1958 Tour de France
The 1958 Tour de France was the 45th edition of the Tour de France, taking place from 26 June to 19 July. The total race distance was 24 stages over 4,319 km; the yellow jersey for the leader in the general classification changed owner a record 11 times, only at the penultimate stage in the time trial the decision was made, when Gaul created a margin of more than three minutes. In the final sprint, sprinter André Darrigade, who had won five stages, collided with a stage official, who eleven days died because of his injuries. In 1958, 120 cyclists entered. France, Italy and Spain each sent a national team; the Netherlands and Luxembourg had a combined team, as had Germany. There was one "international" team, consisting of cyclists from Austria, Great Britain and Denmark. There were three regional French teams: Centre-Midi, West/South West and Paris/North East; the French team had had some problems with the selection, as Jacques Anquetil, the winner of the 1957 Tour de France, did not want to share leadership with Louison Bobet, winner in 1953, 1954 and 1955.
Anquetil had been so superior in 1957, that he did not want Géminiani both in his team. The French team selector chose to include Bobet in the national team. Raphael Géminiani, in the French national team since 1949, was demoted into the regional Centre-Midi team. Géminiani was not pleased, sent the French team director Marcel Bidot a "jack-ass" named "Marcel" to express his displeasure. Charly Gaul, part of the Dutch/Luxembourgian team, anticipated so little help from his teammates that he announced that he would not share prizes, his teammates refused to support him, so Gaul was on his own. The teams entering the race were: The 1958 Tour de France started on 26 June. Whereas there had been two rest days in recent years, the 1958 Tour had no rest days at all. For the first time, the first mountain climbs were broadcast live on television; the first stage left in Brussels. In the first stages, Luxembourgian climber Charly Gaul struggled, lost considerable time in flat stages. During a break in the sixth stage and Bobet were left behind.
Géminiani was in the leading group, gained more than ten minutes on his rivals. After the sixth stage, Gerrit Voorting was in first place, followed by François Mahé from the French national team, Géminiani. In the seventh stage, Arrigo Padovan won the sprint from Brian Robinson; the jury however relegated Padovan to second place for irregular sprinting, Robinson became the first British winner of a stage. The ninth stage again saw this time including Darrigade. Darrigade won the sprint, because the next group was more than 10 minutes behind, he became the new leader. Géminiani and the French national team were still on bad terms; when Gastone Nencini, a threat to both, had escaped and the national team members asked Géminiani to help them to get Nencini back, Géminiani refused. The Pyréneés were visited in stage 13. Darrigade was not able to keep up with the leaders, lost the lead. Bahamontes had tried to escape but failed, Gaul tried to escape, but he failed; the favourites finished together, Géminiani became the new leader.
In the fourteenth stage in the Pyrénées, Bahamontes escaped again, this time he managed to stay away and win. Géminiani finished in the next group, but because Favero won the sprint for the second place, he received 30 seconds bonification time, became the new leader. In the fifteenth stage, Favero again finished second, extended his lead again by 30 seconds. In the eighteenth stage, a mountain time trial, Gaul won back time, jumped from sixth place to third place in the general classification. Géminiani jumped back to the first place in that stage. In the nineteenth stage, over the Alps, Gaul had mechanical problems, lost ten minutes. Second-placed rider Favero was now at a margin of more than three minutes. In the twentieth stage, again in the Alps, Bahamontes finished first. Gaul lost a few seconds to Géminiani in that stage, so after the twentieth stage, Gaul was more than sixteen minutes behind Géminiani. With only a few stages left, Géminiani appeared to be able to win the race. In stage 21, the weather conditions were bad.
Before the stage started, Gaul told Bobet that he would attack on the first climb of the day, which he did. Bahamontes followed him, but let himself drop back because the weather was too bad and the finish was still far away. Gaul continued on his own, his margin with the next cyclist kept growing. Géminiani now asked the French national team to help him, but they could not help and did not want to help. Géminiani forgot to take food in the food zone, was hungry in the last part of the stage. In the end, Gaul won the stage 8 minutes ahead of the next rider. Favero came in third, more than ten minutes and Géminiani seventh more than 14 minutes behind. Favero was again first in the general classification, with Géminiani only 39 seconds behind in second place and Gaul 67 seconds behind in third place. After that stage, Géminiani accused the French team of treason, because he said it was due to their attacks that he lost the lead; because of the extraordinary circumstances, the time limits were not enforced that stage.
Second-placed rider Favero was now at a margin of more than three minutes. Stage 22 was flat, the favourites stayed together; this meant. In that time trial, Gaul was the first of these three to start. Gaul set the winning time, Géminiani and Favero lost more than three minutes, so Gaul took the lead in the general classification. Anquetil, who
Strava is a social fitness network, used to track cycling and running exercises, using GPS, data although alternative types are available. Strava is a free service with no advertising in its mobile application, but offered monthly subscription plan Strava Premium before discontinuing the program and replacing it with Strava Summit. Strava Metro, a program marketed towards city planner uses cycling data from Strava users in supported cities and regions allows Strava to remain ad-free for all users. Strava was founded in 2009 by Mark Gainey and Michael Horvath, is headquartered in San Francisco, California. During the early years of Strava, both founders held CEO positions before being succeeded by current CEO James Quarles. Strava has not published numbers of its user base and paying users although the service claims it was adding one million new users every 45 days, with 8 million activities uploaded each day. Strava depends on GPS functionality of mobile networks in mobile phones, or other GPS-enabled devices, to record supported activities which can be shared among user's followers or shared publicly.
If an activity is publicly shared, Strava automatically groups activities together, when they occur at the same time and place. Each activity, depending on which activity selected, shows users' activity results, including route summary in map view form, speed, timing and heart rate; each activity post has "Kudos", enabling followers to like followed leave comments. Strava Slide is a fork of iD Editor for OpenStreetMap, which allows map editors to draw roads and trails more using the same aggregated and anonymized GPS data. Cycling and running traffic may be monitored by everyone on the Strava Heatmap page which shows a global heatmap. In July 2015, Strava switched based on OpenStreetMap data. Strava allows users to report issues with the maps, which are linked to the OpenStreetMap editor so that users can contribute improvements to the map. Strava has a Trophy system in the form of periodic challenges that require completing either a running or cycling activity within a certain range of distance or elevation.
Each activity has its own trophy badge shown in the Strava Trophy case and limited rewards if the Challenge is held by Strava partners. Strava offers a monthly subscription plan called Strava Summit, which includes a "Suffer Score" if heart rate data is available during an activity; the Suffer Score allows Strava to rank user activities, used for Strava's Training Plans and customized goals. Other features of the subscription include Beacon, live location tracking of the athlete for family and trusted friends, Live Performance Data and Live Segments, used to check real time information and compare athlete's best available record in Strava, Strava Premium only Leader-board, Power Meter Analysis, Race Analysis, Workout Analysis, GPX Export, Personal Heatmap and Trophy Case. In July 2018, Strava discontinued Strava Premium subscription system and announced its replacement Strava Summit which divides Strava Premium benefits into three different categories, Training Custom Goals Custom Leader-board Training Plans Race Analysis Segment Effort Safety Personal Heatmaps Beacon Analysis Power Analysis Workout Analysis Live Segments Relative Effort Strava released heatmap or data visualization of its user's activities in late 2017.
In early 2018 Nathan Ruser, a 20-year-old Australian university student, studying international security at the Australian National University and works with the Institute for United Conflict Analysts, discovered Strava had mapped military personnel activities highlighting known US bases in Syria, forward operating bases in Afghanistan, as well as a trace from a user in Area 51, activities in Her Majesty's Naval Base, or HMNB Clyde, home to the UK's nuclear arsenal. Wired UK reported UK's Directorate of Security and Resilience unit member sent email regarding immediate revised guideline and warns using fitness apps with location enabled might present avoidable risk. In March 2018, Strava announced a set of new changes towards how heatmap works, improving user acknowledgment of this feature, opt-out from heatmap feature, restrictive viewing and improving overall privacy in its press release. Google Fit MSN Health & Fitness Apple Health Endomondo Garmin Connect Runtastic Strava Homepage
Cycling called biking or bicycling, is the use of bicycles for transport, exercise or sport. People engaged in cycling are referred to as "cyclists", "bikers", or less as "bicyclists". Apart from two-wheeled bicycles, "cycling" includes the riding of unicycles, quadracycles and similar human-powered vehicles. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number one billion worldwide, they are the principal means of transportation in many parts of the world. Cycling is regarded as a effective and efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Bicycles provide numerous benefits in comparison with motor vehicles, including the sustained physical exercise involved in cycling, easier parking, increased maneuverability, access to roads, bike paths and rural trails. Cycling offers a reduced consumption of fossil fuels, less air or noise pollution, much reduced traffic congestion; these lead to less financial cost to the user as well as to society at large. By fitting bicycle racks on the front of buses, transit agencies can increase the areas they can serve.
Among the disadvantages of cycling are the requirement of bicycles to be balanced by the rider in order to remain upright, the reduced protection in crashes in comparison to motor vehicles longer travel time, vulnerability to weather conditions, difficulty in transporting passengers, the fact that a basic level of fitness is required for cycling moderate to long distances. Cycling became an activity after bicycles were introduced in the 19th century. Today, over 50 percent of the human population knows. In many countries, the most used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle; these have frames with relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks of the road and easing steering at low speeds. Utility bicycles tend to be equipped with accessories such as mudguards, pannier racks and lights, which extends their usefulness on a daily basis; as the bicycle is so effective as a means of transportation various companies have developed methods of carrying anything from the weekly shop to children on bicycles.
Certain countries rely on bicycles and their culture has developed around the bicycle as a primary form of transport. In Europe and the Netherlands have the most bicycles per capita and most use bicycles for everyday transport. Road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly; the design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, making use of stronger muscles and reducing air resistance at high speed. The price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000, depending on quality and weight. However, UCI regulations stipulate. Being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying; the drivetrain components of the bike should be considered. A middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes are equipped with hub gears. If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing, a triple-chainrings crankset gear system may be preferred.
Otherwise, the lighter and less expensive double chainring may be better. Much simpler fixed wheel bikes are available. Many road bikes, along with mountain bikes, include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach, via a cleat, enabling the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. Other possible accessories for the bicycle include front and rear lights, bells or horns, child carrying seats, cycling computers with GPS, bar tape, baggage racks, baggage carriers and pannier bags, water bottles and bottle cages. For basic maintenance and repairs cyclists can carry a pump, a puncture repair kit, a spare inner tube, tire levers and a set of allen keys. Cycling can be more efficient and comfortable with special shoes and shorts. In wet weather, riding can be more tolerable with waterproof clothes, such as cape, jacket and overshoes and high-visibility clothing is advisable to reduce the risk from motor vehicle users. Items required in some jurisdictions, or voluntarily adopted for safety reasons, include bicycle helmets, generator or battery operated lights and audible signalling devices such as a bell or horn.
Extras include a bicycle computer. Bikes can be customized, with different seat designs and handle bars, for example. Many schools and police departments run educational programs to instruct children in bicycle handling skills and introduce them to the rules of the road as they apply to cyclists. In different countries these may be known as bicycle rodeos or operated as schemes such as Bikeability. Education for adult cyclists is available from organizations such as the League of American Bicyclists. Beyond riding, another skill is riding efficiently and safely in traffic. One popular approach to riding in motor vehicle traffic is vehicular cycling, occupying road space as car does. Alternately, in countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands, where cycling is popular, cyclists are segregated into bike lanes at the side of, or more separate from, main highways and roads. Many primary schools participate in the national road test in whi
Charly Gaul was a Luxembourgian professional cyclist. He was an accomplished time triallist and superb climber, his ability earned him the nickname of The Angel of the Mountains in the 1958 Tour de France, which he won with four stage victories. He won the Giro d'Italia in 1956 and 1959. Gaul rode best in wet weather. In life he became a recluse and lost much of his memory. Charly Gaul was a fragile-looking man with a sad face and disproportionately short legs, he had "a sad, timid look on his face, marked with an unfathomable melancholy an evil deity has forced him into a cursed profession amidst powerful, implacable riders," as one writer put it. Gaul worked in a butcher's shop and as a slaughterman in an abattoir at Bettembourg before turning professional on 3 May 1953 for Terrot, at the age of 20. By he had won more than 60 races as an amateur having started racing in 1949, they included the Tour of the 12 Cantons. He won a stage up the climb of Grossglockner during the Tour of Austria when he was 17, setting a stage record.
It was his first race outside Luxembourg. His first professional race was the Critérium de la Polymultipliée, his first professional win was in 1953 in the national cyclo-cross championship. He came second the same year in the Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré stage race; the following year he was second in the Luxembourg road championship, won a stage in the Dauphiné Libéré, won a bronze medal in the 1954 world championship. Gaul abandoned on the sixth stage, he started the 1954 Tour but again abandoned before the finish. He came to the 1955 Tour after winning the mountainous Tour de Sud Ouest and finishing third in the Tour of Luxembourg, he conceded a lot of time on the opening flat stages, not helped by being in a weak team. His fight back started in the Alps, he dropped the Dutch climber, Jan Nolten. Crossing the col du Télégraphe he had five minutes on his chasers. By the finish he had moved from 37th to third, he was on his way to winning the next day as well. He attacked again when the race reached the Pyrenees, winning stage 17 from ahead of the eventual overall winner, Louison Bobet.
He finished third in Paris. After a hard-fought victory in the 1956 Giro d'Italia, Gaul was half an hour down after six days' racing in the 1956 Tour de France, but he was confident he could close the gap in the mountains, he won the mountains prize again, two more stages – a mountain individual time trial on stage three and stage 18 to Grenoble. But his efforts did little good. Gaul abandoned after two days with no stage wins. Gaul returned to the Tour in 1958. Third in that year's Giro, he started dominantly and won four stages, three of them time trials, including the ascent of Mont Ventoux, his time of 1h 2m 9s from the Bédoin side, which in those days was cobbled in the first kilometres and poorly surfaced to the summit, stood as a record until Jonathan Vaughters beat it 31 years in the Dauphiné Libéré. On the last day in the Alps, his manager, Jo Goldschmidt looked at the rain falling and woke Gaul with the words: "Come on soldier... This is your day." Gaul woke delighted at the cold rain and angry at the memory of how he had been denied the Giro the previous year, when he was attacked as he stopped by the roadside.
A lot of riders took advantage of his halt but he most blamed Bobet, a man as refined and diffident as Gaul was coarse and brusque. His feelings for Bobet had turned to "flaming hatred," said the historian Bill McGann, he sought out his tormentor. The impact was all the greater because the two had spoken to each other since the Giro. "You're ready, Monsieur Bobet?", he asked, laying emphasis on the false politeness of the monsieur. "I'll give you a chance. I'll attack on the Luitel climb. I'll tell you which hairpin. You want to win the Tour more than I do? Easy. I've told you what you need to know."There was a prize of 100,00 francs at the top of the col de Lautaret in memory of the race's founder, Henri Desgrange. The Dutchman Piet van Est won it, with Bahamontes behind him. A small group had eight minutes on the rest. Gaul began the chase and shed rider after rider, including the Spaniard, Salvador Botella, who held eighth place. Botella covered his head in his hands and wept. Teammates turned back to encourage him.
Gaul and Bahamontes dropped the rest. At first the rest thought that Gaul had lost too much time earlier in the race to be a threat, that he was looking only at the best climber's prize, but on the climb to the col de Luitel Gaul dropped Bahamontes as well. He was within three minutes of the leaders with Bahamontes a minute behind. Gaul took the lead and moved ahead as the race progressed through "a curtain of water, a deluge without an ark", as L'Équipe described it. Michel Clare, reporting for the paper, said: "I was on a motorbike and I had to stop at Granier for a hot grog. I was so cold that afterwards it was an hour before I could start writing." When he began his report in the press room at Aix-les-Bains, he wrote: "I remember only a curtain of rain. A deluge without an Ark; the ca
1948 Tour de France
The 1948 Tour de France was the 35th edition of the Tour de France, taking place from 30 June to 25 July. It consisted of 21 stages over 4,922 km; the race was won by Italian cyclist Gino Bartali, who had won the Tour de France in 1938. Bartali had given up during the race, but drew inspiration from a phone call from the Italian prime minister, who asked him to win the Tour de France to prevent civil unrest in Italy after assassination attempt against Togliatti. Bartali won the mountains classification, while the team classification was won by the Belgian team; the prize for wearing the yellow jersey was introduced in 1948, sponsored by Les Laines, a French wool company. In 1947, the media had complained that too many cyclists reached the end of the race, so the race was no longer heroic; the tour visited the Saar protectorate for the first time when the 18th stage passed Saarbrücken and Saarlouis. A second visit took place in 1953; the first live television broadcast from the Tour de France was in 1948, when the arrival at the velodrome of Parc des Princes was broadcast live.
As was the custom since the 1930 Tour de France, the 1948 Tour de France was contested by national and regional teams. After there had not been an official Italian team allowed in the previous edition, the Italians were back; the Italian cyclists were divided between Fausto Coppi. Both argued in the preparation of the race about; the Tour organisation wanted to have both cyclists in the race, so they allowed the Italians and Belgians to enter a second team. In the end, Coppi refused to participate, Bartali became the team leader; the organisation still allowed the Italians and Belgians to enter a second team, but they were to be composed of young cyclists, were named the Italian Cadets and the Belgian Aiglons. The Tour organisation invited the Swiss to send a team, as they wanted Ferdinand Kübler, the winner of the 1948 Tour de Suisse, in the race. Kübler refused this; when the brothers Georges and Roger Aeschlimann announced that they wanted to join the race, they were accepted because they were from Lausanne, where the Tour would pass through.
They were put in a team with eight non-French cyclists living in France, were named the Internationals. Twelve teams of ten cyclists entered the race, consisting of 60 French cyclists, 24 Italian, 22 Belgian, 6 Dutch, 4 Luxembourgian, 2 Swiss, 1 Polish and 1 Algerian cyclist; the teams entering the race were: Bartali's three stage wins in a row was the last time that happened, until Mario Cipollini achieved four in a row in 1999. There were five rest days, in Biarritz, Cannes, Aix-les-Bains and Mulhouse; as the Italian team had not entered the Tours de France of 1939 and 1947, it was the first Tour de France for Bartali since his victory ten years before in 1938. His results in the Giro d'Italia had not been well, it was not thought that Bartali could compete for the win. Bartali however won the sprint in the first stage, thanks to the bonification of one minute for the winner, he was leading the race. After that, the Italian team took a low profile in the race. In the second stage, Bartali lost the lead already.
In the third stage, a group escaped and built up a lead of 14 minutes. Among that group was Louison Bobet, as he was the best-placed cyclist in that group he became the next leader. In that group was Roger Lambrecht. Lambrecht kept it in the next stage, but after Bobet won the sixth stage, Bobet took back the lead, the yellow jersey made him confident. In the Pyrenées, Bartali won both stages in a sprint, but Bobet was near and became the hero of the French spectators. After the ninth stage, Bobet had built up a lead of more than nine minutes. In the tenth stage, he lost time, Belgian cyclist Roger Lambrecht reduced the margin to 29 seconds. After the eleventh stage, Bobet was still in the lead, but was having problems, after he fainted at the finish, he wanted to give up. After a meal and sleeping, he changed his mind, won the twelfth stage. After the twelfth stage, Bartali was 20 minutes behind. Bartali was persuaded to race on; that night, Bartali received. Alcide De Gasperi, prime minister of Italy, from the Christian Democratic party, told him that a few days earlier Palmiro Togliatti, leader of the Italian Communist Party, had been shot, Italy might be on the edge of a civil war.
De Gasperi asked Bartali to do his best to win a stage, because the sport news might distract people from the politics. Bartali replied that he would do better, win the race; the next day, Bartali won stage 13 with a large margin. In the general classification, he jumped to second place. In the fourteenth stage and Bobet rode together over the Galibier and the Croix de Fer, but Bartali had been saving his energy, left Bobet and every body else behind on the Col de Porte. Bartali won again, took over the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification. Bobet was now in second place, eight minutes behind; the next stage, stage 15, was won by Bartali. The sixteenth stage was not won by Bartali, but because his direct competitors lost time, he increased
A climbing specialist or climber known as a grimpeur, is a road bicycle racer who can ride well on inclined roads, such as those found among hills or mountains. In a sustained climb, the average speed declines, the aerodynamic advantage of drafting is diminished and the setting of the group pace becomes more important. A good climber modulates his speed and chooses the best line on a climb, allowing the following riders to have an easier job. If the group maintains a high tempo, it is more difficult for a rider to attack and ride away from the group. Another important role in climbing is that of counter-attacker. Climbing specialists use their superior abilities either to attack on climbs and thereby gap the competitors, knowing that only other climbing specialists will be able to stay with them, or to maintain a high pace that others cannot match. A successful escape can help the climber achieve a victory if the race has a mountain-top finish, or in a flat finish if the climber is able to maintain his lead after the climb is over.
Climbing stages, along with individual time trials, are key stages in winning long stage races. In recent years, climbing specialists have been deployed as Super-domestiques, protecting team leaders with All-round capabilities by setting a strong tempo in mountain stages to deter attacks from rivals, a tactic known as a'train'. Examples of this include Team Sky climbers Wout Poels, Mikel Landa and Mikel Nieve helping Chris Froome in his multiple Grand Tour victories. Froome himself played a similar role in service of Bradley Wiggins at the 2012 Tour de France Climbers tend to have a lot of endurance and developed muscles for long hard climbs, they tend to have a slim, lightweight physique, but some can become good climbers through concerted training. The most successful climbing specialists come in different specializations. Climbers with small physique such as José Rujano, Nairo Quintana, Roberto Heras, Alberto Contador and Gilberto Simoni thrive when the climbs reach dizzying heights and steep slopes where their low weight makes them more efficient and able to put in repeated acceleration runs.
Their endurance makes them good stage race specialists. Marco Pantani, champion of the 1998 Tour de France, was able to make attack after attack to tire out his opponents; the other type of rider or puncheur have small physiques to climbing specialists but possess more power which may give them an advantage in short but steep climbs in races including the Ardennes classics. Examples of such hills include the Mur de Huy in the Flèche Wallonne and the Cauberg in the Amstel Gold Race. Examples of such riders include Julian Alaphilippe, Philippe Gilbert, Paolo Bettini and Danilo Di Luca, who are able to sprint their way up the shorter climbs to win a stage or a single-day race. However, their lower endurance is a disadvantage in stage races where the climbs are longer, albeit at lower gradients. Many climbers cannot sprint well because their relative small size does not allow them to possess the strength of the bigger, more muscular sprinters; the last type of climber is the breakaway specialist who can ride aggressively with many attacks and sustain their lead over ascents and flats.
Famous examples include Laurent Jalabert and Richard Virenque both of whom earned their King of the Mountains jerseys in the Tour de France by day-long breakaways amassing points at every summit. Most notably, Laurent Jalabert started his career as a sprinter but transformed himself into a different type of rider. Rafal Majka won the Polka Dot jersey at the 2014 Tour de France and 2016 Tour de France in a similar manner. Many riders who are time-trialists have been able to compete in everything but the steepest climbs because of their good power-to-weight ratio. Tour de France winners Miguel Indurain, Jan Ullrich and Bradley Wiggins were time-trialists but were among the best in the mountain stages during the years in which they won the Tour de France. Tom Dumoulin was able to win the 2017 Giro d'Italia by defending the lead he had built in the individual time trial in subsequent mountain stages. Sports physiologists have attributed the advantage that small stature holds in cycling up steep ascents to the way in which body mass and body surface area scale according to height.
As a hypothetical cyclist’s height increases, the surface areas of his body increase according to the square of his height whereas the mass of his body increases according to the cube of his height. The surface area relation applies not only to the total surface area of the body, but to the surface areas of the lungs and blood vessels, which are primary factors in determining aerobic power. Thus, an proportioned cyclist who has 50% more body mass will generate only about 30% more aerobic power. On a steep climb most of the cyclist’s energy goes into lifting his own weight, so the heavier cyclist will be at a competitive disadvantage. There is, of course, a lower limit to the benefit of small stature because, among other factors, the cyclist must lift the weight of his bicycle; the additional power is proportional to the grade or slope of the road and the speed of the rider along the slope. For a 5% grade, each meter of road requires lifting the body weight by 5 cm; the power is equal to change in gravitational potential energy per unit time.
For a 60 kilograms rider, the additional power needed is about 30 watts per meter/second of road speed. Scaling factors account for the relative disadvantage of the small cyclist in desce
1964 Tour de France
The 1964 Tour de France was the 51st edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours. It took place between 22 June and 14 July, with 22 stages covering a distance of 4,504 km. Stages 3, 10 and 22 were all two-part stages with the first half being a regular stage and the second half being a team or individual time trial, it was the only Tour de France. The race was won by Jacques Anquetil following an epic shoulder-to-shoulder battle with Raymond Poulidor during stage 20; the 1964 Tour started with 132 cyclists, divided into 12 teams of 11 cyclists. The teams entering the race were: The main favourite was defending champion Jacques Anquetil, he had won the 1964 Giro d'Italia earlier that year, was trying to win a Tour-Giro double, which at that moment had only been done by Fausto Coppi. The 1964 Tour de France started on 22 June, had one rest day in Andorra. Anquetil, looking for his fifth Tour victory, was superior in the time trials, of which he won all three, but Raymond Poulidor dominated in the mountains, Anquetil was close to losing.
The ninth stage finished in Monaco, where the riders would ride one extra lap, crossing the finish line twice. When the first group, including Poulidor and Anquetil, reached the finish line for the first time, Poulidor had forgotten the extra lap, sprinted in avail for the victory; when the group reached the finish line for the second time, Anquetil won the sprint, one minute of bonification time. In the second part of the tenth stage, the time trial, Anquetil won. Poulidor finished in second place, with a flat tire costing him some time. In the rest day between the thirteenth and the fourteenth stage, Anquetil had joined a lamb barbecue, in the fourteenth stage he was dropped, his team director gave him a bottle of champagne, which washed away the indigestion, Anquetil was able to get back to Poulidor. Poulidor broke a spoke, the repair cost him some time more because a team mechanic, trying to help him gain speed, made him fall. Poulidor attacked in the fifteenth stage, stayed away, he won the stage, in the general classification climbed to third place, nine seconds behind second-placed Anquetil.
Anquetil won the time trial of stage 17, became the leader. In the twentieth stage, Poulidor did not have the right bicycle for the climb, but did not tell it to his team director. Poulidor dropped Anquetil in the climb, but the margin was not big enough for him to take over the lead, Anquetil remained leader of the race by 14 seconds. In the final time trial, Anquetil was the favourite. Poulidor rode as fast as he could, with all other cyclists but Anquetil finished, had the best time. Anquetil was the last rider to ride the time trial, was five seconds slower at the intermediate time check, which gave Poulidor hope that he could emerge as winner. However, Anquetil was faster in the second part, won the time trial. Anquetil won the Tour by only 55 seconds, at that moment the smallest margin in history. There were several classifications in the 1964 Tour de France, two of them awarding jerseys to their leaders; the most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage.
The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey. Additionally, there was a points classification. In the points classification, cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints; the cyclist with the most points lead the classification, was identified with a green jersey. There was a mountains classification; the organisation had categorized some climbs as either first, third, or fourth-category. The cyclist with the most points was not identified with a jersey. For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the riders in the team that lead this classification wore yellow caps. The combativity award was given to Henri Anglade. Augendre, Jacques. Guide historique. Tour de France. Paris: Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016. Media related to 1964 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons