King James Version

The King James Version known as the King James Bible or the Authorized Version, is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, was commissioned in 1603 and completed as well as published in 1611 under the sponsorship of James VI and I. The books of the King James Version include the 39 books of the Old Testament, an intertestamental section containing 14 books of the Apocrypha, the 27 books of the New Testament. Noted for its "majesty of style", the King James Version has been described as one of the most important books in English culture and a driving force in the shaping of the English-speaking world, it was first printed by John Norton & Robert Barker, both the King's Printer, was the third translation into English approved by the English Church authorities: The first had been the Great Bible, commissioned in the reign of King Henry VIII, the second had been the Bishops' Bible, commissioned in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. In Geneva, Switzerland the first generation of Protestant Reformers had produced the Geneva Bible of 1560 from the original Hebrew and Greek scriptures, influential in the writing of the Authorized King James Version.

In January 1604, King James convened the Hampton Court Conference, where a new English version was conceived in response to the problems of the earlier translations perceived by the Puritans, a faction of the Church of England. James gave the translators instructions intended to ensure that the new version would conform to the ecclesiology of, reflect the episcopal structure of, the Church of England and its belief in an ordained clergy; the translation was done by 6 panels of translators who had the work divided up between them: the Old Testament was entrusted to three panels, the New Testament to two, the Apocrypha to one. In common with most other translations of the period, the New Testament was translated from Greek, the Old Testament from Hebrew and Aramaic, the Apocrypha from Greek and Latin. In the Book of Common Prayer, the text of the Authorized Version replaced the text of the Great Bible for Epistle and Gospel readings, as such was authorized by Act of Parliament. By the first half of the 18th century, the Authorized Version had become unchallenged as the English translation used in Anglican and English Protestant churches, except for the Psalms and some short passages in the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England.

Over the course of the 18th century, the Authorized Version supplanted the Latin Vulgate as the standard version of scripture for English-speaking scholars. With the development of stereotype printing at the beginning of the 19th century, this version of the Bible became the most printed book in history all such printings presenting the standard text of 1769 extensively re-edited by Benjamin Blayney at Oxford, nearly always omitting the books of the Apocrypha. Today the unqualified title "King James Version" indicates this Oxford standard text; the title of the first edition of the translation, in Early Modern English, was "THE HOLY BIBLE, Conteyning the Old Teſtament, AND THE NEW: Newly Tranſlated out of the Originall tongues: & with the former Tranſlations diligently compared and reuiſed, by his Maiesties ſpeciall Comandement". The title page carries the words "Appointed to be read in Churches", F. F. Bruce suggests it was "probably authorised by order in council" but no record of the authorization survives "because the Privy Council registers from 1600 to 1613 were destroyed by fire in January 1618/19".

For many years it was common not to give the translation any specific name. In his Leviathan of 1651, Thomas Hobbes referred to it as the English Translation made in the beginning of the Reign of King James. A 1761 "Brief Account of the various Translations of the Bible into English" refers to the 1611 version as a new and more accurate Translation, despite referring to the Great Bible by its name, despite using the name "Rhemish Testament" for the Douay-Rheims Bible version. A "History of England", whose fifth edition was published in 1775, writes that new translation of the Bible, viz. that now in Use, was begun in 1607, published in 1611. King James's Bible is used as the name for the 1611 translation in Charles Butler's Horae Biblicae. Other works from the early 19th century confirm the widespread use of this name on both sides of the Atlantic: it is found both in a "Historical sketch of the English translations of the Bible" published in Massachusetts in 1815, in an English publication from 1818, which explicitly states that the 1611 version is "generally known by the name of King James's Bible".

This name was found as King James' Bible: for example in a book review from 1811. The phrase "King James's Bible" is used as far back as 1715, although in this case it is not clear whether this is a name or a description; the use of Authorized Version and used as a name, is found as early as 1814. For some time before this, descriptive phrases such as "our present, only publicly authorised version", "our Authorized version", "the authorized version" are found. In Britain, the 1611 translation is known as the "Authorized Version" today; the term is somewhat of a misnomer because the text itself was never formally "authorized", nor were English parish churches ordered to procure copies of it. King James' Version, evidently a descriptive phrase, is found being used as earl

Lucy van Pelt

Lucille van Pelt is a fictional character in the syndicated comic strip Peanuts and drawn by Charles Schulz. She is the older sister of Rerun. Lucy is characterized as a "fussbudget", crabby and opinionated girl who bullies most other characters in the strip Linus and Charlie Brown. Lucy mocks and intimidates others Charlie Brown and her younger brother, Linus, she has a strong unrequited crush on Schroeder. She is the antagonist in a number of stories. Christopher Caldwell has said about the character: "Lucy is no'fussbudget.' She's an American nightmare, a combination of zero brains, infinite appetites and infinite self-esteem, able to run roughshod over all her playmates. At her best, she is the most terrifying character in the history of comics."Though she torments and belittles Charlie Brown, she still has a genuine fondness for him, their friendship is obvious throughout the strip. Lucy operates a psychiatric booth, parodying the lemonade stand operated by many young children in the United States.

Here, she offers advice and psychoanalysis for a nickel to an anxious Charlie Brown. The "advice" is worthless. Sometimes however, Lucy’s advice may range from street-smart popular psychology, hilarious obvious truths, to insightful investigation. One example is when, while treating Snoopy, Lucy asks him how he related, during his childhood, to the other "dogs" in his family. Needless to say, Snoopy was quick to disallow the expression. A sign on the front of the booth declares that "The Doctor is" in or out, depending on which side of the "In/Out" placard is displayed. In A Charlie Brown Christmas, Lucy reverses the placard from displaying its "Out" side to reveal the words "Real In". On Charlie Brown's baseball team Lucy plays right field, is characterized as a bad player, when temporarily kicked off the team, turns to heckling the games. Lucy has a knack for coming up with a nonsensical excuse for every fly ball she misses, such as "The moons of Saturn got in my eyes" or "I think there were toxic substances coming from my glove, they made me dizzy."

Other times, she finds an excuse to have one-sided conversations with Charlie Brown at the pitcher's mound over some trivial thing she noticed, which result in Charlie Brown blowing his top and yelling at her to "Get back in rightfield where you belong!" The third new character in Peanuts after Violet and Schroeder, Lucy made her debut on March 3, 1952. She was a goggle-eyed toddler who continually annoys her parents and the older kids, but aged up over the next two years so that by 1954, she appeared to be about the same age as Charlie Brown. Within a few months of her introduction, Schulz altered Lucy's eyes to have the same appearance as that of the other characters, except for small extra lines around them which were later sported by her two siblings. Lucy has short, black hair and wears a blue dress with blue socks and saddle shoes until the late 1970s when Schulz began showing the strip's female characters in pants and shirts in order to keep their outfits more contemporary. By the late 1980s, she had switched to this look permanently.

Lucy pulls the football away from Charlie Brown right as he is about to kick it. The first occasion on which she did this was November 16, 1952, but unlike subsequent stunts, Lucy first pulled the ball away because she did not want Charlie Brown to get it dirty; the football strips became an annual tradition, Schulz did one nearly every year for the rest of the strip's run, becoming a core part of Peanuts lore. One infamous example of this is the animated special It's Your First Kiss, Charlie Brown, where her actions cost the school football team a win in the Homecoming game, yet Charlie Brown is blamed though he is not at fault. Charlie Brown did in fact kick the football in the September 12, 1956 strip, but only because Schroeder was holding the ball. Lucy was named after Louanne van Pelt, a former neighbor of Charles Schulz in Colorado Springs and, according to David Michaelis of Time Magazine, was modeled after Schulz's first wife, Joyce. Lucy, along with other Peanuts characters made appearances on Family Guy.

Her most recent appearance is in "Brian's Got a Brand New Bag". Peter Griffin appeared in front of Lucy and fed up with her moving the football tricks on Charlie Brown, roundhouse kicked her repeatedly. Lucy complied to his demands and let Charlie kick the football


LimeSurvey is a free and open source on-line statistical survey web app written in PHP based on a MySQL, SQLite, PostgreSQL or MSSQL database, distributed under the GNU General Public License. As a web server-based software it enables users using a web interface to develop and publish on-line surveys, collect responses, create statistics, export the resulting data to other applications. LimeSurvey was registered as a project called PHPSurveyor on February 20, 2003 and was written by the Australian software developer Jason Cleeland. The first public release, version 0.93, was published on March 5, 2003. The project developed a large audience of users after the development of advanced features such as branching, token control and templating. In 2004, during the 2004 U. S. presidential election, PHPSurveyor was used to gather data about voting irregularities. It identified over 13500 incidents in the first 10 hours of voting and was selected as part of their Election Incident Reporting System.

Starting in early 2005, Carsten Schmitz, a German IT project manager, started taking on some of the lead developer responsibilities, with the full project being transferred to him in 2006. On May 17, 2007 the project name was changed from PHPSurveyor to LimeSurvey in order to make software licensing easier by not including PHP in the name. In late 2008, a LimeSurvey hosting service named LimeService was created by LimeSurvey project leader Carsten Schmitz, it hosts LimeSurvey for users for a small fee per response. As of June 4, 2008, LimeSurvey was ranked on with an overall rank of 99 out of over 100,000 projects as of June 4, 2008. It has been downloaded more than 200,000 times and its development status is listed as "5 - Production/Stable, 6 - Mature". In 2009, LimeSurvey participated in the Google Summer of Code, a program encouraging students older than 18 years old to work on projects aimed at helping open-source projects; the student projects helped develop the interface and statistical modules of the upcoming LimeSurvey 2.0.

In 2010, LimeSurvey again participated in Google Summer of Code. Students developed a Database Storage Engine for LimeSurvey 2.0, implemented the much demanded “File upload question” type. In November, LimeSurvey participated in the Google Code-in, a similar program rewarding high school students to contribute to open source projects. Tasks ranged from improving LimeSurvey’s Wikipedia pages to enhancing the user interface. LimeSurvey participated in the 2011 Google Summer of Code; as of 2010, LimeSurvey had 2,944 weekly downloads on SourceForge, an Alexa traffic rank of 32,633. In 2012 the LimeSurvey development team released LimeSurvey 2.0. The code base for LimeSurvey 2.0 was re-written from scratch using a MVC approach and the Yii PHP framework. Besides the structural code changes aimed at better modularity the new version has a new GUI with a new design using AJAX technology. In August 2015 the LimeSurvey GmbH was founded, a limited liability corporation, with the goal to better coordinate further development and provide services around LimeSurvey.

In 2016 Version 2.50 was released by LimeSurvey GmbH which has a revamped administration user interface and responsive survey design templates. In December 2017 version 3.0 was released. Beside changes in the administration interface for better usability the outdated design template system was converted to use the Twig template engine for templates. LimeSurvey is a web application, installed to the user’s server. After installation users can manage LimeSurvey from a web-interface. Users can use rich text in questions and messages, using a rich text editor, images and videos can be integrated into the survey; the layout and design of the survey can be modified under a template system. Templates can be changed in a WYSIWYG HTML editor. Additionally, templates can be exported through the template editor. Once a survey is finalized, the user can activate it, making it available for respondents to view and answer. Questions can be imported and exported through the editor interface. LimeSurvey has no limit on the number of surveys a user can create, nor is there a limit on how many participants can respond.

Aside from technical and practical constraints, there is no limit on the number of questions each survey may have. Questions are added in groups; the questions within each group are organized on the same page. Surveys can include a variety of question types that take many response formats, including multiple choice, text input, drop-down lists, numerical input, slider input, simple yes/no input. Questions can be arranged in a two-dimensional array, with options along one axis based on the questions on the other axis. Questions can depend on the results of other questions. For instance, a respondent might only be asked about transportation for his or her commute if he or she responded affirmatively to a question about having a job. LimeSurvey provides basic statistical and graphical analysis of survey results. Surveys can either be publicly accessible or be controlled through the use of "once-only" tokens, granted only to selected participants. Additionally, participants can be anonymous, or LimeSurvey can track the IP addresses of the participants.

A much more detailed listing of features can be found on the LimeSurvey web page. Some web hosting services offer LimeSurvey hosting, either as a custom installation or through a control panel, such as cPanel with Fantastico, Softaculous, or Virtualmin Professional. LimeSurvey has been ported by third parties to various content management systems, such as PostNuke, XOOPS. A port to Joomla exists, but it is not compatible with version 1.5