An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect when used in addressing or referring to a person. Sometimes, the honorific is used in a more specific sense to refer to an honorary academic title. It is conflated with systems of honorific speech in linguistics. Typically, honorifics are used as a style in the third person. Use in the first person, by the honored dignitary, is uncommon or considered very rude, Some languages have anti-honorific first person forms whose effect is to enhance the relative honor accorded to the person addressed. The most common honorifics in modern English are usually placed immediately before a persons name, someone who does not want to express a gender with their honorific may occasionally use Mx, Ind. or Misc. Other honorifics may denote the persons occupation, for instance Doctor, Captain, Officer, Reverend for all clergy and/or Father. Holders of an academic Doctorate such as PhD are addressed as Doctor, Some honorifics act as complete replacements for a name, as Sir or Maam, or Your Honor.
Subordinates will often use honorifics as punctuation before asking a superior a question or after responding to an order, sir or even Sir, sir. Judges are often addressed as Your Honor when on the bench, if the judge has a higher title, that may be the correct honorific to use, Your Lordship. Similarly, a monarch and his consort may be addressed or referred to as Your/His/Her Majesty, Their Majesties, monarchs below kingly rank are addressed as Your/His/Her Highness, the exact rank being indicated by an appropriate modifier, e. g. His Serene Highness for a member of a dynasty, or Her Grand Ducal Highness for a member of a family that reigns over a grand duchy. There are differences between Your Highness and Your Royal Highness, between Princess Margaret and The Princess Margaret, all of these are correct, but apply to people of subtly different rank. An example of a style is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, which was an official style. In music, a conductor or virtuoso instrumentalist may be known as Maestro.
In aviation, pilots in command of a civil aircraft are usually addressed as Captain plus their full name or surname. This tradition is diminishing in the United States and most EU countries. In addition, such countries etiquette rules dictate that this title must be placed on all the letters and social invitations, business cards, identification documents
Flag of Bahrain
The national flag of Bahrain consists of a white band on the left, separated from a red area on the right by five triangles that serve as a serrated line. The five white triangles symbolize the 5 pillars of Islam and it is sometimes mistaken for the flag of Qatar, but that flag is maroon, not red, has more points, and normally has a much greater length-to-width ratio. The white color comprises 13⁄40 of the area, while the red color comprises 27⁄40 of the area. The color specification is red, Pantone 186 c / CMYK C0 – M90 – Y80 – K5 The flag is used on land and at sea as a national and war ensign. In 2002, the King of Bahrain Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, article II, The King shall have his own flag, for which a royal order shall be issued to determine its shape and places. Article III, The Flag of the Kingdom of Bahrain shall be hoisted on the Royal Court, governmental buildings, public establishments, Bahraini bureaus abroad, and Bahraini ships. Article V, The Flag shall be hoisted on governmental buildings, public institutions during public holidays, article VI, The Flag of the Kingdom of Bahrain shall not be hoisted on vehicles, except on the official protocol vehicles.
Article VII, The Flag of the Kingdom of Bahrain shall be hoisted half mast at the state of mourning, article VIII, The Flag of the Kingdom of Bahrain shall not be used for commercial purposes. The earliest known flags of Bahrain were plain red, in 1932, a serrated edge was added to the flag in order to differentiate it from those of its neighbours. The flag originally had twenty-eight white points, but this was reduced to eight in 1972, on 14 February 2002, the number was again reduced to five, so that each of the points could stand for one of the Five Pillars of Islam
Governorates of Bahrain
There are four Governorates in Bahrain, the Capital, Northern and Muharraq. There had previously been five until September 2014, when the Central Governorate was abolished, the first municipality in Bahrain was the 8-member Manama municipality which was established in July 1919. Members of the municipality were elected annually, the municipality was said to have been the first municipality to be established in the Arab world, the municipality was in charge of cleaning roads and renting buildings to tenants and shops. By 1929, it undertook road expansions as well as opening markets, in 1958, the municipality started water purification projects. In 1960, Bahrain comprised four municipalities including Manama, Hidd, Al Muharraq, over the next 30 years, the 4 municipalities were divided into 12 municipalities as settlements such as Hamad Town and Isa Town grew. These municipalities were administered from Manama under a municipal council whose members are appointed by the king. After September 22nd,2014, Bahrain was split into four governorates and these governorates are, The first municipal elections to be held in Bahrain after independence in 1971, was in 2002.
The most recent was in 2014, a specific number of adjacent city blocks are grouped together to form an area. Each of these forms a constituency in the countrys electorate. Every four years, elections are held in these constituencies, with each electing its own MP. The most recent election was in the Bahraini parliamentary by-election in 2011, each governorate has its own municipality council, with separate elections for them
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
An Emir, sometimes transliterated Amir, Amier, or Ameer, is an aristocratic or noble title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means commander, general, or prince, when translated as prince, the word emirate is analogous to a sovereign principality. Amir, meaning Lord or commander-in-chief, is derived from the Arabic root a-m-r, the word entered English in 1593, from the French émir. It was one of the titles or names of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the monarchs of UAE, Qatar and Kuwait are currently titled Emirs. All members of the House of Saud have the title of Emir, the caliphs first used the title Amir al-Muminin or Commander of the Faithful, stressing their leadership over the Islamic Empire, especially over the militia. The title has been assumed by various other Muslim rulers, including Sultans, for Shia Muslims, they still give this title to the Caliph Ali as Amir al Muminin. Note that the title was held by Christians as well, the word Emir is used less formally for leaders in certain contexts.
For example, the leader of a group of pilgrims to Mecca is called an Emir hadji, where an adjectival form is necessary, Emiral suffices. Amirzade, the son of a prince, hence the Persian princely title Mirza, the temporal leader of the Yazidi people is known as an Emir or Prince. From the start, Emir has been a military title, in certain decimally-organized Muslim armies, Amir was an officer rank. For example, in Mughal India Amirs commanded 1000 horsemen, ten of them under one Malik, Muhammad Amin Bughra, Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra, and Abdullah Bughra declared themselves Emirs of the First East Turkestan Republic. Amir is a name in the Persian language and a prefix name for many masculine names such as Amir Ali. Amir-i-Iel designates the head of an Il in imperial Persia, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the female name Emira, often interpreted as princess, is a derivative of the male name Emir. Abdul Abulbul Amir, both character and song, wat Tambor in Star Wars, Episode II – Attack of the Clones took the title of Emir.
In the Star Wars universe the title may relate to Tambors military command, Emir Karim, a character in Wild At Heart, a Latin American drama. Specific emirates of note List of emirs of Harar List of emirs of Kuwait List of emirs of Qatar List of Emirs of Mosul Emirate of Afghanistan
Salman, Crown Prince of Bahrain
He is the deputy Supreme Commander of the Bahrain Defense Force. His Royal Highness Prince Salman is the eldest son of King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa of Bahrain and his first wife and his Royal Highness Prince Salman established the Crown Prince’s International Scholarship Programme in 1999 to guide Bahrain’s young people into the 21st century. On 24 February 2001, His Royal Highness Prince Salman was appointed as chairman of the committee for the implementation of the National Action Charter, the committee proposed a number of laws to implement the National Charter, including laws on government procurements and freedom of the press. Hala is honorary president of the centre for women and children. They have two sons and two daughters, Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, attended American University in Washington DC, mohammed bin Salman Al Khalifa, educated at Bahrain School. Graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 2011 and he graduated from Kings College London in 2015. He was raised to the title of Prince, with the style of His Royal Highness.
His Royal Highness Prince Salman has been awarded a number of honours, these include, An honorary doctorate in conjunction with the Order of the Eagle Exemplar by the United States Sports Academy
Khalid bin Ahmed Al Khalifa
Khalid bin Ahmed Al Khalifa is a Bahraini diplomat who has served as Bahrains Minister of Foreign Affairs since 2005. Sheikh Khalid is only the foreign minister in Bahrains history. Khalid bin Ahmed was born on 24 April 1960 and he received a bachelors degree in history and political sciences from St. Edwards University in 1984. In 1985, Khalid bin Ahmed joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, between August 1985 and November 1994 he worked at Bahrains embassy in Washington, D. C. where he was in charge of the political and media affairs. In August 2000, he assumed the position of the director of public relations and he was Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 2001 to 2005 and was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs in a September 2005 cabinet reshuffle. His predecessor as foreign minister, Muhammad ibn Mubarak ibn Hamad Al Khalifah, had served in that position for over 30 years and his deputy until 2011 was Nazar Al Baharna, formerly a leading member of Al Wefaq, Bahrains main Shia opposition party.
List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers
Bahrain Defence Force
It numbers about 13,000 personnel and consists of the Royal Bahraini Air Force, Royal Bahraini Army, Royal Bahraini Navy and the Bahrain Royal Medical Services. Apart from the BDF, the security forces and the Coast Guard report to the Ministry of Interior. Bahrain, in conjunction with its GCC partners has moved to upgrade its defenses in response to the threat posed by the Iran-Iraq, in 1982, the GCC gave Bahrain $1.7 billion to help improve its defenses. Bahrains defense spending since 1999 has been steady, the government spends around $320 million annually on their military. After the Gulf War, Bahrain received additional support from the United States, including the sale of 54 M60A3 tanks,12 F-16C/D aircraft. Joint naval and ground exercises have planned and executed to increase readiness throughout the Persian Gulf. In 2003, George W. Bush designated Bahrain as a major ally of the United States. National Guard Special Security Force Command Background Note, Bahrain - Defense U. S. Department of State
Bahrain, officially the Kingdom of Bahrain, is a small Arab monarchy in the Persian Gulf. Bahrains population is 1,234,567, including 666,172 non-nationals and it is 780 km2 in size, making it the third smallest nation in Asia after the Maldives and Singapore. Bahrain is the site of the ancient Dilmun civilisation and it has been famed since antiquity for its pearl fisheries, which were considered the best in the world into the 19th century. Bahrain was one of the earliest areas to convert to Islam, following a period of Arab rule, Bahrain was occupied by the Portuguese in 1521, who in turn were expelled in 1602 by Shah Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty under the Persian Empire. In 1783, the Bani Utbah clan captured Bahrain from Nasr Al-Madhkur and it has since been ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family, in the late 1800s, following successive treaties with the British, Bahrain became a protectorate of the United Kingdom. Formerly a state, Bahrain was declared a Kingdom in 2002, in 2011, the country experienced protests inspired by the regional Arab Spring.
Bahrain had the first post-oil economy in the Persian Gulf, since the late 20th century, Bahrain has invested in the banking and tourism sectors. Many large financial institutions have a presence in Manama, the countrys capital, Bahrain has a high Human Development Index and was recognised by the World Bank as a high income economy. In Arabic, Bahrayn is the form of bahr, so al-Bahrayn means the two seas, although which two seas were originally intended remains in dispute. The term appears five times in the Quran, but does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as Awal— but rather to all of Eastern Arabia. Today, Bahrains two seas are generally taken to be the bay east and west of the island. In addition to wells, there are areas of the sea north of Bahrain where fresh water bubbles up in the middle of the water as noted by visitors since antiquity. An alternate theory with regard to Bahrains toponymy is offered by the al-Ahsa region, another supposition by al-Jawahari suggests that the more formal name Bahri would have been misunderstood and so was opted against.
Until the late Middle Ages, Bahrain referred to the region of Eastern Arabia that included Southern Iraq, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, the region stretched from Basra in Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Oman. This was Iqlīm al-Bahrayns Bahrayn Province, the exact date at which the term Bahrain began to refer solely to the Awal archipelago is unknown. The entire coastal strip of Eastern Arabia was known as Bahrain for a millennium, the island and kingdom were commonly spelled Bahrein into the 1950s. Bahrain was home to the Dilmun civilization, an important Bronze Age trade centre linking Mesopotamia, Bahrain was ruled by the Assyrians and Babylonians. From the 6th to 3rd century BC, Bahrain was part of the Persian Empire ruled by the Achaemenian dynasty, by about 250 BC, Parthia brought the Persian Gulf under its control and extended its influence as far as Oman
National Assembly (Bahrain)
The National Assembly is the name of both chambers of the Bahraini parliament when sitting in joint session, as laid out in the Constitution of 2002. It has 80 seats formed from the 40 elected members of the Council of Representatives and it is chaired by the Speaker of the Consultative Council, or by the Speaker of the Council of Representatives if the former is absent. Under the 1973 Constitution, the National Assembly was a single chamber parliament consisting of forty elected by universal suffrage. However, the Amir, Shaikh Isa ibn Salman Al Khalifah decreed that women would not be considered as universal suffrage and were not allowed to vote in the 1973 parliamentary elections. The first ever National Assembly in Bahrain was elected in 1973 under the statutes of the first constitution which was promulgated of that same year. In 1975 the Assembly was dissolved by the Emir Shaikh Isa ibn Salman al-Khalifa because it refused to pass the government sponsored State Security Law of 1974, the Emir subsequently did not allow the Assembly to meet again or hold elections during his lifetime.
After the death of Isa ibn Salman al-Khalifa in 1999, his son Shaikh Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifah and that same year elections were held for the Council of Representatives and he appointed the members for the Consultative Council, forming the first National Assembly since 1975