The King of Jerusalem was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the city. Godfrey of Bouillon, the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, himself refused the title of king, instead chose the title "Defender of the Holy Sepulchre". Thus, the title of king was only introduced for his successor, King Baldwin I in 1100; the city of Jerusalem was lost in 1187, but the Kingdom of Jerusalem survived, moving its capital to Acre in 1191. The city of Jerusalem was re-captured in the Sixth Crusade, during 1229–39 and 1241–44; the Kingdom of Jerusalem was dissolved with the fall of Acre and the end of the Crusades in the Holy Land in 1291. After the Crusader States ceased to exist, the title of King of Jerusalem was claimed by a number of European noble houses descended from the kings of Cyprus or the kings of Naples; the title of King of Jerusalem is used by Felipe VI of Spain. It was claimed by Otto von Habsburg as Habsburg pretender, by the kings of Italy until 1946.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem had its origins in the First Crusade, when Godfrey of Bouillon, after refusing a crown and the title of King "upon the plea that he would never wear a crown of gold where his Saviour had worn a crown of thorns", took the title Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri in 1099 and was inaugurated as ruler of Jerusalem in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. The following year, Godfrey died, his brother Baldwin I was the first to use the title king and the first to be crowned king in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem itself. The kingship of Jerusalem was elected and hereditary. During the height of the kingdom in the mid-12th century there was a royal family and a clear line of succession; the king was elected, or at least recognized, by the Haute Cour. Here the king was considered a primus inter pares, in his absence his duties were performed by his seneschal; the purpose-built royal palace used from the 1160s onwards was located south of Jerusalem's citadel. The Kingdom of Jerusalem introduced French feudal structures to the Levant.
The king held several fiefs incorporated into the royal domain, that varied from king to king. He was responsible for leading the kingdom into battle, although this duty could be passed to a constable. While several contemporary European states were moving towards centralized monarchies, the king of Jerusalem was continually losing power to the strongest of his barons; this was due to the young age of many of the kings, the frequency of regents from the ranks of the nobles. After the fall of Jerusalem in 1187, the capital of the kingdom was moved to Acre, where it remained until 1291, although coronations took place in Tyre. In this period the kingship was simply a nominal position, held by a European ruler who never lived in Acre; when young Conrad III was king and living in Southern Germany, his father's second cousin, Hugh of Brienne, claimed the regency of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and, his place in the succession. The claim was made in 1264 as senior descendant and rightful heir of Alice of Champagne, second daughter of Queen Isabella I, Hugh being the son of their eldest daughter.
But was passed over by the Haute Cour in favour of his cousin, Hugh of Antioch, the future Hugh III of Cyprus and Hugh I of Jerusalem. After Conrad III's execution by Charles I of Sicily in 1268, the kingship was held by the Lusignan family, who were kings of Cyprus. However, Charles I of Sicily purchased the rights of one of the heirs of the kingdom in 1277. In that year, he sent Roger of Sanseverino to the East as his bailiff. Roger obtained a forced homage from the barons. Roger was left Odo Poilechien in his place to rule, his resources and authority was minimal, he was ejected by Henry II of Cyprus when he arrived from Cyprus for his coronation as King of Jerusalem. Acre was captured by the Mamluks in 1291. In 1127 Fulk V, Count of Anjou received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem. Baldwin II had no male heirs but had designated his daughter Melisende to succeed him. Baldwin II wanted to safeguard his daughter's inheritance by marrying her to a powerful lord. Fulk was a wealthy crusader and experienced military commander, a widower.
His experience in the field would prove invaluable in a frontier state always in the grip of war. However, Fulk held out for better terms than mere consort of the Queen. Baldwin II, reflecting on Fulk's military exploits, acquiesced. Fulk resigned his titles to his son Geoffrey and sailed to become King of Jerusalem, where he married Melisende on 2 June 1129. Baldwin II bolstered Melisende's position in the kingdom by making her sole guardian of her son by Fulk, Baldwin III, born in 1130. Fulk and Melisende became joint rulers of Jerusalem in 1131 with Baldwin II's death. From the start Fulk assumed sole control of the government, he favored fellow countrymen from Anjou to the native nobility. The other crusader states to the north feared that Fulk would attempt to impose the suzerainty of Jerusalem over them, as Baldwin II had done. In Jerusalem as well, Fulk was resented by the second generation of Jerusalem Christians who had grown up there since the First Crusade; these "natives" focused on Melisende's cousin, the popular Hugh II of Le Puiset, count of Jaffa, devotedly loyal to the Queen.
Gwynne Blakemore Evans was an American scholar of Elizabethan literature best known for editing the Riverside Shakespeare edition in 1974. Evans was born on 31 March 1912 in Columbus, Ohio to Marshall B. Evans, a scholar of the German language at Ohio State University. Gwynne graduated from that university in 1934, he earned a master's degree from the University of Cincinnati in 1936. He received his doctorate from Harvard University in 1940. In 2000 Albright College awarded him an LL. D. honoris causa. During World War II, Evans served at Bletchley Park in England, a centre of Allied spying and decoding. After the war, Evans became a professor of English literature, working at the University of Wisconsin, the University of Illinois, Harvard, where he became Cabot Professor. Evan's first book was The Plays and Poems of William Cartwright, an edition of the obscure poet and playwright William Cartwright, he edited Shakespearean Prompt-Books of the 17th Century, a series of editions of rare promptbooks.
His popular edition of Shakespeare's complete works, the Riverside Shakespeare, was published in 1974 by Houghton Mifflin, remained the standard text of Shakespeare's works in university classrooms for the next quarter century. Evans co-edited an updated version in 1997, he edited Richard III for the New Penguin Shakespeare and Romeo and Juliet for the New Cambridge Shakespeare. Evans's teaching style was peculiarly effective. Working through Elizabethan and Jacobean drama, he offered quiet comment, but did so on the move, walking around the front of the class in a way that strangely contributed to one's attention to him, his courteous good nature seemed never to fail him. His seminars and proseminars met in his office, located next to Child Memorial Library, which houses the special collection of the Department of English and American Language and Literature located in Widener Library of Harvard University; the office, every surface covered with books and manuscripts, was a testament to Evans's scholarship.
Indeed in old age Evans continued his habits as a scholar, stalking the corridors and stacks of Widener Library working. Evans died on December 23, 2005, aged 93. Evans's last book was The Poems of Robert Parry, a study of the little-known poet Robert Parry
The Grand Mountet Hut is a mountain hut located in the Pennine Alps near Zinal in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It is used at a start point for the ascents of Besso, Ober Gabelhorn, Mont Durand, Pointe de Zinal, Grand Cornier and Dent Blanche; the hut was built in 1887, but it has been modified and rebuilt a number of times, the latest modification being in 1996. It has accommodation for 115 people. Although the hut is located in the middle of glaciers, it is accessible by a trail and frequented by hikers because of the impressive view over the Zinal Glacier and high summits around. Official website
The Church of St Mary & All Saints in Broomfield, England was built in the 15th and 16th centuries and has been designated as a Grade I listed building. The south chancel wall was built around 1320; the north aisle is from 1535. There is a stained glass window by the company of William Morris; the three-stage tower was built around 1440. It includes a bell by George Purdue dating from 1606; the church contains the laboratory table of Andrew Crosse, of the nearby Fyne Court on which he carried out electrical experiments and an obelisk in his memory is in the churchyard. Inside the church is a 16th-century chest and 15th-century octagonal font; the Anglican parish is part of the benefice of West Monkton with Kingston St Mary and Cheddon Fitzpaine within the archdeaconry of Taunton. List of Grade I listed buildings in Sedgemoor List of towers in Somerset List of ecclesiastical parishes in the Diocese of Bath and Wells
Alexander von Hartmann was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded the 71st Infantry Division. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross of Nazi Germany. Hartmann was killed on 26 January 1943 during the Battle of Stalingrad and was posthumously promoted to General of the Infantry. Before his death Hartmann stated, "I intend to go to my infantry in the front line... I will seek death among their ranks. Captivity for a general is dishonourable." He was killed when he was shot in the head while standing upright on the railway embankment firing "shot after shot from his rifle." Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 8 October 1942 as Generalleutnant and commander of 71. Infanterie-Division
Campbell Singer was a British character actor who featured in a number of stage and television roles during his long career. He was a playwright. Singer was a regular in British post-war comedy films playing policemen, he first appeared on television in 1946, making regular appearances in the following three decades including several episodes of'Hancock's Half Hour', played the lead, John Unthank, in the BBC drama series'Private Investigator' in 1958/59. From the early 1960s he appeared more on television, he played several roles in the 1966 Doctor Who story The Celestial Toymaker, made two appearances in different roles in the popular television series Dad's Army, including as corrupt politician Sir Charles McAllister. He featured as Mr Finney in a Some Mothers Do'Ave'Em Christmas Special, played a lodger in an episode of On the Buses; as a writer, Singer co-authored several plays with George Ross, including Guilty Party, Difference of Opinion and Any Other Business, some of which were televised.
Campbell Singer on IMDb Campbell Singer at the Internet Broadway Database