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King William's War

King William's War was the North American theater of the Nine Years' War known as the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg. It was the first of six colonial wars fought between New France and New England along with their respective Native allies before France ceded its remaining mainland territories in North America east of the Mississippi River in 1763. For King William's War, neither England nor France thought of weakening their position in Europe to support the war effort in North America. New France and the Wabanaki Confederacy were able to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. According to the terms of the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick that ended the Nine Years' War, the boundaries and outposts of New France, New England, New York remained unchanged; the war was caused by the fact that the treaties and agreements that were reached at the end of King Philip's War were not adhered to. In addition, the English were alarmed.

The Indians preyed on the English and their fears, by making it look as though they were with the French. The French were played as well; these occurrences, in addition to the fact that the English perceived the Indians as their subjects, despite the Indians' unwillingness to submit led to two conflicts, one of, King William's War. The English settlers were more than 154,000 at the beginning of the war, outnumbering the French 12 to 1. However, they were divided in multiple colonies along the Atlantic coast, which were unable to cooperate efficiently, they were engulfed in the Glorious Revolution, creating tension among the colonists. In addition, the English lacked military leadership and had a difficult relationship with their Iroquois allies. New France was divided into three entities: Acadia on the Atlantic coast; the French population amounted to 14,000 in 1689. Although the French were vastly outnumbered, they were more politically unified and contained a disproportionate number of adult males with military backgrounds.

Realizing their numerical inferiority, they developed good relationships with the indigenous peoples in order to multiply their forces and made effective use of hit-and-run tactics. England's Catholic King James II was deposed at the end of 1688 in the Glorious Revolution, after which Protestants William III and Mary II took the throne. William joined the League of Augsburg in its war against France. In North America, there was significant tension between New France and the northern English colonies, which had in 1686 been united in the Dominion of New England. New England and the Iroquois Confederacy fought the Wabanaki Confederacy; the Iroquois dominated the economically important Great Lakes fur trade and had been in conflict with New France since 1680. At the urging of New England, the Iroquois interrupted the trade between New France and the western tribes. In retaliation, New France raided Seneca lands of western New York. In turn, New England supported the Iroquois in attacking New France, which they did by raiding Lachine.

There were similar tensions on the border between New England and Acadia, which New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. English settlers from Massachusetts had expanded their settlements into Acadia. To secure New France's claim to present-day Maine, New France established Catholic missions among the three largest native villages in the region: one on the Kennebec River. For their part, in response to King Philip's War, the five Indian tribes in the region of Acadia created the Wabanaki Confederacy to form a political and military alliance with New France to stop the New England expansion; the New England and Newfoundland Theatre of the war is known as Castin's War and Father Jean Baudoin's War. In April 1688, Governor Andros plundered Castine's village on Penobscot Bay. In August, the English raided the French village of Chedabouctou. In response and the Wabanaki Confederacy engaged in the Northeast Coast Campaign of 1688 along the New England/Acadia border, they began August 1688, at New Dartmouth, killing a few settlers.

A few days they killed two people at Yarmouth in the first battle. At Kennebunk, in the fall of 1688, members of the Confederacy killed two families; the following spring, in June 1689, several hundred Abenaki and Pennacook Indians under the command of Kancamagus and Mesandowit raided Dover, New Hampshire, killing more than 20 and taking 29 captives, who were sold into captivity in New France. In June, they killed four men at Saco. In response to these raids, a company of 24 men was raised to search for the bodies and pursue the natives, they were forced to return. In August 1689, Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin and Father Louis-Pierre Thury led an Abenaki war party that captured and destroyed the fort at Pemaquid; the fall of Pemaquid was a significant setback to the English. It pushed the frontier back to Maine. New England retali


Kleinlützel is a municipality in the district of Thierstein in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. It is an exclave of the Canton of Solothurn, enclaved in the Canton of Alsace. Kleinlützel is first mentioned in 1194 as Luozela. In 1207 it was mentioned in 1288 as Kleinen Lützel. Kleinlützel has an area, as of 2009, of 16.29 square kilometers. Of this area, 5.86 km2 or 36.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 9.66 km2 or 59.3% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.74 km2 or 4.5% is settled, 0.04 km2 or 0.2% is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km2 or 0.1% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 3.0% and transportation infrastructure made up 1.4%. Out of the forested land, 56.7% of the total land area is forested and 2.6% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 10.2% is used for growing crops and 24.7% is pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the municipality is located in the Thierstein district. It is an exclave of the Canton of Solothurn along the Lützeltalstrasse.

It consists of the village of Kleinlützel and the hamlets of Ober- and Nieder-Huggerwald and Ring as well as the former nun's convent of Klösterli. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or a Fess wavy Azure and in chief a Mullet of Five Gules. Kleinlützel has a population of 1,261; as of 2008, 6.7% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -0.2%. It has changed at a rate of -1 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most French being third. There are 2 people; as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 51.2 % female. The population was made up of 55 non-Swiss men. There were 46 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 675 or about 54.3% were born in Kleinlützel and lived there in 2000. There were 107 or 8.6% who were born in the same canton, while 352 or 28.3% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 102 or 8.2% were born outside of Switzerland.

In 2008 there were 12 live births to Swiss citizens and 1 birth to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there were 14 deaths of Swiss citizens and 1 non-Swiss citizen death. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 2 while the foreign population remained the same. There were 2 Swiss women who immigrated back to Switzerland. At the same time, there were 2 non-Swiss men and 3 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was a decrease of 3 and the non-Swiss population decreased by 2 people. This represents a population growth rate of -0.4%. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Kleinlützel is. Of the adult population, 55 people or 4.4 % of the population are between 24 years old. 339 people or 27.3% are between 25 and 44, 332 people or 26.7% are between 45 and 64. The senior population distribution is 178 people or 14.3% of the population are between 65 and 79 years old and there are 47 people or 3.8% who are over 80.

As of 2000, there were 465 people who never married in the municipality. There were 44 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 516 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.4 persons per household. There were 139 households that consist of only one person and 37 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 520 households that answered this question, 26.7% were households made up of just one person and there were 4 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 175 married couples without children, 170 married couples with children There were 19 single parents with a child or children. There were 9 households that were made up of unrelated people and 4 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 300 single family homes out of a total of 435 inhabited buildings. There were 58 multi-family buildings, along with 62 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 15 other use buildings that had some housing.

Of the single family homes 56 were built before 1919, while 47 were built between 1990 and 2000. In 2000 there were 567 apartments in the municipality; the most common apartment size was 5 rooms of which there were 145. There were 10 single room apartments and 234 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 504 apartments were permanently occupied, while 30 apartments were seasonally occupied and 33 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 2.4 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 1.33%. The historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 25.35% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the FDP, the CVP and the SP. In the federal election, a total of 450 votes were cast

List of Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress operators

This list of Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress operators is a list of users who flew and operated the Boeing B-17. The B-17 was among the first mass-produced four-engined heavy bombers. A total of more than 12,000 were made, making its use as a heavy bomber second only to the B-24 Liberator. Though used at some point in all theatres of World War II, it was most common in the European Theatre, where its lack of range and smaller bombload relative to other heavy bombers was not so detrimental as it was in the Pacific, where most American military airbases were thousands of miles apart. Brazil acquired 13 B-17s in 1951, according to the Rio Pact of 1947, they were used by the 1º and 2º Esquadrões of 6º Grupo de Aviação, based at Recife, for search and rescue and photo-reconnaissance until 1968. Brazilian Air Force6º Grupo de Aviação 1º Esquadrão 2º Esquadrão Canada received six Flying Fortresses which flew 240 trans-Atlantic mail flights from Canada to Canadian troops serving in Europe from 6 December 1943 to 27 December 1946.

All six belonged to no. 168 Heavy Transport Squadron which operated out of RCAF Station Rockcliffe, Ontario. Royal Canadian Air ForceNo. 168 Heavy Transport Squadron Colombian Air Force Danish airline DDL bought two B-17s from Sweden in 1945. One of these planes was transferred to the Danish Army Air Corps in 1948. In 1949, it was transferred in 1952 to the Royal Danish Air Force. Dominican Republic Air Force acquired two B-17Gs in 1947, remaining in use until 1954. French Air Force used one B-17F as an executive transport for Free-French General Marie Pierre Kœnig. During World War II, after crash-landing or being forced down 40 B-17s were repaired and put back into the air by the Luftwaffe; these captured aircraft were codenamed "Dornier Do 200", given German markings and used for clandestine spy and reconnaissance missions by the Luftwaffe - most used by the Luftwaffe unit known as KG 200, hence a possibility as a source for the "Do 200" codename. LuftwaffeKampfgeschwader 200 When Israel achieved statehood in 1948, the Israeli Air Force had to be assembled to defend the new nation from the war it found itself immediately embroiled in.

Among the first aircraft acquired by the Israeli Air Force were three surplus American B-17s, smuggled via South America and Czechoslovakia to avoid an arms trading ban imposed by the United States. A fourth plane was confiscated by American officials. On their delivery flight from Europe, in retaliation for Egyptian bombing raids on Tel Aviv, the aircraft were ordered to bomb King Farouk's Royal Palace in Cairo before continuing to Israel, they caused little damage. The B-17s were unsuitable for the needs of the Israeli Air Force, the nature of the conflict in which long-range bombing raids on large area targets were unimportant—although the psychological impact of the raids was not lost on the enemy; the aircraft were used in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, flown by 69 Squadron. Israeli Air Force69 Squadron IAF At least three early versions B-17s were captured by the Japanese in the Philippines and Netherlands East Indies. Planes were tested by the IJAAF Koku Gijutsu Kenkyujo at Tachikawa; the B-17s were used during the occupation of Nicaragua against the Sandinista National Liberation Front Força Aérea Portuguesa operated five SB-17Gs as search-and-rescue planes from 1947 to 1960.

Late in World War II, RAF and USAAF bombers, damaged in raids over the Reich would put down in Soviet-controlled territory rather than try to make it back to Western bases, in April 1945 the Soviet Air Force issued a directive to its units in the field to report the location of any aircraft of its Western Allies that were in Soviet hands. The Fortresses that were in the best condition were returned to the USAAF, but a number were retained as interim heavy bombers. Although Russian aircrews and maintenance crews had no experience with such aircraft, the Soviets proved ingenious at keeping them flying, in fact were delighted with the B-17's handling, comparing it to a "swallow" and the nimble Po-2 biplane trainer. On the other hand, Soviet officials tended to order the "filthy pictures" applied to the aircraft removed or painted out; the B-17s remained in service until 1948, when the Tupolev Tu-4 began to arrive at operational squadrons. Beginning in 1952, Republic of China (under the guise of the CIA's Civil Air Transport and Technical Research Group organizations, operated a number of "enhanced" B-17s on surveillance and related flights of mainland China.

These were crewed by Chinese crews and wore Nationalist Chinese markings. At least one B-17 was shot down by a MiG-15 over mainland China; the Royal Air Force received 20 B-17Cs, giving them the service name Fortress I, in early 1940 from USAAC. By September, after the RAF had lost eight B-17Cs in combat or to accidents, RAF Bomber Command had abandoned daylight bombing, due to their poor performance; the RAF transferred its remaining Fortress I aircraft to RAF Coastal Command for use as long range patrol aircraft. These were augmented in August 1942 by 19 Fortress Mk II and 45 Fortress Mk IIA. From 1944 the Fortress IIs and IIIs were being used by the specialist electronic countermeasures squadrons of No. 100 Group


Mammola is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about 70 kilometres southwest of Catanzaro and about 60 kilometres northeast of Reggio Calabria. Mammola borders the following municipalities: Agnana Calabra, Cinquefrondi, Giffone, San Giorgio Morgeto, Siderno. Sal Albanese, a former New York City Councilman and candidate for Mayor elections 2013. Nick Mancuso, actor. Nik Spatari, internationally renowned artist and sculptor and producer of the Park Museum Santa Barbara. Alan Barillaro, director and screenwriter. Vincenzo_Cotroni, Italian Canadian crime boss. Founder of the now called Rizzuto crime family. Mezdra, February 4, 2007 Saint-Clair-du-Rhône, May 17, 2010 Official website

Hard 2 B-Legit

Hard 2 B-Legit is the fourth album by B-Legit. It was released on August 27, 2002 by Koch Records and was produced by B-Legit, E-A-Ski, Rick Rock and Studio Ton; the album peaked at #111 on the Billboard 200, #17 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums and #6 on the Independent Albums "I'm Singlin'" - 3:45 "If You Don't Know Me" - 3:39 "Whatcha Talkin'" - 4:10 "Bag Habit" - 2:59 "1 Dame" - 3:47 "Luv 2 Get High" - 4:30 "Fo' Real" - 4:04 "So International" - 3:34 "What U Thought" - 3:46 "Play 2 Much" - 4:06 "Straight Fool" - 3:52 "Keep It Movin'" - 3:48 "We Get Dough" - 3:54 "Feelin'" - 4:23 Hard 2 B-Legit at Discogs

Christopher Marshall (composer)

Christopher Marshall is a New Zealand classical music composer who resides in Orlando, United States. His works include choral works, works for chamber ensemble, orchestral music and works for concert band wind ensembles, for which he is most notable, his most notable composition to date is L'homme armé: Variations for Wind Ensemble. For orchestraThe Song of Gaia, chamber orchestra Eastman Overture, orchestra Chaconne, orchestra Hikurangi Sunrise, orchestra Te Rerenga, orchestra Symphonic Reflections, orchestra Band ensemble / Wind ensembleAue!, wind ensemble L'homme armé: Variations, wind ensemble U Trau, 2 wind ensembles and chorus Okaoka, wind ensemble Resonance, wind ensemble Rondorlando, wind ensemble You'll Never Walk Alone and wind ensemble Dare To Hope, wind ensemble An Emily Dickinson Suite, wind ensemble Light, 13 wind instruments/wind ensemble Heat Shimmer, wind ensemble/brass For ChamberSchumannesque, cello choir Duo Sonata and percussion Intermezzo, wind quintet Blood Wedding, incidental music, chamber ensemble Synergy, 2 flutes and piano Coruscation, 3 violas Three Aspects of Spring, violin and piano Orlando Lakes and euphonium Raptures, wind octet Alafaya Suite, flute choir and saxophone quartet Songs Without Words, string trio Birds of a Feather, flute choir, sax quartet, marimba sextet and double bass 4 movements revised and arranged from An Emily Dickinson Suite, for wind ensemble, 2008 Heat Shimmer, wind ensemble/brass Forténovem, 10 trumpets For solo instrumentsPromenade and piano Elegy, viola Three Miniatures and piano Homage and piano Woman Rising, violin Could've, Should've, Would've, baritone saxophone Reflection, guitar For piano/organIntermezzo, piano Prelude and Fugue, fortepiano Scherzo, piano Souvenir, fortepiano Ataata, organ Second Thoughts, organ ChoralsSongs of Samoa, chorus Pastorale, male chorus, solo soprano, oboe, English cor, bass clarinet and vibraphone To The Horizon: Images of New Zealand, chorus Earth Song, female chorus The Desert Shall Blossom, chorus The Last Ones and piano Consider the Lilies, chorus The Water of Life and organ Kyrie Eleison: Gaia, soprano solo, piano and percussion With Love at Christmas, chorus Christmas Carols from New Zealand', chorus La Rose, chorus w/baritone and high soprano soloists Real Gods, chorus Levavi Oculos Meos, double chorus Cançó del Mar, double chorus, bass clarinet, violin and double bass New Zealand Advent Triptych, chorus Bless This House!, organ, brass 3 trumpets, 2 trombones and percussion I Hold Your Hand In Mine, chorus Tangi, chorus w/mezzo-soprano solo Epitaph, male chorus Tihei Mauri Ora!, male chorus and clarinet Wings and piano O Fragile Human, chorus Nobody, chorus Millennium Double, chorus Emily Songs, chorus I'm Spending Hanukkah in Santa Monica, male chorus Alas For Those Who Never Sing, male chorus High Flight and alto saxophone Golden Carol, chorus This Big Moroccan Sea, chorus Lotā Nu'u, double a cappella chorus VocalSea and Sky, bass voice and piano Flights of Fancy and piano Fleeting Visions and string quartet Destinations, bass voice and piano Spring and Fall and guitar O What Is That Sound?, tenor and snare drum Time Out, tenor and piano You'll Never Walk Alone and wind ensemble 1994 / 1995: Mozart Fellowship at Otago University 1995: Philip Neill Memorial Prize 1995 for Three Aspects of Spring 1997: Auckland Philharmonia Graduate Composer Workshops for Eastman Overture 2000: Douglas Lilburn Prize for Hikurangi Sunrise 2002: NZSO-SOUNZ Readings for The Song of Gaia 2004: NZSO-SOUNZ Readings for Te Rerenga Chris Marshall, Tim Reynish, Fraser Linklater: Christopher Marshall – L'Homme Armé The composer's website