Kinect is a line of motion sensing input devices produced by Microsoft and first released in 2010. The technology includes a set of hardware developed by PrimeSense, incorporating RGB cameras, infrared projectors and detectors that mapped depth through either structured light or time of flight calculations, a microphone array, along with software and artificial intelligence from Microsoft to allow the device to perform real-time gesture recognition, speech recognition and body skeletal detection for up to four person, among other capabilities; this enable Kinect to be used as a hands-free natural user interface device to interact with a computer system. Kinect is a peripheral. Kinect originated as a means to eliminate the game controller from Microsoft's Xbox video game hardware, competing with the Nintendo Wii's own motion-sensing capabilities, hoping to draw a larger audience beyond traditional video game players to the Xbox. Kinect first launched as an add-on for the Xbox 360 in November 2010, within a few months more than 10 million units had been sold, making it one of the fastest-selling computer hardware products at the time.
However, video games had to be developed to incorporate the Kinect's features, the bulk of games released with Kinect support were family-friendly titles. As Microsoft developed the successor console, the Xbox One, the company had planned to make the second generation of Kinect hardware a required component of the console, giving a reason for developers to seek to take advantage of it. However, the forced inclusion of Kinect raised concerns related to privacy, among other major changes, Microsoft eliminated the requirement for Kinect to be always connected to the Xbox One, though still bundled Kinect with the console on its release in November 2013. A market for Kinect-based games still did not emerge after the Xbox One's launch, Microsoft eliminated the Kinect from the Xbox One bundles, while hardware revisions eliminated the Kinect-specific ports on the console, requiring a special USB adapter instead. By 2018, Microsoft had discontinued all Kinect hardware for video games. However, Kinect had found an unexpected home for Microsoft in academics and commercial applications, as the Kinect sensor, at the time, was cheaper and more robust compared to other depth-sensing technology applications.
Microsoft now considers non-gaming applications, such as in robotics and health care, the primary market for Kinect. Shortly after the November 2010 release, users were able to hack into the Kinect and develop hardware drivers and software interfaces to be used on Microsoft Windows personal computers and other systems. Microsoft, after objecting to the potential security issues raised by these hacks, changed course and endorsed these efforts, released its own software development kit for non-commercial applications; the company rebranded the Kinect hardware into Kinect for Windows in 2012, allowing for commercial applications. A second-generation Kinect for Windows, based on the Xbox One unit, was released in 2014, thought Microsoft terminated this line and directed users to use the Xbox One Kinect as it was functionally equivalent. Following the discontinuation of the Xbox line of Kinect sensors, Microsoft released a non-gaming version as the Azure Kinect, which incorporates Microsoft Azure cloud computing applications among the device's functionalities.
Part of the Kinect technology was used within Microsoft's Hololens project. The origins of the Kinect started around 2005, at a point where technology vendors were starting to develop depth-sensing cameras. Microsoft had been interested in a 3D camera for the Xbox line earlier but because the technology had not been refined, had placed it in the "Boneyard", a collection of possible technology they could not work on. In 2005, PrimeSense was founded by tech-savvy mathematicians and engineers from Israel to develop the "next big thing" for video games, incorporating cameras that were capable of mapping a human body in front of them and sensing hand motions, they showed off their system at the 2006 Game Developers Conference, where Microsoft's Alex Kipman, the general manager of hardware incubation, saw the potential in PrimeSense's technology for the Xbox system. Microsoft began discussions with PrimeSense about what would need to be done to make their product more consumer-friendly: not only improvements in the capabilities of depth-sensing cameras, but a reduction in size and cost, a means to manufacturer the units at scale was required.
PrimeSense spent the next few years working at these improvements. Nintendo released the Wii in November 2006; the Wii's central feature was the Wii Remote, a handheld device, detected by the Wii through a motion sensor bar mounted onto a television screen to enable motion controlled games. Microsoft felt pressure from the Wii, began looking into depth-sensing in more detail with PrimeSense's hardware, but could not get to the level of motion tracking they desired. While they could determine hand gestures, sense the general shape of a body, they could not do skeletal tracking. A separate path within Microsoft looked to create an equivalent of the Wii Remote, considering that that type of unit may become standardized similar to how two-thumbstick controllers became a standard feature. However, it was still Microsoft's goal to remove any device between the player and the Xbox. Kudo Tsunoda and Darren Bennett joined Microsoft in 2008, began working with Kipman on a new approach to depth-sensing aided by machine learning to improve skeletal tracking.
They internally demonstrated this and established where they believed the technology
Viktor Denisov, is a Russian sprint canoer who competed from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. He won two silver medals at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, earning them in the K-2 500 m and K-4 1000 m events. Denisov won twelve medals at the ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships with seven golds, three silvers, two bronzes, he trained at the Armed Forces sports society in Kalinin. ICF medalists for Olympic and World Championships – Part 1: flatwater: 1936–2007 at WebCite. Additional archives: Wayback Machine. ICF medalists for Olympic and World Championships – Part 2: rest of flatwater and remaining canoeing disciplines: 1936–2007 at WebCite Viktor Denisov at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com
The CAT 28BP was an Italian development of the licence built Dittmar Condor II into a high performance tandem two seat glider. Built in 1938, it anticipated the post-war, two seat Dittmar Condor IV and held the Italian national distance record for many years. Construzioni Aeronautiche Taliedo built two German glider designs under licence, the second of them the single seat Dittmar Condor II; this was designated CAT 28 and flew in 1936. At Adriano Mantelli's suggestion, Etteore Cattaneo designed a two-seat version, the CAT 28BP, with a second seat in tandem under the wing and an increase in span and wing area to cope with the greater weight, it was intended for aerobatics and as a training aircraft. At the time there was no German two seat Condor. Though 500 mm greater in span, the two seater's wing was similar to that of the CAT 28, it was built around a single spar. It had a rectangular plan inner section with dihedral and tapered outer panels without dihedral, producing a gull wing ending in elliptical tips.
The taper on the trailing edge began at greater span than the change of dihedral but the ailerons filling it were hinged parallel to the tapered region. Spoilers just aft beyond the inner section of the wing extended above and below it; the fuselage was a ply skinned, wooden structure which supported the wing centrally on what was, on the CAT 28, a pedestal, developed into a second, rear cockpit with side windows and accessed from above via a forward hinged trap door in the wing. Single faired lift struts on each side from the lower fuselage braced the wing at the edge of the inner gull section; the insertion of the second seat left the fuselage otherwise unchanged. Dual control was fitted. Aft of the trailing edge; the CAT 28BP had a high aspect ratio tapered all moving tailplane with a small cut-out for rudder movement. Its fin was short and small but mounted a large and rounded balanced rudder which extended down to the keel, protected by a small tail bumper; the main undercarriage was a skid running aft from the nose to behind the rear cockpit.
The CAT 28BP first flew in 1938, piloted by Mantelli, performed well in testing. For many years it held the Italian national distance record, it competed with success in national competitions. Data from Pedrielli General characteristics Capacity: Two Length: 7.70 m Wingspan: 18.20 m Wing area: 21 m2 Aspect ratio: 15.8 Empty weight: 250 kg Gross weight: 410 kg Performance Maximum glide ratio: estimated 26:1 Rate of sink: 0.5 m/s Wing loading: 19.5 kg/m2