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Kinetic energy penetrator

A kinetic energy penetrator is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour. Like a bullet, this ammunition does not contain explosives and uses kinetic energy to penetrate the target. Modern KEP munitions are of the armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot type. Early cannons fired kinetic energy ammunition consisting of round balls of worked stone and of round balls of metal. From the beginning, combining high muzzle energy with projectile density and hardness have been the foremost factors in the design of such weapons; the foremost purpose of such weapons has been to defeat armour or other defensive structures, whether stone castle walls, ship timbers, or modern tank armour. Kinetic energy ammunition, in its various forms, has been the choice for those weapons due to the need for high muzzle energy; the development of the modern KE penetrator combines two aspects of artillery design: high muzzle velocity and concentrated force. High muzzle velocity is achieved by using a projectile with a low mass and large base area in the gun barrel.

Firing a small-diameter projectile wrapped in a lightweight outer shell, called a sabot, raises the muzzle velocity. Once the shell clears the barrel, the sabot falls off in pieces; this leaves the projectile traveling at high velocity with a smaller cross-sectional area and reduced aerodynamic drag during the flight to the target. Germany developed modern sabots under the name "treibspiegel" to give extra altitude to its anti-aircraft guns during the Second World War. Before this, primitive wooden sabots had been used for centuries in the form of a wooden plug attached to or breech loaded before cannonballs in the barrel, placed between the propellant charge and the projectile; the name "sabot" is the French word for clog. Concentration of force into a smaller area was attained by replacing the single metal shot with a composite shot using two metals, a heavy core inside a lighter metal outer shell; these designs were known as armour-piercing composite rigid by the British, high-velocity armor-piercing by the US, hartkern by the Germans.

On impact, the core had a much more concentrated effect than plain metal shot of the same weight and size. However, the air resistance and other effects were the same as for the shell of identical size. High-velocity armor-piercing were used by tank destroyers in the US Army and were uncommon as the tungsten core was expensive and prioritized for other applications. Between 1941 and 1943, the British combined the two techniques in the armour-piercing discarding sabot round; the sabot replaced the outer metal shell of the APCR. While in the gun, the shot had a large base area to get maximum acceleration from the propelling charge but once outside, the sabot fell away to reveal a heavy shot with a small cross-sectional area. APDS rounds served as the primary kinetic energy weapon of most tanks during the early-Cold War period, though they suffered the primary drawback of inaccuracy; this was resolved with the introduction of the armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot round during the 1970s, which added stabilising fins to the penetrator increasing accuracy.

The principle of the kinetic energy penetrator is that it uses its kinetic energy, a function of its mass and velocity, to force its way through armor. If the armor is defeated, the heat and spalling generated by the penetrator going through the armor, the pressure wave that would develop, ideally destroys the target; the modern kinetic energy weapon maximizes the stress delivered to the target by: maximizing the mass – that is, using the densest metals practical, one of the reasons depleted uranium or tungsten carbide is used – and muzzle velocity of the projectile, as kinetic energy scales with the mass m and the square of the velocity v of the projectile. Minimizing the width, since if the projectile does not tumble, it will hit the target face first. A penetrator is incapable of penetrating more than its own length, as the sheer stress of impact and perforation ablates it; this has led to the current designs. For monobloc penetrators comprised of one material, a perforation formula devised by Wili Odermatt and W. Lanz is able to calculate the penetration capability of an APFSDS round.

The opposite technique to KE-penetrators uses chemical energy penetrators. There are two types of these shells in use: high-explosive squash head, they have been used against armour in the past and still have a role but are less effective against modern composite armour, such as Chobham as used on main battle tanks today. Main battle tanks use KE-penetrators, while HEAT is found in missile systems that are shoulder-launched or vehicle-mounted, HESH is favored for fortification demolition. Röchling shell Compact Kinetic Energy Missile Dart Earthquake bomb Flechette

Queenscliff railway station

Queenscliff is the terminal railway station of the Queenscliff branch line that branched off the main Warrnambool line near South Geelong in Victoria, Australia. The station was opened on 21 May 1879, the current station building constructed in 1881 and is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register; the station was linked to Swan Island by a 3 foot gauge tramway for transport of goods between the years of 1886 and 1958. The station was closed to all Victorian Railways services on 6 November 1976. After this date, usage of the branch line was granted to the Bellarine Peninsula Railway who re-gauged part of the track to 3'6" and commenced tourist operations from the station in May 1979 to Laker's Siding, to Drysdale not long after; the section of the line between the Warnambool line at South Geelong and Drysdale is no longer serviceable and much of that track bed is now part of the Bellarine Rail Trail

1999 WGC-American Express Championship

The 1999 WGC-American Express Championship was a golf tournament, contested from 4–7 November 1999 at Valderrama Golf Club in Sotogrande, San Roque, Spain. It was the first WGC-American Express Championship tournament, the third and final event in the inaugural year of the World Golf Championships. World number 1, Tiger Woods won the tournament after defeating Miguel Ángel Jiménez in the first extra hole of a playoff. Woods held a four stroke lead going into the 17th hole but hit it into the water on the tough par 5 and ended up scoring a triple bogey that allowed Jiménez to get back in it. 1. Top 50 from the Official World Golf Ranking as of 1 NovemberStuart Appleby, Stewart Cink, Darren Clarke, Glen Day, Steve Elkington, Ernie Els, Bob Estes, Carlos Franco, Fred Funk, Jim Furyk, Sergio García, Brent Geiberger, Retief Goosen, Pádraig Harrington, Dudley Hart, Tim Herron, Scott Hoch, John Huston, Miguel Ángel Jiménez, Bernhard Langer, Paul Lawrie, Tom Lehman, Justin Leonard, Davis Love III, Jeff Maggert, Phil Mickelson, Colin Montgomerie, José María Olazábal, Naomichi Ozaki, Craig Parry, Steve Pate, Chris Perry, Nick Price, Loren Roberts, Vijay Singh, Jeff Sluman, Hal Sutton, David Toms, Bob Tway, Brian Watts, Lee Westwood, Tiger Woods Payne Stewart died in a plane crash on 25 October.

Fred Couples, David Duval, Lee Janzen, Mark O'Meara, Masashi Ozaki, Jesper Parnevik, Steve Stricker did not play.2. Top 30 on the 1999 PGA Tour money list through the Tour ChampionshipNotah Begay III, Dennis Paulson, Ted Tryba, Duffy Waldorf, Mike Weir 3. Top 20 on the 1999 European Tour Order of Merit through the Volvo MastersThomas Bjørn, Ángel Cabrera, Alex Čejka, Mark James, Robert Karlsson, Bob May, Jarrod Moseley, Jarmo Sandelin, Jean van de Velde John Bickerton did not play.4. Top 3 on the 1998–99 PGA Tour of Australasia Order of MeritRod Pampling, Craig Spence 5. Top 3 on the 1998–99 Southern Africa Tour Order of MeritScott Dunlap, David Frost, Richard Kaplan 6. Top 3 on the 1999 Japan Golf Tour Order of Merit through the Philip Morris ChampionshipKazuhiko Hosokawa Shigeki Maruyama did not play. 1Par 4 Full results

Juab Valley

The Juab Valley is a 40-mile long valley located on the eastern edge of Juab County, United States. The valley is in a region of dissected mountain ranges and valleys in the southern Wasatch Front, with the Wasatch Range on the northeast and the San Pitch Mountains on the southeast; the valley's north‑northeast edge borders on the south of Utah Valley and another section of Utah Valley's southwest, the Goshen Valley. The eastern end of the northern border of Juab County is on the valley's north. Juab Valley is linear north-south trending, with the major city‑center of Nephi adjacent north of the valley center; the extreme north of the valley is adjacent to Santaquin, located between the three valleys of southwest Utah Valley, east Goshen Valley, north Juab Valley. The valley's extreme southwest borders a hilly region on the Sevier River's northeast riverbank‑shoreline and Yuba State Park-, a stretch of the Sevier that flows north northwest to west; the Juab Valley north-south center is south of Nephi, in the region of Sharp.

Sage Valley Pass is located on the west in the West Hills that border the east of a small mountain valley. The valley was named after the local Native Americans of the Piute tribe; the valley has an east-west water divide, just north of Levan. The streams south of the divide are part of the Sevier River Basin and the streams north of the divide flow north out of the valley toward Utah Lake and are part of the basin of the Great Salt Lake. While the southern part of the valley is part of the Sevier River basin, no streams flow directly into the Sevier River within the Juab Valley. Instead, they flow southwest out of the valley before emptying into the Sevier River; the Chicken Creek flows west out of the San Pitch Mountains. West of Levan it turns southwest southerly into until it flows into the north end of the Chicken Creek Reservoir; the reservoir is located on the western edge of the valley, just north of the South Hills. The Chicken Creek flows out of the southwest corner of the reservoir and west out of the valley, by way of gap in the southern end of the West Hills.

Fourmile Creek flows northwest out of the San Pitch mountains, about 4.5 miles north of Chicken Creek, but dissipates prior to reaching the Interstate 15 corridor. About 7 miles south of Levan, Little Salt Creek flows west out of San Pitch Mountains and northwest to the Chicken Creek Reservoir; the Chriss Creek flows west out of the San Pitch Mountains, about 8.5 miles south-southwest of Levan, flows southwest across and out of the valley, south of the South Hills, on its way to the Sevier River. The northern part of Juab Valley has Current Creek, which rises on the valley floor and flows north into the Mona Reservoir. Just before reaching the reservoir and just west of the Burriston Ponds, the Currant Creek receives the West Creek. After leaving the west side of the Mona Reservoir, the Current Creek flows northwest out of the valley, through Goshen Canyon and on to Utah Lake. In addition, the Willow, Mona and Mendenhall creeks all flow west out of the Wasatch Range, but dissipate shortly after reaching the valley floor.

The following communities are located within the Juab Valley: The only airport in the valley is the Nephi Municipal Airport, located about 2.5 miles northwest of the downtown area of Nephi. Being a general aviation municipal airport, no commercial passenger service is available; the Union Pacific Railroad operates a set of railroad tracks. The line enters the valley through a gap the West Hills, just southwest of the Chicken Creek Reservoir. Running east of, but parallel to I‑15, they continue north to pass under the freeway at a point just southwest of Nephi. Continuing north, the tracks run west of, but again parallel to, I‑15. After passing by the western edges of both Nephi and Mona, the tracks leave the north end of the valley. There are no train stations or rail yards within the valley, but there are sidings in Juab, about 4 miles north-northeast of Juab, in Nephi. There are two short branch lines, one in Nephi and the other about 7 miles south-southwest of Nephi. There is one Interstate Highway and four state highways in Juab Valley.

Interstate 15 enters the southwestern edge of the valley and runs north along the foothills on western edge of the valley. Just south of Nephi, the Interstate crosses over to the east side of the valley and continues north along the eastern foothills until it leaves the valley on its northern end. Utah State Route 132 enters the valley from the West Hills and runs easterly, through Nephi, before exiting the east side of the valley. Utah State Route 28 enters the southern end of the valley and runs north along the eastern foothills, until it ends at an interchange with I‑15, just north of Nephi. Utah State Route 78 begins at an interchange with I‑15 southwest of the Chicken Creek Reservoir, runs north‑northeasterly and east until it end ends at a junction with SR‑28 in Levan. Utah State

Proposed domed Brooklyn Dodgers stadium

A proposed domed stadium for the Brooklyn Dodgers, designed by Buckminster Fuller, was to replace Ebbets Field for the Brooklyn Dodgers to allow them to stay in New York City. The Dodgers instead moved to Chavez Ravine in Los Angeles. First announced in the early 1950s, the envisioned structure would have seated 52,000 people and been the first domed stadium in the world, opening a decade before Houston's Astrodome; the stadium, in Fort Greene, would have been located at the northeast corner of Flatbush Avenue and Atlantic Avenue, on the site of the Atlantic Terminal. It would have cost $6 million to build and been financed, it was never built. The general area did become a sports venue, because Barclays Center was built across the street to the south from the Atlantic Terminal, in neighboring Pacific Park; the Dodgers were playing at the 32,000-seat Ebbets Field. Feeling that the stadium was too small for their needs, they wanted to move to a newer, more modern facility. Dodgers owner Walter O'Malley wanted to exploit new revenue streams to capitalize on the rabid fans of the Dodgers.

O'Malley first proposed a dome. He talked to Buckminster Fuller to design a domed stadium. New York City Construction Coordinator Robert Moses wanted to utilize open space in Flushing Meadows and build a city-owned stadium there for the Dodgers; this plot of land was occupied by Shea Stadium and Citi Field, the home of the New York Mets. Moses opposed the location of the domed stadium since it would have caused significant changes to the subway system; the source of debate today, the stadium proved to be an important reason for the Dodgers to leave Brooklyn in 1957 and settle in Los Angeles. Some think O'Malley purposely proposed a stadium that had little chance of being built and that he negotiated with the city while publicly touting the merits of the domed stadium. Others suggest; the Atlantic Terminal Mall now stands on the land. Adjacent to the Atlantic Terminal, in the new Pacific Park development, is the Barclays Center, where the Brooklyn Nets began play in 2012–13; the outfield wall would have been the same distance from home plate to center field as down the foul lines.

Walter O'Malley's view of stadium More information on stadium

Singularity (Star Trek: Enterprise)

"Singularity" is the thirty-fifth episode of the television series Star Trek: Enterprise, the ninth of the second season. The crew obsess over trivial matters when they explore a black hole in a trinary star system and succumb to its radiation, it is August 14, 2152, Enterprise decides to explore a unique black hole nestled within a trinary star system. Cruising at impulse, it will take a few days to get there. Captain Archer uses the chance to work on the preface for a book about his father, asks Commander Tucker to look at the Captain's chair on the bridge. Meanwhile, Ensign Sato volunteers to help in the galley, Lieutenant Reed begins works on some new ship wide security protocols, Doctor Phlox examines Ensign Mayweather's headache. Over the next few days the crew starts obsessing about their selected tasks, their behavior is affecting their interactions — Reed and Tucker nearly come to blows, Phlox sedates a frustrated and non-consenting Mayweather to perform an invasive medical test. The situation becomes so acute that Sub-Commander T'Pol, who remains unaffected notices that everyone else is behaving oddly.

Her investigation into the cause reveals that a peculiar form of radiation emitted from the black-hole is the underlying cause. It will take two days to reverse course and leave the radiation field, while she was determining this, everyone else on board has fallen unconscious. There is an alternate path, but it will require piloting Enterprise closer to the dangerous black hole and she cannot navigate the treacherous field and pilot at the same time. T'Pol rouses the groggy captain with a cold shower and hot coffee, enough that he is able to man the helm, his ability to fly is sluggish however, as they near the exit, a large crumbling asteroid blocks Enterprise's path. Reed’s obsession created an automatic "Tactical Alert" that automatically kicks in and brings all defensive systems online, thus allowing T'Pol to blast the asteroids with the charged phase cannon. Once clear, things on-board soon return to normal, with the exception of the captain's improved chair and Reed's newly proven security protocol.

In 2015, Geek.com rated this episode as having one of the top 35 moments in all of Star Trek, the genesis of Star Trek's "red alert". Den of Geek recommended "Affliction" as important for character Reed. Singularity on IMDb "Singularity" at TV.com Singularity at Memory Alpha Singularity at StarTrek.com