Kinematics is a subfield of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points and systems of bodies without considering the forces that cause them to move. Kinematics, as a field of study, is referred to as the "geometry of motion" and is seen as a branch of mathematics. A kinematics problem begins by describing the geometry of the system and declaring the initial conditions of any known values of position, velocity and/or acceleration of points within the system. Using arguments from geometry, the position and acceleration of any unknown parts of the system can be determined; the study of how forces act on bodies falls within kinetics, not kinematics. For further details, see analytical dynamics. Kinematics is used in astrophysics to describe the motion of celestial bodies and collections of such bodies. In mechanical engineering and biomechanics kinematics is used to describe the motion of systems composed of joined parts such as an engine, a robotic arm or the human skeleton. Geometric transformations called rigid transformations, are used to describe the movement of components in a mechanical system, simplifying the derivation of the equations of motion.

They are central to dynamic analysis. Kinematic analysis is the process of measuring the kinematic quantities used to describe motion. In engineering, for instance, kinematic analysis may be used to find the range of movement for a given mechanism and working in reverse, using kinematic synthesis to design a mechanism for a desired range of motion. In addition, kinematics applies algebraic geometry to the study of the mechanical advantage of a mechanical system or mechanism; the term kinematic is the English version of A. M. Ampère's cinématique, which he constructed from the Greek κίνημα kinema, itself derived from κινεῖν kinein. Kinematic and cinématique are related to the French word cinéma, but neither are directly derived from it. However, they do share a root word in common, as cinéma came from the shortened form of cinématographe, "motion picture projector and camera," once again from the Greek word for movement and from the Greek γρᾰ́φω grapho. Particle kinematics is the study of the trajectory of particles.

The position of a particle is defined as the coordinate vector from the origin of a coordinate frame to the particle. For example, consider a tower 50 m south from your home, where the coordinate frame is centered at your home, such that east is in the direction of the x-axis and north is in the direction of the y-axis the coordinate vector to the base of the tower is r =. If the tower is 50 m high, this height is measured along the z-axis the coordinate vector to the top of the tower is r =. In the most general case, a three-dimensional coordinate system is used to define the position of a particle. However, if the particle is constrained to move within a plane, a two-dimensional coordinate system is sufficient. All observations in physics are incomplete without being described with respect to a reference frame; the position vector of a particle is a vector drawn from the origin of the reference frame to the particle. It expresses both the distance of the point from its direction from the origin.

In three dimensions, the position of point P can be expressed as P = = x P ı ^ + y P ȷ ^ + z P k ^, where x P, y P, z P are the Cartesian coordinates and ı ^, ȷ ^ and k ^ are the unit vectors along the x, y, z coordinate axes, respectively. The magnitude of the position vector | P | gives the distance between the origin. | P | = x P 2 + y P 2 + z P 2. The direction cosines of the position vector provide a quantitative measure of direction, it is important to note. The position vector of a given particle is different relative to different frames of reference; the trajectory of a particle is a vector function of time, P, which defines the curve traced by the moving particle, given by P = x P ı ^ + y P ȷ ^ + z P k ^, {\displaystyle \mathbf =x_(t

Big Mama's & Papa's Pizzeria

Big Mama's & Papa's Pizzeria is a pizza restaurant chain located in Southern California. The chain is notable for its large "Giant Sicilian" pizza, claimed to be the largest deliverable pizza in the world. Additionally, the chain gained notoriety when, during the 2014 Academy Awards, host Ellen DeGeneres had Big Mama's pizzas delivered onstage; the first Big Mama's & Papa's was opened in 1992 by Armenian immigrant brothers Aro and Allen Agakhanyan. At the time, the brothers were neither fluent in English nor out of high school. Since that time, the chain has expanded to 20 restaurants in the Southern California region, with both company-owned and franchise operations. In 2015, Big Mama's announced. One of the restaurant's signature products is a large "Giant Sicilian" pizza; the pizza measures 54" by 54" and has 200 slices. It holds the record of "largest pizza commercially available." Big Mama's small delivery vehicles have special compartments attached to the roof to accommodate the size of this pizza.

In 1993 affected by the 1992 Los Angeles riots, the Agakhanyan brothers held a monthlong campaign called "Intolerance Down, Pepperoni Up!" with 5% of all profits donated to the USC Center for Black Cultural and Student Affairs. During the 2014 Academy Awards, host Ellen DeGeneres called for pizzas to be delivered for the enjoyment of the audience. DeGeneres frequents Big Mama's, which has a location near her studio. An order was made for twenty pizzas to be delivered to the Dolby Theater. To the surprise of the deliveryman, Ellen brought him onstage and had him deliver the pizza to the assembled celebrities, she passed Pharrel's trademark hat around to gather contributions for a tip from the movie stars. Given the huge audience of the award ceremony, the going price of advertisement time, the fact that the bit lasted 3 minutes, Big Mama's received $10 million in free publicity. List of pizza chains of the United States Official website

Vserv Digital Services

Vserv is a platform for mobile marketing and commerce. The platform has a mobile internet user base in India and Southeast Asia with insights on users in these markets. Founded in 2010, Vserv has over 500 million user profiles and is backed by Maverick Capital, IDG Ventures India and Epiphany Ventures. Vserv was founded in January 2010 by Ashay Padwal. In October 2014, Vserv launched its Vserv Smart Data platform for mobile marketing; this platform aggregates data from Vserv's data management platform, augmented by combining data from multiple sources such as telcos and offline partners. Vserv Smart Data builds user personas and triggers intent signals in real-time to help drive results for marketers and app publishers. Vserv has partnerships with telcos for accelerating its smart data offering to users in India and Southeast Asia. In May 2015, Vserv entered the commerce space; the company provides solutions for DTH operators. With the integration of buy buttons within ads, Telcos can provide segmented offers to their customers.

For DTH operators, this solution enables them to sell segmented channel packs to their customers. AppWrapper allows developers and publishers to enable app development lifecycle services like ad monetization, bug tracking and in-app purchases. In January 2010, Vserv received an initial investment of US$175,000 from Ajay Adiseshann, who runs a mobile payment company called PayMate. In July 2011, Vserv received a first round of funding of US$2.7 million by IDG Ventures India, in July 2011. In September 2012, Vserv raised US$4 million from IDG Ventures India. In March 2015, Vserv raised US$11 million from Maverick Capital Ventures