This made The Circus Starring Britney Spears one of the highest-grossing tours of the decade. A great number of tickets were sold within a week of the tour's announcement, which prompted supporters to add more dates.
The tour broke attendance records in many cities and all the North American shows were sold out. It became Spears' highest-grossing tour; the show generated controversy on the Australian leg after a reporter said that a great number of fans had walked out during the performances. On September 9, 2007, Spears performed "Gimme More", the lead single from her fifth studio album Blackout at the MTV Video Music Awards, her last live performance had been during The M+M's Tour in May of the same year. Her singing, her dancing and her wardrobe were all commented on extensively, it was considered hurtful for her career. In October 2007, it was reported that Spears was planning to go on tour to promote the album and was holding open dance auditions, but this was denied by Jive Records. In February 2008, similar reports surfaced that Spears had rehearsed in private for a month at Millennium Dance Complex in Los Angeles, would be leaving to Europe during the following weeks for a worldwide tour. However, it was cancelled due to unknown reasons.
In September 2008, after New York City radio station Z100 premiered her single "Womanizer", Spears made a surprise appearance on the show and announced she would be going on a worldwide tour during 2009 to support her sixth studio album, Circus. The concert promoter was AEG Live. Former director of the tour, Australian choreographer Wade Robson, said that the tour would visit the United States, the United Kingdom, would reach Australia. After her live performances in the Big Apple Circus tent at Lincoln Center for Good Morning America on December 2, 2008, Spears announced a first leg of twenty-five dates in the US and two dates in the UK, with the tour launching on March 3, 2009, in New Orleans. Big Apple Circus performers supported Spears during her performance, went on to open for her throughout the tour; the Pussycat Dolls were selected in October 2008 as the opening act of the first North American leg. Spears's manager Larry Rudolph claimed that the show would "blow people's minds and promises to show Britney's fans something they will never forget."
He added, "she goes full-speed the whole show – about an hour and a half. It's pretty intense; this is a full-out Britney Spears show. It is a pop extravaganza, it is everything everybody expects from her — and more!" On April 28, 2009, eight European dates were added. The following day, four more dates were announced in Russia and Germany. On June 9, 2009, Spears announced. Six dates were announced. Spears stated, "I've wanted to tour Australia for quite some time and now it's happening. My Circus tour is the best show I have created and I can't wait to perform it for all of my Australian fans. See you guys soon!" The following day, it was announced on her official website that she would return to North America for a second leg, visiting twenty cities. The Circus Starring Britney Spears was rumored to reach South America, Spears's manager Adam Leber denied this despite their efforts to do so. In October 2008, Spears hired Wade Robson, who had worked as director for her Dream Within a Dream Tour, to direct the tour.
His wife, Amanda Robson, was hired as co-creative director. Andre Fuentes was
A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. The industry that deals in casinos is called the gaming industry. Casinos are most built near or combined with hotels, retail shopping, cruise ships or other tourist attractions. There is much debate over whether the social and economic consequences of casino gambling outweigh the initial revenue that may be generated; some casinos are known for hosting live entertainment events, such as stand-up comedy and sporting events. The term "casino" is a confusing linguistic false friend for translators. Casino is of Italian origin; the term casino may mean summerhouse, or social club. During the 19th century, the term casino came to include other public buildings where pleasurable activities took place. In modern-day Italian a casino is either a brothel, a mess, or a noisy environment, while a gaming house is spelt casinò, with an accent. Not all casinos were used for gaming; the Catalina Casino, a famous landmark overlooking Avalon Harbor on Santa Catalina Island, has never been used for traditional games of chance, which were outlawed in California by the time it was built.
The Copenhagen Casino was a theatre, known for the mass public meetings held in its hall during the 1848 Revolution, which made Denmark a constitutional monarchy. Until 1937, it was a well-known Danish theatre; the Hanko Casino in Hanko, Finland—one of that town's most conspicuous landmarks—was never used for gambling. Rather, it was a banquet hall for the Russian nobility which frequented this spa resort in the late 19th century and is now used as a restaurant. In military and non-military usage in German and Spanish, a casino or kasino is an officers' mess; the precise origin of gambling is unknown. It is believed that gambling in some form or another has been seen in every society in history. From the Ancient Greeks and Romans to Napoleon's France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games of chance; the first known European gambling house, not called a casino although meeting the modern definition, was the Ridotto, established in Venice, Italy in 1638 by the Great Council of Venice to provide controlled gambling during the carnival season.
It was closed in 1774. In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons; the creation and importance of saloons was influenced by four major cities: New Orleans, St. Louis and San Francisco, it was in the saloons that travelers could find people to talk to, drink with, gamble with. During the early 20th century in America, gambling became outlawed and banned by state legislation and social reformers of the time. However, in 1931, gambling was legalized throughout the state of Nevada. America's first legalized casinos were set up in those places. In 1976 New Jersey allowed gambling in Atlantic City, now America's second largest gambling city. Most jurisdictions worldwide have a minimum gambling age. Customers gamble by playing games of chance, in some cases with an element of skill, such as craps, baccarat and video poker. Most games played have mathematically determined odds that ensure the house has at all times an overall advantage over the players; this can be expressed more by the notion of expected value, uniformly negative.
This advantage is called the house edge. In games such as poker where players play against each other, the house takes a commission called the rake. Casinos sometimes give out complimentary comps to gamblers. Payout is the percentage of funds returned to players. Casinos in the United States say that a player staking money won from the casino is playing with the house's money. Video Lottery Machines have become one of the most popular forms of gambling in casinos; as of 2011 investigative reports have started calling into question whether the modern-day slot-machine is addictive. Casino design—regarded as a psychological exercise—is an intricate process that involves optimising floor plan, décor and atmospherics to encourage gambling. Factors influencing gambling tendencies include sound and lighting. Natasha Dow Schüll, an anthropologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, highlights the decision of the audio directors at Silicon Gaming to make its slot machines resonate in "the universally pleasant tone of C, sampling existing casino soundscapes to create a sound that would please but not clash".
Dr Alan Hirsch, founder of the Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation in Chicago, studied the impact of certain scents on gamblers, discerning that a pleasant albeit unidentifiable odour released by Las Vegas slot machines generated about 50% more in daily revenue. He suggested. Casino designer Roger Thomas is credited with implementing a successful, disruptive design for the Las Vegas Wynn Resorts casinos in 2008, he broke casino design convention by introducing natural sunlight and flora to appeal to women. Thomas put in skylights and antique clocks, defying the commonplace notion that a casino should be a timeless space; the following li