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Initiation ritual (mafia)

To become a full member of the Mafia or Cosa Nostra – to become a "man of honor" or a "made man" – an aspiring member must take part in an initiation ritual or initiation ceremony. The ceremony involves significant ritual, blood, an agreement is made to follow the rules of the Mafia as presented to the inductee; the first known account of the ceremony dates back to 1877 in Sicily. The typical sequence of the ceremony according to several distinct descriptions has common features. First, the new recruit is presented by a member; the first known account of the ceremony dates back to 1877 in Monreale in an article in the Giornale di Sicilia in an account about the Stuppagghiari, an early Mafia-type organisation. Other early accounts were during a trial against the Fratellanza in Agrigento and the Fratuzzi in Bagheria. One of the first life accounts of an initiation ceremony was given by Bernardino Verro, a leader of the Fasci Siciliani, a popular social movement of democratic and socialist inspiration, which arose in Sicily in the early 1890s.

To give the movement teeth and protect himself from harm, Verro joined the Fratuzzi in Corleone. In a memoir written many years he describes the initiation ritual he underwent in the spring of 1893: was invited to take part in a secret meeting of the Fratuzzi. I entered a mysterious room. In the center of the table there was a skull drawn on a piece of a knife. To be admitted to the Fratuzzi, had to undergo an initiation consisting of some trials of loyalty and the pricking of the lower lip with the tip of the knife: the blood from the wound soaked the skull. Soon after Verro broke with the Mafia and – according to police reports – became their most bitter enemy, he was killed by the Mafia in 1915. The first known account of the ritual in the United States was provided in 1963 by Joe Valachi, initiated in 1930, in his testimony for the McClellan Committee. Valachi's was a high-profile case, helped convince the country of the existence of the organization in the United States called the Cosa Nostra known as the Mafia.

He provided the FBI with first-hand information about the inside of the Mafia, including one of the first descriptions of the induction ceremony. The Mafia solicits specific people for membership—one cannot just choose to join up. In Tommaso Buscetta's testimony for the Pizza Connection Trial, he was asked what he did to get into the Cosa Nostra, he answered, "I didn't make out any application to become a member—I was called, I was invited." Joe Valachi had an extended courtship before he consented to join. He was swayed by the argument of Mafioso Bobby Doyle, who said that a solo career of crime was much more dangerous. Doyle said to Valachi, "Join us and you will be made. You will earn money and you are not to steal anymore." Things had been getting difficult for Valachi in terms of frequent arrests and other consequences of his lifestyle, he acknowledged the logic of Doyle's argument. The ceremony is a meeting. Several people may be inducted at once; when inducted, "... they are'made' or'baptized' or'get their badges.'"

Other terms used are wiseguys, a friend of ours, good fellow, one of us, straightened out. Valachi gave the most well-known description of the ceremony: I sit down at the table. There is wine. Someone put a knife in front of me; the gun was a.38 and the knife was what we call a dagger. Maranzano motions us up and we say some words in Italian. Joe Bonanno pricks my finger with a pin and squeezes until the blood comes out. What happens, Mr. Maranzano says,'This blood means that we are now one Family. You live by the gun and the knife and you die by the gun and the knife.' Valachi was inducted with three others. There were about 40 members present, so the new initiates could "meet the family."During the Patriarca crime family's induction of 1989, taped by the FBI, several other details were discovered. Before the inductee Tortora took the oath, he was told. "You were baptized when you were a baby, your parents did it. But now, this time, we gonna baptize you." The baptism seems to represent the new stage of life, beginning.

This is one example of the family mentality of the Mafia. It is implied that the Mafia is taking the place of his parents. Further evidence of this mentality can be seen when Tortora is asked if he would kill his brother for the Mafia; this mentality most comes about because members are giving their entire lives to the organization. The oaths themselves talk about the family bond, we can conjecture that the rules of secrecy represent the family loyalty as well as a sense of self-preservation. Despite rivalries, all mafia families are considered related. Between groups in Sicily and New York City, there is a sense of brotherhood. In another variation in Valachi's description in the 1989 induction recording, inductee Flamaro had his trigger finger pricked—which affirms that there is symbolism in the gesture. After this, a compadre/buddy was chosen for him, unlike other ceremonies described, no mention was made of burning a picture of a saint


WRPP is a radio station broadcasting a classic rock format, simulcasting WRUP 98.3 FM Palmer, Michigan. Licensed to Manistique, Michigan, it first began broadcasting in 2004. WRPP's transmitter is located off of County Road 442 just north of the town of Cooks, Michigan in the southwestern corner of Schoolcraft County; the station transmits its signal from an antenna 772 feet high with an effective radiated power of 24,500 watts and can be heard from St. Ignace all the way to Escanaba and Marquette in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. WPIQ first began broadcasting in 2004 under the frequency of 99.9 FM. In November 2007, the frequency was changed to 92.7 FM. In 2010 the station raised its power, enabling it to be heard over much more of the Upper Peninsula and across the lake in northern Lower Michigan. In June 2013, after changing its call sign from WPIQ to WRPP, the station changed format from talk to classic rock, simulcasting WRUP 98.3 FM Palmer, Michigan. Programming is derived from Cumulus Media's The Classic Rock Experience format.

WRUP serves the Marquette area. Query the FCC's FM station database for WRPP Radio-Locator information on WRPP Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for = WPIQ History

Crabtree, Oregon

Crabtree is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Linn County, United States. Although it is unincorporated, it has a post office with a ZIP code of 97335. Crabtree lies off Oregon Route 226 about 10 miles east of Albany; the town received its name. Crabtree Creek and Crabtree Lake in Linn County were named for pioneer John J. Crabtree, a native of Virginia, who arrived in the Oregon Country in 1845, he wintered in the Tualatin Plains bought the William Packwood Donation Land Claim east of the forks of the Santiam River in the spring in 1846. The station and community were named for John Crabtree's cousin Fletcher Crabtree; the Crabtrees of Southwest Virginia, 1964 Media related to Crabtree, Oregon at Wikimedia Commons Images of Crabtree and the surrounding area from Salem Public Library

Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Sound Editing for a Comedy or Drama Series (One-Hour)

The Primetime Emmy Award for Sound Editing for a Comedy or Drama Series is an award handed out annually at the Creative Arts Emmy Awards. Prior to 1976 and between 1979 and 1983, regular series competed with limited series and movies for Outstanding Achievement in Film Sound Editing. In 2018, the category was split to separately recognize one-hour and half-hour series. In the following list, the first titles listed in gold are the winners; the years given are those in which the ceremonies took place: Outstanding Achievement in Film Sound Editing Outstanding Achievement in Film Sound Editing for a Single Episode of a Regular or Limited Series Outstanding Achievement in Film Sound Editing for a Series Outstanding Achievement in Film Sound Editing Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series

China–Netherlands relations

ChinaNetherlands relations began in November 1954. In May 1972, diplomatic mission was increased to ambassadorial level. Sino-Dutch relations began prior to the founding of the People's Republic of China in the 17th and 18th century when Dutch traders of the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie setup trading post in Guangzhou and in the western coast of Taiwan. In the Sino–Dutch conflicts Ming dynasty China defeated the Dutch East India Company in a war over the Penghu islands from 1622-1624; the Ming dynasty forces under Zheng Zhilong defeated the Dutch again at the Battle of Liaoluo Bay in 1633, Ming loyalists under Zheng Chenggong defeated the Dutch and expelled them from Taiwan in the 1662 Siege of Fort Zeelandia. People's Republic of China–Netherlands began in 1954. Due to the Netherlands government assistance with two submarines to Taiwan, the bilateral relationship was downgraded in May 1981 to the level of Chargé d'affaires, it was until 1 February 1984, China and the Netherlands restored full diplomatic relations when the Netherlands agreed not to conduct trade in relation to defence hardware with Taiwan.

Netherlands export to China includes petrochemicals, transport equipment, high technology and fossil fuels. China's export to the Netherlands includes computer and consumer electronics and clothes. In March 2014, Chinese President Xi Jinping made the first state visit of China to the Netherlands in history. Bilateral trade between the two countries have increased over the years; the Netherlands are China’s third largest trade partner in the EU. The trade volume jumped; this is 4.6 billion euro in 2009. China exported $36.7 billions to the Netherlands in 2009. Dutch enterprises have invested US$7.48 billion into 824 projects in China. In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Netherlands, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China’s mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps. Chinese people in the Netherlands China–European Union relations Marc van der Chijs, Dutch co-founder of popular Chinese video-sharing website Tudou Nederlandse Ambassade in Peking, China Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Kingdom of the Netherlands