Ska is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae. It combined elements of Caribbean mento and calypso with American rhythm and blues. Ska is characterized by a walking bass line accented with rhythms on the off beat, it was developed in Jamaica in the 1960s when Prince Buster, Clement "Coxsone" Dodd, Duke Reid formed sound systems to play American rhythm and blues and began recording their own songs. In the early 1960s, ska was popular with British mods, it became popular with many skinheads. Music historians divide the history of ska into three periods: the original Jamaican scene of the 1960s. There are multiple theories about the origins of the word ska. Ernest Ranglin claimed that the term was coined by musicians to refer to the "skat! skat! skat!" Scratching guitar strum. Another explanation is that at a recording session in 1959 produced by Coxsone Dodd, double bassist Cluett Johnson instructed guitarist Ranglin to "play like ska, ska", although Ranglin has denied this, stating "Clue couldn't tell me what to play!"
A further theory is that it derives from Johnson's word skavoovie, with which he was known to greet his friends. Jackie Mittoo insisted that the musicians called the rhythm Staya Staya, that it was Byron Lee who introduced the term "ska". Derrick Morgan said: "Guitar and piano making a ska sound, like'ska, ska," After World War II, Jamaicans purchased radios in increasing numbers and were able to hear rhythm and blues music from Southern United States cities such as New Orleans by artists such as Fats Domino and Louis Jordan. Domino's rhythm, accentuating the offbeat as in the song "Be My Guest", was a particular influence; the stationing of American military forces during and after the war meant that Jamaicans could listen to military broadcasts of American music, there was a constant influx of records from the United States. To meet the demand for that music, entrepreneurs such as Prince Buster, Coxsone Dodd, Duke Reid formed sound systems; as the supply of unheard tunes in the jump blues and more traditional R&B genres began to dry up in the late 1950s, Jamaican producers began recording their own version of the genres with local artists.
These recordings were made to be played on "soft wax", but as demand for them grew some time in the second half of 1959 producers such as Coxsone Dodd and Duke Reid began to issue these recording on 45rpm 7-inch discs. At this point the style was a direct copy of the American "shuffle blues" style, but within two or three years it had morphed into the more familiar ska style with the off-beat guitar chop that could be heard in some of the more uptempo late-1950s American rhythm and blues recordings such as Fats Domino's "Be My Guest"; this "classic" ska style was of bars made up of four triplets but was characterized by a guitar chop on the off beat—known as an upstroke or'skank'—with horns taking the lead and following the off-beat skank and piano emphasizing the bass line and, playing the skank. Drums kept the bass drum was accented on the third beat of each four-triplet phrase; the snare would accent the third beat of each 4-triplet phrase. The upstroke sound can be found in other Caribbean forms of music, such as mento and calypso.
Ernest Ranglin asserted that the difference between R&B and ska beats is that the former goes "chink-ka" and the latter goes "ka-chink". One theory about the origin of ska is that Abby Greene created it during the inaugural recording session for his new record label Wild Bells; the session was financed by Duke Reid, supposed to get half of the songs to release. The guitar began giving rise to the new sound; the drums were taken from traditional Jamaican marching styles. To create the ska beat, Prince Buster flipped the R&B shuffle beat, stressing the offbeats with the help of the guitar. Prince Buster has explicitly cited American rhythm and blues as the origin of ska: Willis Jackson's song "Later for the Gator", Duke Reid's number-one spin "Hey Hey Mr. Berry", to this day by an unidentified artist and with this given title, the joke amongst surviving Jamaican soundmen who were there at the time being that "This is the one Duke took to the grave with him"; the first ska recordings were created at facilities such as Federal Records, Studio One and WIRL Records in Kingston, Jamaica with producers such as Dodd, Prince Buster, Edward Seaga.
The ska sound coincided with the celebratory feelings surrounding Jamaica's independence from the UK in 1962. Until Jamaica ratified the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the country did not honor international music copyright protection; this created a large number of cover reinterpretations. One such cover was Millie Small's version of the R&B/shuffle tune, "My
A mixing engineer is a person responsible for combining the different sonic elements of a piece of recorded music into a final version of a song. He or she mixes the elements of a recorded piece together to achieve a good balance of volume, while at the same time deciding other properties such as pan positioning, so on; the best mixing professionals have many years of experience and training with audio equipment, which has enabled them to master their craft. A mixing engineer occupies a space between artist and scientist, using their skill at assessing the harmonic structure of sound to enable them to fashion appealing timbres, their work is found in all modern music, but many artists now mix and produce their own music with a digital audio workstation and a computer. A more technical definition: an audio engineer in sound recording, audio editing and sound systems who balances the relative volume and frequency content of a number of sound sources; these sound sources are the different musical instruments in a band or vocalists, the sections of an orchestra and so on.
Mixing Engineers are sometimes formally trained in a music background, some have a degree in audio engineering or recording engineering*. A degree in music can help and broaden the engineer's credentials, though it is known that most experience comes from operating complex audio equipment; the mixing ear comes from years of observing all kinds of sounds and variations of effects and filters, through the process of trial and error. Mixing engineers rely on their intuition in the process of mixing, but all mixers follow certain fundamental procedures: Analyzing the client artist's "groove", or "style" Finding the most important elements to emphasize Figuring out how to emphasize the tracks meaning de-emphasizing other tracks Fine-tuning the final mix A mixer is given tracks to work with, they show up well after the artists or session musicians are done recording, just have this audio to work with. Their job consists of balancing the relative impact of each audio stream, by putting them through effects processors, having the right amount of each.
Equalization-The main tool of a mixing engineer is the mixing console, which changes the relationship of each audio frequency, to another, to boost or cut specific frequency ranges within the track, giving each space in the limited frequency range available from 20-20,000 Hz between ~400–8000 Hz, the most sensitive range of human hearing. Removing conflicting frequencies from 250–800 Hz is crucial, where interference and construction between voices can create annoying, displeasing effects, called "mud". Cuts in this area can help with artificial sounding brightness. By boosting frequencies below this range, one can give voices depth to them. Above this, boost can gives voices presence, but only if they do not overlap with another voice's more prominent higher harmonics. Placed high Q value filters will allow surgical alteration, necessary in the human vocal range, a 1 dB boost here is equivalent in loudness to a 5-6 dB boost at the relative extremes. Key in removing mud is making the proper boosts higher up, to replace brightness lost when cutting shared frequencies.
A spectrum analyzer can help in viewing harmonic structure of voices. Every mixer approaches the challenge of equalization differently, as everyone has a different psychoacoustic perception of sound, different levels of physical hearing loss. Dynamic range compression-Compression reduces the range between a signal's lowest low and highest high; the threshold controls. By adjusting attack and release settings, having the right ratio, one can give a track more presence, but too much compression will destroy an otherwise pleasing track. By setting the trigger to another audio source, called side-chaining, higher levels of compression, hard clipping to a small degree; this is used in progressive music, however the effect is artificial only good for one kind of pumping, syncopated sound. Panning- settings spread the sound field out, which can create space for voices otherwise lacking. Stereo playback will result in different frequency response the signal, depending on the reverberation characteristics of the room.
With modern technology, now it is done artificially. This allows a creation of a novel resonant body. Decay time and perceived size can be controlled which, combined with control of the diffusion network, pre-filtering, choruses, allows any resonator to be approximated. Panning changes the relative gain of each stereo track, which can create sonic space in a mix. Note that mixing only can happen after every track is set to the correct master track volume; some equipment mixing engineers might use: Analog-to-digital converters Digital audio workstations Digital-to-analog converters Dynamic Range Compression Microphones Mixing consoles Music sequencers Signal processors Tape machines Audio engineering Audio mixing Recording engineer Recording studio Sound recording
Multitrack recording —also known as multitracking, double tracking, or tracking—is a method of sound recording developed in 1955 that allows for the separate recording of multiple sound sources or of sound sources recorded at different times to create a cohesive whole. Multitracking became possible in the mid-1950s when the idea of recording different audio channels to separate discrete "tracks" on the same reel-to-reel tape was developed. A "track" was a different channel recorded to its own discrete area on the tape whereby their relative sequence of recorded events would be preserved, playback would be simultaneous or synchronized. Prior to the development of multitracking, the sound recording process required all of the singers, band instrumentalists, and/or orchestra accompanists to perform at the same time in the same space. Multitrack recording was a significant technical improvement as it allowed studio engineers to record all of the instruments and vocals for a piece of music separately.
Multitracking allowed the engineer to adjust the levels and tone of each individual track, if necessary, redo certain tracks or overdub parts of the track to correct errors or get a better "take." As well, different electronic effects such as reverb could be applied to specific tracks, such as the lead vocals, while not being applied to other tracks where this effect would not be desirable. Multitrack recording was much more than a technical innovation. In the 1980s and 1990s, computers provided means by which both sound recording and reproduction could be digitized, revolutionizing audio recording and distribution. In the 2000s, multitracking hardware and software for computers was of sufficient quality to be used for high-end audio recordings by both professional sound engineers and by bands recording without studios using available programs, which can be used on a high-end laptop computer. Though magnetic tape has not been replaced as a recording medium, the advantages of non-linear editing and recording have resulted in digital systems superseding tape.
In the 2010s, with digital multitracking being the dominant technology, the original word "track" is still used by audio engineers. Multi-tracking can be achieved with analogue recording, tape-based equipment, digital equipment that relies on tape storage of recorded digital data and hard disk-based systems employing a computer and audio recording software. Multi-track recording devices vary in their specifications, such as the number of simultaneous tracks available for recording at any one time. With the introduction of SMPTE timecode in the early 1970s, engineers began to use computers to synchronize separate audio and video playback, or multiple audio tape machines. In this system, one track of each machine carried the timecode signal, while the remaining tracks were available for sound recording; some large studios were able to link multiple 24-track machines together. An extreme example of this occurred in 1982, when the rock group Toto recorded parts of Toto IV on three synchronized 24-track machines.
This setup theoretically provided for up to 69 audio tracks, far more than necessary for most recording projects. For computer-based systems, the trend in the 2000s is towards unlimited numbers of record/playback tracks, although issues such as RAM memory and CPU available do limit this from machine to machine. Moreover, on computer-based systems, the number of available recording tracks is limited by the number of sound card discrete analog or digital inputs; when recording, audio engineers can select which track on the device will be used for each instrument, voice, or other input and can blend one track with two instruments to vary the music and sound options available. At any given point on the tape, any of the tracks on the recording device can be recording or playing back using sel-sync or Selective Synchronous recording; this allows an artist to be able to record onto track 2 and listen to track 1, 3 and 7, allowing them to sing or to play an accompaniment to the performance recorded on these tracks.
They might record an alternate version on track 4 while listening to the other tracks. All the tracks can be played back in perfect synchrony, as if they had been played and recorded together; this can be repeated until all of the available tracks have been in some cases, reused. During mix down a separate set of playback heads with higher fidelity are used. Before all tracks are filled, any number of existing tracks can be "bounced" into one or two tracks, the original tracks erased, making more room for more tracks to be reused for fresh recording. In 1963, The Beatles were using twin track for Please Please Me; the Beatles' producer George Martin used this technique extensively to achieve multiple track results, while still being limited to using only multiple four-track machines, until an eight-track machine became available during the recording of the Beatles' White Album. The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds made innovative use of multitracking with 8-tra
Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica, located on the southeastern coast of the island. It faces a natural harbour protected by the Palisadoes, a long sand spit which connects the town of Port Royal and the Norman Manley International Airport to the rest of the island. In the Americas, Kingston is the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the United States; the local government bodies of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrew were amalgamated by the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation Act of 1923, to form the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation. Greater Kingston, or the "Corporate Area" refers to those areas under the KSAC. Kingston Parish had a population of 96,052, St. Andrew Parish had a population of 555,828 in 2001. Kingston is only bordered by Saint Andrew to the east and north; the geographical border for the parish of Kingston encompasses the following communities, Tivoli Gardens, Denham Town, Rae Town, Kingston Gardens, National Heroes Park, Bournemouth Gardens, Norman Gardens, Rennock Lodge and Port Royal, along with portions of Rollington Town, Franklyn Town and Allman Town.
The city proper is bounded by Six Miles to the west, Stony Hill to the north, Papine to the northeast and Harbour View to the east, communities in urban and suburban Saint Andrew. Communities in rural St. Andrew such as Gordon Town, Mavis Bank, Lawrence Tavern, Mt. Airy and Bull Bay would not be described as being in Kingston city. Two parts make up the central area of Kingston: the historic Downtown, New Kingston. Both are served by Norman Manley International Airport and by the smaller and domestic Tinson Pen Aerodrome. Kingston was founded in July 1692 as a place for survivors of the 1692 earthquake that destroyed Port Royal. Before the earthquake, Kingston's functions were purely agricultural; the earthquake survivors set up a camp on the sea front. Two thousand people died due to mosquito-borne diseases; the people lived in a tented camp on Colonel Barry's Hog Crawle. The town did not begin to grow until after the further destruction of Port Royal by fire in 1703. Surveyor John Goffe drew up a plan for the town based on a grid bounded by North, East and Harbour Streets.
The new grid system of the town was designed to facilitate commerce the system of main thoroughfares 66 feet across which allowed transportation between the port and plantations farther inland. By 1716 it had become the centre of trade for Jamaica; the government sold land to people with the regulation that they purchase no more than the amount of the land that they owned in Port Royal, only land on the sea front. Wealthy merchants began to move their residences from above their businesses to the farm lands north on the plains of Liguanea; the first free school, Wolmers's, was founded in 1729 and there was a theatre, first on Harbour Street and moved in 1774 to North Parade. Both are still in existence. In 1755 the governor, Sir Charles Knowles, had decided to transfer the government offices from Spanish Town to Kingston, it was thought by some to be an unsuitable location for the Assembly in proximity to the moral distractions of Kingston, the next governor rescinded the Act. However, by 1780 the population of Kingston was 11,000, the merchants began lobbying for the administrative capital to be transferred from Spanish Town, by eclipsed by the commercial activity in Kingston.
By the end of the 18th century, the city contained more than 3,000 brick buildings. The harbour fostered trade, played part in several naval wars of the 18th century. Kingston took over the functions of Spanish Town; these functions included agriculture, processing and a main transport hub to and from Kingston and other sections of the island. The government passed an act to transfer the government offices to Kingston from Spanish Town, which occurred in 1872, it kept this status when the island was granted independence in 1962. In 1907, 800 people died in another earthquake known as the 1907 Kingston earthquake, destroying nearly all the historical buildings south of Parade in the city; that was. These three-story-high buildings were built with reinforced concrete. Construction on King Street in the city was the first area to breach this building code. During the 1930s, island-wide riots led to the development of trade unions and political parties to represent workers; the city became home to the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies founded in 1948, with 24 medical students.
Not until the 1960s did major change occur in the development of Kingston's city centre. The international attention of reggae music at that time coincided with the expansion and development of 95 acres of the Kingston city centre waterfront area; these developments led to an influx of shops and offices, the development of a new financial centre: New Kingston, which replaced the Knutsford Racetrack. Multi-story buildings and boulevards were placed within that section. In 1966 Kingston was the host city to the Commonwealth Games; the western section of the city was not the focus of development, that area proved to be politically tense. The 1970s saw deteriorating economic conditions that led to recurrent violence and a decline in tourism which affected the island. In the 1980 general elections, the democratic socialist People's National Party government was voted out, subsequent governments have been more market-oriented. Within a global urban era, the 1990s saw that Kingston has made efforts to modernise and devel
Shanachie Records is a New Jersey-based record label founded in 1975 by Richard Nevins and Dan Collins. The label is named for an Irish storyteller, it was distributed by Entertainment One Distribution. Starting as a label that specialized in fiddle music, they began releasing work by Celtic groups such as Planxty and Clannad. Other genres on the label include Latin American, African music, soul and ska. In 1989 they acquired Yazoo Records from Nick Perls; this allowed them to release vintage blues recordings. Today, they have another Shanachie Jazz. In 1992 Shanachie began releasing CDs by folk singer-songwriters, including Richard Shindell, Dolores Keane, John Stewart, Rod MacDonald, Richard Meyer, Karan Casey, Sue Foley, Four Bitchin' Babes, Kevin Gordon, others. Shanachie Records was a reggae label and releasing music from artists such as Rita Marley and the Epitones, Yabby You, The Mighty Diamonds, Lucky Dube, Max Romeo, John Brown's Body throughout the years. Shanachie was the U. S. liaison for the UK-based reggae label, Greensleeves Records, until about 1987.
Shanachie issued material for Augustus Pablo under the Message imprint of his company, Rockers International. The Grammy Award-winning Soweto Gospel Choir releases albums on Shanachie Records, as has Grammy nominated Liquid Soul; the Latin acts on the label include Los Jovenes del Barrio. List of record labels Official website
Music Center Incorporated
Music Center Incorporated is the former name of a United States manufacturer of professional audio equipment that operated from 1955 until 1982 when it was acquired by the Sony Corporation. The company is credited with a number of world firsts: commercialising the 24-track multi-track recorder, the tape Auto Locator and in-line mixing console. During the late 1950s Grover'Jeep' Harned, the founder of MCI, owned and operated a small record and stereo servicing outlet in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, he designed and built custom audio equipment such as mixing consoles, audio preamplifiers and general record electronics at the request of customers like Mack Emerman, the owner of the nearby Criteria Recording Studios. Harned's growing list of record industry contacts led in time to regular referrals, to long term service contracts. In addition he installed commercial sound systems for the Parker Playhouse, Pirate's Worlds and Fort Lauderdale International Airport amongst others. In 1965 Harned established the company Music Center Incorporated.
Many years Harned recounted the change in direction during an interview "I got into the tape recorder business in an interesting way. I had built a console for owner of King Records in Cincinnati. Sid, Mack Emmerman, Bob Richardson had a bunch of Ampex 350 tape recorders with transports that still ran well, but electronics that were on the verge of quitting completely. So in 1968 Sid and Mack got together and hired me to design and build some new "solid state" electronics for the old transports. My electronics proved to be quieter, had lower distortion, they didn't have the'Bias Rocks' common to so many earlier designs. I filled this order for 100 units and I thought that would be the end of it, but when the word got around the industry that there was this guy in Florida building these'solid state' electronics, a lot more people became interested in them" In 1968 Tom Hidley manager of TTG Recording Studios in Hollywood, asked Harned to supply a 24-track recorder. Hidley had modified an Ampex 300 tape machine to accommodate 2-inch open reel magnetic tape and required multitrack audio.
Harned delivered a custom built 24-track machine — a modified Ampex 300 —, commissioned that year. This unit became the prototype for the JH-5 tape recorder; the "JH" designation is attributed to Jeeps first wife: Joyce Harned. Mrs. Harned files assigning her own numbering system. In the late 1960s MCI established a network of dealerships across the United States to sell and service a line of preamps, recording electronics and tape recorders. Studio Supply, one of these dealerships was operated by audio engineer Dave Harrison, he asked Harned if he could design a device to enable an audio engineer to switch and between monitoring audio input and track mixdown modes. In 1972 MCI introduced the MCI JH-400 series console, the world's first commercial in-line mixing console. Unlike split mixing console models, the in-line JH-400 series consoles offered the user a choice of options and incorporated Harris 911 IC op-amps, at a lower cost than its competitors. With the release in 1975 of its JH-500 series mixing consoles, MCI pioneered Voltage Controlled Automation.
Console automation became a necessity at a time when the number of mixing channels grew and there were more faders than a single operator could manage. With VCA's, the engineer could adjust multiple channels and doing so with less'scratchy' audio by moving a fader. VCA technology cost a fraction of the price of Moving Fader Automation, the competing standard of the time; the MCI tape AutoLocator, another innovation, was similar in design to a remote control though it had advanced functions such as storing a number of presets to recall a particular position of a given recording track. This proved to be a great time saver during the overdubbing process; the MCI JH-45 Autolock enabled a person with average technical experience to configure two JH-24 multi-track recorders for synchronized recording. Other companies incorporated these features into their products but in many cases, MCI innovated first. MCI's success could be contributable to its aggressive pricing strategy as MCI's marketing Vice President Lutz Meyer attested.
"Our competitors took apart our AutoLocator product but couldn't see how we could price it. It had 50 Integrated Circuit chips, it was like a small computer, they couldn't make the same equipment without selling it for twice our price. "It took 3M years to realise it was our loss-leader. Every time we shipped an AutoLocator out, $700 or $800 was going out the door but recording engineers wanted it, and it worked, they are ordering other MCI products". MCI's reputation was built on technical innovation and its budget priced systems that were popular with independent music studios. During the 1970s the MCI brand was tied to the fortunes of the Criteria Studios. Rock musician Eric Clapton recorded his 1974 album'461 Ocean Boulevard' at Criteria, which had served as the testbed for MCI's new products since the early 1960s; the Eagles recorded their best selling singles at Criteria, the Bee Gees chose Criteria to record'Saturday Night Fever, the biggest selling album of the 70s. MCI branded equipment was renowned for its high build quality and features that gave it a competitive edge over more expensive brands such as 3M, Neve and Studer.
These features included the Autolocator, constant tension reel servos and azimuth adjustable heads, long wearing ceramic capstans and one button punch-in and punch-out. MCI marketing appeal coincided with the emergence in the mid 70s of'independent music studio' operat
In audio signal processing and acoustics, echo is a reflection of sound that arrives at the listener with a delay after the direct sounds. The delay is directly proportional to the distance of the reflecting surface from the source and the listener. Typical examples are the echo produced by the bottom of a well, by a buildings, or by the wall of an enclosed room and an empty room. A true echo is a single reflection of the sound source; the word echo derives from the Greek ἠχώ, itself from ἦχος, "sound". Echo in the folk story of Greek is a mountain nymph whose ability to speak was cursed, only able to repeat the last words anyone spoke to her; some animals use echo for location navigation, such as cetaceans and bats. Acoustic waves are reflected by other hard surfaces, such as mountains and privacy fences; the reason of reflection may be explained as a discontinuity in the propagation medium. This can be heard when the reflection returns with sufficient magnitude and delay to be perceived distinctly.
When sound, or the echo itself, is reflected multiple times from multiple surfaces, the echo is characterized as a reverberation. The human ear cannot distinguish echo from the original direct sound if the delay is less than 1/10 of a second; the velocity of sound in dry air is 343 m/s at a temperature of 25 °C. Therefore, the reflecting object must be more than 15.7m from the sound source for echo to be perceived by a person located at the source. When a sound produces an echo in two seconds, the reflecting object is 343m away. In nature, canyon walls or rock cliffs facing water are the most common natural settings for hearing echoes; the strength of echo is measured in dB sound pressure level relative to the directly transmitted wave. Echoes may be undesirable. In music performance and recording, electric echo effects have been used since the 1950s; the Echoplex is a tape delay effect, first made in 1959 that recreates the sound of an acoustic echo. Designed by Mike Battle, the Echoplex set a standard for the effect in the 1960s and was used by most of the notable guitar players of the era.
While Echoplexes were used by guitar players, many recording studios used the Echoplex. Beginning in the 1970s, Market built the solid-state Echoplex for Maestro. In the 2000s, most echo effects units use electronic or digital circuitry to recreate the echo effect. Inchindown oil tanks, current record holder for longest echo. Hamilton Mausoleum, South Lanarkshire, Scotland: Its high stone means it takes 15 seconds for the sound of a slammed door to delay. Gol Gumbaz of Bijapur, India: Any whisper, clap or sound gets echoed repeatedly; the Golkonda Fort of Hyderabad, India The Echo Wall at the Temple of Heaven, China The Whispering Gallery of St Paul's Cathedral, England, UK Echo Point, the Three Sisters, Australia The Temple of Kukulcan El Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico The Baptistry of Pisa, Italy The echo near Milan visited by Mark Twain in The Innocents Abroad The echo in Chinon, France, used in a traditional local rhyme The gazebo of Napier Museum in Trivandrum, India Light echo More information on Chinon echo.
Listen to Duck echoes and an animated demonstration of how an echo is formed