History of slavery
The history of slavery spans many cultures and religions from ancient times to the present day. However the social and legal positions of slaves have differed vastly in different systems of slavery in different times and places. Slavery occurs rarely among hunter-gatherer populations because it develops under conditions of social stratification. Slavery operated in the first civilizations. Slavery features in the Mesopotamian Code of Hammurabi, which refers to it as an established institution. Slavery became common within much of Europe during the Dark Ages and it continued into the Middle Ages; the Byzantine–Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe resulted in the capture of large numbers of Christian slaves. The Dutch, Spanish, British, Arabs and a number of West African kingdoms played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade after 1600. David P. Forsythe wrote: "The fact remained that at the beginning of the nineteenth century an estimated three-quarters of all people alive were trapped in bondage against their will either in some form of slavery or serfdom."
The Republic of Ragusa became the first European country to ban the slave trade - in 1416. In modern times Denmark-Norway abolished the trade in 1802. Although slavery is no longer legal anywhere in the world, human trafficking remains an international problem and an estimated 25-40 million people were enslaved as of 2013, the majority in Asia. During the 1983–2005 Second Sudanese Civil War people were taken into slavery. Evidence emerged in the late 1990s of systematic child-slavery and -trafficking on cacao plantations in West Africa. Slavery continues into the 21st-century. Although Mauritania criminalized slavery in August 2007, an estimated up to 600,000 men and children, or 20% of the population of Mauritania, are enslaved, many of them used as bonded labor. Slavery in 21st-century Islamism continues, Islamist quasi-states such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and Boko Haram have abducted and enslaved women and children. Evidence of slavery predates written records, has existed in many cultures.
However, slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations. Mass slavery requires a high population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, about 11,000 years ago. Slavery was known in civilizations as old as Sumer, as well as in every other ancient civilization, including Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, the Akkadian Empire, Babylonia, Ancient Iran, Ancient Greece, Ancient India, the Roman Empire, the Arab Islamic Caliphate and Sultanate and the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas; such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, the birth of slave children to slaves. French historian Fernand Braudel noted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure of everyday life. "Slavery came in different guises in different societies: there were court slaves, slaves incorporated into princely armies and household slaves, slaves working on the land, in industry, as couriers and intermediaries as traders".
During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic, with its slave traffic from Africa to the Americas. The Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa. In 1807 Britain, which held extensive, although coastal, colonial territories on the African continent, made the international slave trade illegal, as did the United States in 1808. In Senegambia, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved. In early Islamic states of the Western Sudan, including Ghana, Mali and Songhai, about a third of the population was enslaved. In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, the Kasanje kingdom and Chokwe of Angola. Among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves; the population of the Kanem was about a third slave.
It was 40% in Bornu. Between 1750 and 1900 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves; the population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in northern Nigeria and Cameroon was half-slave in the 19th century. It is estimated. Half the population of Madagascar was enslaved; the Anti-Slavery Society estimated that there were 2,000,000 slaves in the early 1930s Ethiopia, out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million. Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the brief Second Italo-Abyssinian War in October 1935, when it was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces. In response to pressure by Western Allies of World War II Ethiopia abolished slavery and serfdom after regaining its independence in 1942. On 26 August 1942 Haile Selassie issued a proclamation outlawing slavery; when British rule was first imposed on the Sokoto Caliphate and the surrounding areas in northern Nigeria at the turn of the 20th century 2 million to 2.5 million people there were slaves.
Slavery in northern Nigeria was outlawed in 1936. Elikia M'bokolo, April 1998, Le Monde diplomatique. Quot
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth's crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron; the free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, silver-gray metal. Cobalt-based blue pigments have been used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, to impart a distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was thought by alchemists to be due to the known metal bismuth. Miners had long used the name kobold ore for some of the blue-pigment producing minerals. In 1735, such ores were found to be reducible to a new metal, this was named for the kobold. Today, some cobalt is produced from one of a number of metallic-lustered ores, such as for example cobaltite; the element is however more produced as a by-product of copper and nickel mining. The copper belt in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia yields most of the global cobalt production; the DRC alone accounted for more than 50% of world production in 2016, according to Natural Resources Canada.
Cobalt is used in the manufacture of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. The compounds cobalt silicate and cobalt aluminate give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, inks and varnishes. Cobalt occurs as only one stable isotope, cobalt-59. Cobalt-60 is a commercially important radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer and for the production of high energy gamma rays. Cobalt is the active center of a group of coenzymes called cobalamins. Vitamin B12, the best-known example of the type, is an essential vitamin for all animals. Cobalt in inorganic form is a micronutrient for bacteria and fungi. Cobalt is a ferromagnetic metal with a specific gravity of 8.9. The Curie temperature is 1,115 °C and the magnetic moment is 1.6–1.7 Bohr magnetons per atom. Cobalt has a relative permeability two-thirds. Metallic cobalt occurs as two crystallographic structures: fcc; the ideal transition temperature between the hcp and fcc structures is 450 °C, but in practice the energy difference between them is so small that random intergrowth of the two is common.
Cobalt is a weakly reducing metal, protected from oxidation by a passivating oxide film. It is attacked by halogens and sulfur. Heating in oxygen produces Co3O4 which loses oxygen at 900 °C to give the monoxide CoO; the metal reacts with fluorine at 520 K to give CoF3. It does not react with hydrogen gas or nitrogen gas when heated, but it does react with boron, phosphorus and sulfur. At ordinary temperatures, it reacts with mineral acids, slowly with moist, but not with dry, air. Common oxidation states of cobalt include +2 and +3, although compounds with oxidation states ranging from −3 to +5 are known. A common oxidation state for simple compounds is +2; these salts form the pink-colored metal aquo complex 2+ in water. Addition of chloride gives the intensely blue 2−. In a borax bead flame test, cobalt shows deep blue in both reducing flames. Several oxides of cobalt are known. Green cobalt oxide has rocksalt structure, it is oxidized with water and oxygen to brown cobalt hydroxide. At temperatures of 600 -- 700 °C, CoO oxidizes to the blue cobalt oxide.
Black cobalt oxide is known. Cobalt oxides are antiferromagnetic at low temperature: CoO and Co3O4, analogous to magnetite, with a mixture of +2 and +3 oxidation states; the principal chalcogenides of cobalt include the black cobalt sulfides, CoS2, which adopts a pyrite-like structure, cobalt sulfide. Four dihalides of cobalt are known: cobalt fluoride, cobalt chloride, cobalt bromide, cobalt iodide; these halides exist in hydrated forms. Whereas the anhydrous dichloride is blue, the hydrate is red; the reduction potential for the reaction Co3+ + e− → Co2+ is +1.92 V, beyond that for chlorine to chloride, +1.36 V. Consequently and chloride would result in the cobalt being reduced to cobalt; because the reduction potential for fluorine to fluoride is so high, +2.87 V, cobalt fluoride is one of the few simple stable cobalt compounds. Cobalt fluoride, used in some fluorination reactions, reacts vigorously with water; as for all metals, molecular compounds and polyatomic ions of cobalt are classified as coordination complexes, that is, molecules or ions that contain cobalt linked to several ligands.
The principles of electronegativity and hardness–softness of a series of ligands can be used to explain the usual oxidation state of cobalt. For example, Co+3 complexes tend to have ammine ligands; because phosphorus is softer than nitrogen, phosphine ligands tend to feature the softer Co2+ and Co+, an example being triscobalt chloride. The more electronegative oxide and fluoride can stabilize Co4+ and Co5+ derivatives, e.g. caesium hexafluorocobaltate and potassium percobaltate. Alfred Werner, a Nobel-prize winning pioneer in coordination chemistry, worked with compounds of empirical formula 3+. One of the isomers
Goma is the capital of North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is located on the northern shore of Lake Kivu, next to the Rwandan city of Gisenyi; the lake and the two cities are in the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift system. Goma lies only 13–18 km south of the active Nyiragongo Volcano; the recent history of Goma has been dominated by the volcano and the Rwandan Genocide of 1994, which in turn fuelled the First and Second Congo Wars. The aftermath of these events was still having effects on the city and its surroundings in 2010; the city was captured by rebels of the March 23 Movement during the M23 rebellion in late 2012, but has since been retaken by government forces. The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 was perpetrated by the provisional Rwandan government on the Tutsi population and Hutu moderates. In response the Rwandan Patriotic Front, formed by Tutsi refugees in Uganda, which controlled large areas of northern Rwanda following its 1990 invasion and the ongoing Civil War, overthrew the Hutu government in Kigali and forced it out.
One of the many UN missions attempted to provide a safe zone in the volatile situation and provided safe passage for the refugees. From 13 June to 14 July 1994, 10,000 to 12,000 refugees per day crossed the border to Goma; the massive influx created a severe humanitarian crisis, as there was an acute lack of shelter and water. However, the Zaïrean government took it upon itself to garner attention for the situation. Shortly after the arrival of nearly one million refugees. A deadly cholera outbreak claimed thousands of lives in the Hutu refugee camps around Goma. RPF aligned forces actors in the conflict, crossed the border and in acts of revenge claimed several lives. Hutu militias and members of the Hutu provisional government were among the refugees, they set up operations from the camps around Goma attacking ethnic Tutsis in the Kivus and Rwandan government forces at the border. For political reasons the Kinshasa government of the Zaire led by Joseph Mobutu did not prevent the attacks, so the Rwandan government and its Ugandan allies threw their support behind the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Zaire, a rebel movement led by Laurent Kabila against Mobutu.
Rwandan forces stormed the camps at Goma, resulting in thousands of additional deaths, with their help and that of Uganda, Kabila went on to overthrow Mobutu's regime in the First Congo War, which ended in 1997. Within a year Kabila had quarrelled with his former allies, in 1998 the Rwandan government backed a Goma-based rebel movement against Kabila, the Congolese Rally for Democracy made of Banyamulenge people, related to the Tutsis, they captured Bukavu and other towns, the Second Congo War began. The Goma refugee camps, in which the Hutu had created a militia called the FDLR, were again attacked by Rwandan government forces and the RCD; the Second Congo War was unprecedented in Africa for the loss of civilian life in massacres and atrocities. By 2003 the Banyamulenge had become tired of the friction emerged between them and Rwanda. In 2002 and 2003 a fragile negotiated peace emerged between the many sides involved in the war. There have been numerous outbreaks of violence since 2003; the Hutu FDLR remains in the forests and mountains north and west of Goma, carrying out attacks on the Rwandan border and on the Banyamulenge.
The Congolese defence forces are unable or unwilling to stop them, as a consequence Rwanda continues to support Banymulenge rebels such as the RCD and General Nkunda, to carry out incursions into North Kivu in pursuit of the FDLR. In September 2007 large-scale fighting threatened to break out again as the 8,000-strong militia of General Nkunda, based around Rutshuru, broke away from integration with the Congolese army and began attacking them in the town of Masisi north-west of Goma. MONUC began airlifting Congolese troops into Goma and transferring them by helicopter from Goma International Airport to Masisi. On October 27, 2008, the Battle of Goma broke out in the city between the Congolese army, supported by MONUC, Nkunda's CNDP rebels. On 3 November 2012 there was a clash between Congolese and Rwandan troops on the border just north of Goma. Goma was seized by the M23 movement on November 20, 2012. "Tens of thousands" of civilians fled the area. See also: List of governors of North Kivu provinceGoma is represented in the National Assembly by six deputies: Désiré Konde Jason Luneno Butondo Muhindo Naasson Kubuya Ndoole Elvis Mutiri Dieudonné Kambale Francois-Xavier Nzabara Masetsa, circa 1994??
Roger Rachid Tumbala, circa 2009? Jean Busanga Malihaseme, 2011-? Kubuya Ndoole Naso, 2012-? Dieudonné Malere, 2015–present The Great Rift Valley is being pulled apart, leading to earthquakes and the formation of volcanoes in the area. In January 2002, Nyiragongo erupted, sending a stream of lava 200 metres to one kilometre wide and up to two metres deep through the center of the city as far as the lake shore. Agencies monitoring the volcano were able to give a warning and most of the population of Goma evacuated to Gisenyi; the lava destroyed 40% of the city. There were some fatalities caused by the lava and by emissions of carbon dioxide, which causes asphyxiation; the lava covered over the northern 1 km of the 3-kilometre runway of Goma International Airport, isolating the terminal and apron which were at that end. The lava can be seen in satellite photographs, aircraft can be seen using the 2-km
Société nationale des Chemins de fer du Congo
The Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer du Congo is the national railway company for the inland railways of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was known as the Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Zaïrois. Due to the civil war, the railway was not functioning from 1998 until June 29, 2004. During the war, 500 km of railway in the provinces of Maniema and Katanga were destroyed. A million dollar grant from the United States Agency for International Development's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is helping to pay for the section's repair. Charities use the railway to distribute food and other supplies. Despite foreign support, SNCC was again on the brink of collapse in 2010; the Matadi-Kinshasa Railway is operated by ONATRA, under an agreement with the CNC. 3,641 kilometres in Katanga, Kasaï-Occidental, Kasaï-Oriental and Maniema. Track gauge 1,067 mm: Lubumbashi to Ilebo Only remaining weekly through passenger train is timetabled to take six days. Agreement signed in September 2007 for China to fund an extension to Kinshasa.
Kamina to Kindu Tenke to Dilolo Kabalo to KalemieTrack gauge 1,000 mm metre gauge: Ubundu to Kisangani Benguela railway Congo-Ocean Railway Matadi-Kinshasa Railway Rail transport in the Democratic Republic of Congo South African Class 32-000 Transport in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Map of railway network SNCC official website IRINNews: Christian charity begins railroad rehabilitation Chinese to plug Ilebo – Kinshasa gap in DR Congo Railway Gazette International October 2007
Kalemie Albertville or Albertstad, is a town on the western shore of Lake Tanganyika in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The town is next to the outflow of the Lukuga River from Lake Tanganyika to the Lualaba River. From 1886 to 1891, the Society of Missionaries of Africa had founded catholic missions at the north and south ends of Lake Tanganyika. Léopold Louis Joubert, a French soldier and armed auxiliary, was dispatched by Archbishop Charles Lavigerie's Society of Missionaries of Africa to protect the missionaries; the missionaries abandoned three of the new stations due to attacks by Tippu Rumaliza. By 1891 the Arab slavers had control of the entire western shore of the lake, apart from the region defended by Joubert around Mpala and St Louis de Mrumbi; the anti-slavery expedition under Captain Alphonse Jacques—financed by the Belgian Anti-Slavery Society—came to the relief of Joubert on 30 Oktober 1891. When the Jacques expedition arrived Joubert's garrison was down to about two hundred men, poorly armed with "a most miscellaneous assortment of chassepots and muzzle-loaders, without suitable cartridges."
He had hardly any medicine left. Captain Jacques asked Joubert to remain on the defensive. On 30 December 1891 Captain Alphonse Jacques' anti-slavery expedition founded the military post of Albertville on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, tried to put an end to the Arab slave trade in the region. Albertville was located 15 kilometres south of the Lukuga River. Sergeant Alexis Vrithoff was killed on 5 April 1892 when defending Albertville against an attack by Arab slavers. Rumaliza's troops based at Kataki surrounded Albertville on the 5th of April and besieged the outpost for several months, from 16 August 1892 until 1 January 1893. Rumaliza's forces had to retreat because of the arrival of the Long-Duvivier-Demol Anti-Slavery expedition, a relief column sent from Brussels at captain Alphonse Jacques's aide. After the Arabs left the territory, the original Albertville was abandoned, the name became attached to the military post of M'Toa to the north of the Lukuga, the site of present-day Kalemie.
In 1914 Albertville was the base for the Belgo-Congolese forces in the East African campaign. The railway reached Albertville in 1915, in 1916 the port was constructed and the coalworks at Greinerville opened. At the end of 1940 a South African military base was established at Albertville British, to manage troops in Kenya and Abyssinia. Albertville was attacked by mercenaries under Major Mike Hoare during operations against the Simba Rebellion in August 1964. In the late 1960s and early 1970s under the regime of Mobutu Sese Seko the Zairianization policy was implemented, this included numerous changes to the state and to private life, including the renaming of the Congo and its cities, as well as an eventual mandate that Zairians were to abandon their Christian names for more "authentic" ones. In addition, Western style attire was banned and replaced with the Mao-style tunic labeled the "abacost" and its female equivalent; the policy began to wane in the late 1970s and had been abandoned by 1990.
In 1971, as a result of the Zairianization, Albertville changed its name to Kalemie. The Town of Kalemie hosts the major University of Kalemie, which maintains the largest library in the region. Kalemie has a tropical savanna climate. Kalemie serves as an important Town in the Katanga province, Manufactures include Cement, food products, textiles; the Town serves as a distribution centre for such minerals as copper, zinc and coal. Kalemie lies at the centre of railway lines to Nyunzu, Kindu and Lubumbashi; the construction of a railway Kalemie to Bukavu through the town of Baraka to open up the Kivu region was proposed. Kalemie lies at the centre of water lines to Kigoma, Mpulungu, Uvira, DRC and Bujumbura, Burundi. Although French is the official language, the main in Kalemie is a dialect of Kiswahili found in Tanzania; this dialect is spoken along the east side of Congo and all the way across to the Katangan border with Angola is called Kingwana. Lubumbashi is home to football clubs FC Etoile Jaune and many more.
The port at Kalemie was built to connect the Great Lakes rail line to the Tanzanian lake port and railhead at Kigoma, from where the Tanzanian Central Railway Line runs to the seaport of Dar es Salaam. The port was built with a 130 m wharf and 3 mobile cranes, giving it a capacity of 500 tonnes per day with two shifts; the cranes are not functional, vessels cannot reach the wharf due to silting up of the lake next to it. The buildings of the port require rehabilitation. Moreover, the railway line for 100 km west of Kalemie is'very degraded' and not operational. Kalemie Port is used by boat services to the northern Lake Tanganyika ports of Kalundu-Uvira and Bujumbura in Burundi, southwards to Moba and Mpulungu in Zambia. Kalemie Port is operated by the railway company SNCC which operates the railways in DR Congo as well as boat services on the eastern waterways in the country. Kalemie maintains partnership links with the following places: Steinheim, Germany The Lake Tanganyika earthquake struck on December 5, 2005.
The epicentre was 10 km below the surface of Lake Tanganyika, some 55 km south-east of Kalemie. At least dozens of houses were destroyed. "Villes de RD Congo - Kalemie". MONUC. 2006-05-29. Retrieved 2008-09-16. Web site of Kalemie / Bukavu / Kalima area Accident history for
City status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government. A municipality may receive city status because it has the qualities of a city, or because it has some special purpose. City status was a privilege granted by royal letters of patent; the status foreign trade, in contrast to towns. Sovereigns could establish cities by decree, e.g. Helsinki, regardless of what was in the location beforehand. With the establishment of federal governments, the new capital could be established from scratch, e.g. Brasília, without going through organic growth from a village to a town. British city status was conferred on settlements with a diocesan cathedral. In the United States city can be used for much smaller settlements; the Government of China in 1982–1997 upgraded many counties to cities by decree, thereby increasing their city count from 250 to more than 650 during this period. 15% of the counties in China became cities. The new "cities" may include large rural areas as well as urban areas.
The upgrade was considered desirable by local governments because the new status provides additional powers of taxation and administration, the right to expand the size of government, an increase in the proportion of land which could be converted from agriculture to buildings. City status in Belgium City status in Ireland City status in Sweden City status in the United Kingdom City rights in the Low Countries Statutory city City with special status Federal cities of Russia.
The Lualaba River flows within the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is the greatest river source of the Congo River by volume of water; the Lualaba is 1,800 kilometres long. Its headwaters are in the country's far southeastern corner near Musofi and Lubumbashi in Katanga Province, next to Zambia; the Chambeshi River is the longest river source of the Congo. The origination of the Lualaba River is on the Katanga Plateau, at an elevation of 1,400 metres above sea level, its total course flows northward to end near Kisangani, where the name Congo River begins. From the Katanga Plateau it drops, with waterfalls and rapids marking the descent, to the Manika Plateau; as it descends through the upper Kamalondo Trough, 457 metres in 72 kilometres, near Nzilo Falls it is dammed for hydroelectric power at Nzilo Dam. At Bukama in Haut-Lomami District the river becomes navigable for about 640 kilometres through a series of marshy lakes in the lower Upemba Depression, including Lake Upemba and Lake Kisale.
Ankoro lies on the west bank of the Lualaba River, opposite its confluence with the Luvua River from the east. Some geographers call the combined river below this point the "Upper Congo". Below Kongolo, the river becomes unnavigable. Between Kasongo and Kibombo, the river is navigable for about 100 kilometres, before rapids make it unnavigable again between Kibombo and Kindu-Port-Empain. From Kindu up to the Boyoma Falls at Ubundu, the stream is navigable again for more than 300 kilometers; the Boyoma Falls or Stanley Falls are made up of seven cataracts, over a stretch of 100 kilometres of the river, between Ubundu and Kisangani. The river's end is marked after the seventh cataract, near Kisangani, where its name becomes the Congo River. ParksThe Lualaba River serves as the northern and western boundary of Upemba National Park, protecting habitats on the Kibara Plateau in Katanga Province of the southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo; the largest tributaries of the Lualaba River, are the: Ulindi River Luama River Lukuga River — drains Lake Tanganyika.
Lufira River Lubudi River Luvua River Elila River Cities and Towns along and near the Lualaba River include: Ankoro —on west bank, opposite confluence with Luvua River. Bukama Kabalo Kasongo Kongolo Kisangani — near the seventh cataract of Boyoma Falls. Ubundu — just above first cataract of Boyoma Falls; the Lualaba River was once considered a possible source of the Nile, until Henry Morton Stanley journeyed down it and proved that it drained into the Atlantic Ocean. Stanley himself referred to it as the Livingstone. "Had not Livingstone spoken of the river at Nyangwe as the Lualaba, I should not have mentioned the word except as a corruption by the Waguha of the Wenya term Lu-al-ow-wa..."French colonial governor Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza explored the Lualaba. Maria Petringa, Brazza, A Life for Africa. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4259-1198-0