Muckross Abbey is one of the major ecclesiastical sites found in the Killarney National Park, County Kerry, Ireland. It was founded in 1448 as a Franciscan friary for the Observantine Franciscans by Donal McCarthy Mor, it has been damaged and reconstructed many times. The friars were subjected to raids by marauding groups and were persecuted by Cromwellian forces under Lord Ludlow. Today the abbey is roofless although, apart from this, is quite well preserved, its most striking feature is a central courtyard, which contains a large yew tree and is surrounded by a vaulted cloister. In the 17th and 18th centuries, it became the burial place for prominent County Kerry poets O'Donoghue, Ó Rathaille and Ó Súilleabháin, while Piaras Feiritéar is buried in the graveyard just outside.. Muckross House List of abbeys and priories in Ireland Media related to Muckross Abbey at Wikimedia Commons
Lough Leane is largest of the three lakes of Killarney. The River Laune flows from the lake into the Dingle Bay to the northwest; the lake's name means "lake of learning" in reference to the monastery on Innisfallen, an island in the lake. Innisfallen was a centre of scholarship in the early Middle Ages, producing the Annals of Innisfallen and, according to legend, educating King Brian Boru. Another historic site, the tower house Ross Castle sits on Ross Island in the lake. Ross Island is rich in copper. Archaeological evidence suggests the island has been mined since the time of the Bronze Age Beaker People. Lough Leane is 19 square kilometres in size, it is the largest body of fresh water in the region. It has become eutrophic as a result of phosphates from agricultural and domestic pollution entering Lough Leane Reedbed, an important habitat on the edge of Lough Leane; this nutrient enrichment has caused several algal blooms in recent years. The blooms have not yet had a severe effect on the lake's ecosystem.
To prevent further pollution causing a permanent change in the lake's ecosystem, a review of land use in the catchment area is being carried out. Water quality in the lake appears to have improved since phosphates were removed from sewage in 1985; as of August 2007, several large hotels and businesses have stated their intention to stop using phosphate detergents, in an effort to preserve the quality of the lake water. Lake cruises for tourists leave from Ross Castle, boats can be hired for the trip to Innisfallen Island. Lough Leane is a habitat for the critically endangered blunt-snouted Irish char. Eóganacht Locha Léin, a ruling sept in the area during the Middle Ages
Middle Irish is the Goidelic language, spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900–1200 AD. The modern Goidelic languages—Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx—are all descendants of Middle Irish; the Lebor Bretnach, the "Irish Nennius", survives only from manuscripts preserved in Ireland. Middle Irish is a VSO, nominative-accusative language. Nouns decline for two genders: masculine, though traces of neuter declension persist. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender and case. Verbs conjugate for three tenses: past, future. Verbs conjugate for an impersonal, agentless form. There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative, subjunctive, relative clauses, etc. Prepositions inflect for number. Different prepositions govern different cases, depending on intended semantics; the following is a poem in Middle Irish about King of Connacht. Dún Eogain Bél forsind loch forsrala ilar tréntroch, ní mair Eogan forsind múr ocus maraid in sendún. Maraid inad a thige irraibe' na chrólige, ní mair in rígan re cair nobíd.
Cairptech in rí robúi and, innsaigthech oirgnech Érenn, ní dechaid coll cána ar goil, rocroch tríchait im óenboin. Roloisc Life co ba shecht, rooirg Mumain tríchait fecht, nír dál do Leith Núadat nair co nár dámair immarbáig. Doluid fecht im-Mumain móir do chuinchid argait is óir, d’iaraid sét ocus móine do gabail gíall dagdóine. Trían a shlúaig dar Lúachair síar co Cnoc mBrénainn isin slíab, a trían aile úad fo dess co Carn Húi Néit na n-éces. Sé fodéin oc Druimm Abrat co trían a shlúaig, nísdermat, oc loscud Muman maisse, ba subach don degaisse. Atchím a chomarba ind ríg a mét dorigne d’anfhír, nenaid ocus tromm ’malle, conid é fonn a dúine. Dún Eogain. MacManus, Damian. "A chronology of the Latin loan words in early Irish". Ériu. 34: 21–71. McCone, Kim. "The dative singular of Old Irish consonant stems". Ériu. 29: 26–38. McCone, Kim. "Final /t/ to /d/ after unstressed vowels, an Old Irish sound law". Ériu. 31: 29–44. McCone, Kim. "Prehistoric and Middle Irish". Progress in medieval Irish studies. Pp. 7–53.
McCone, Kim. A First Old Irish Reader, Including an Introduction to Middle Irish. Maynooth Medieval Irish Texts 3. Maynooth. Dictionary of the Irish Language
Thomond was a kingdom of Gaelic Ireland, associated geographically with present-day County Clare and County Limerick, as well as parts of County Tipperary around Nenagh and its hinterland. The kingdom represented the core homeland of the Dál gCais people, although there were other Gaels in the area such as the Éile and Eóganachta, the Norse of Limerick, it existed from the collapse of the Kingdom of Munster in the 12th century as competition between the Ó Briain and the Mac Cárthaigh led to the schism between Thomond and Desmond. It continued to exist outside of the Anglo-Norman controlled Lordship of Ireland until the 16th century; the exact origin of Thomond as an internal part of Munster, is debated. It is held that the Déisi Muman pushed north-west starting from the 5th to the early 8th century, taking the area from the Uí Fiachrach Aidhne of the Connachta; the Dál gCais rose to power in all of Munster, to the detriment of the Eóganachta. The person most famously associated with this is Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, best known for his feats at the Battle of Clontarf.
Four generations down the line and after providing three more High Kings, the Dál gCais were unable to hold onto all of Munster and so Thomond came into being as a separate entity. Between the mid-12th and late 13th century, when much of Ireland came under direct English control and/or settlement, Thomond too came into the Anglo-Irish sphere; the de Clare family established a colony at Bunratty, while the Butler and FitzGerald families made inroads. However, from the time of the Battle of Dysert O'Dea, Thomond was restored as a kingdom, with its rulers reinstating Limerick within their overrule. Not until the 1540s did the ruling O'Brien dynasty accommodate with English rule. County Clare was sometimes known as County Thomond in the period after its creation from the District of Thomond. In 1841, an estimation of the extent of the kingdom was undertaken by John O'Donovan and Eugene Curry"The principality of Thomond called the Country of the Dal-Cais, comprised the entire of the present Co. of Clare, the Parishes of Iniscaltra and Clonrush in the County of Galway, the entire of Ely O'Carroll, the Baronies of Ikerrin and Lower Ormond and Arra, somewhat more than the western half of the Barony of Clanwilliam in the County of Tipperary.
The entire Province of Munster was under the control of the O'Brien clan under the leadership of Toirrdelbach Ua Briain and his son Muirchertach from 1072-1114. Their capital was located in Limerick. In a bid to secure the High Kingship of Ireland for the clan, Muirchertach encouraged ecclesiastical reform in 1111 with the creation of territorial dioceses over the entire island, they had support for their bid from several foreign connections including the Norwegian king Magnus Bareleg and the Anglo-Norman baron Arnulf de Montgomery, who were both united to the clan through marriage in 1102. Their claim to the High Kingship was countered by the O'Neill clan in Ulster under the leadership of Domnall MacLochlainn of Ailech. Though Muirchertach campaigned hard in the north, he was unable to obtain the submission of Ailech; when he fell ill in 1114 he was deposed by his brother Diarmait. Muirchertach did regain power, but after his death in 1119 his brother's sons took control of the clan. MacLochlainn's plans to restore the High Kingship to the north was thwarted by his ally Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair of Connacht who formed an alliance with the O'Brien's.
In 1118 Conchobair partitioned Munster between the sons of Tagh Mac Carthaig. The northern section of the province became the O'Brien Kingdom of Thomond and the southern became the Mac Carthaigh Kingdom of Desmond. From the 12th to the 14th centuries, the Norman invasion and their multiple attempts to take Thomond from the Gaels was the main challenge to the realm; the picture was complicated by rival branches of the Ó Briain trying to ally with various different Normans to enforce their own line as reigning over Thomond. At the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, Domhnall Mór Ó Briain was king of Thomond. Domhnall was a man of realpolitik. Domhnall acknowledged Henry II as Lord of Ireland at Cashel in 1171, but a mere two years when Plantagenet tried to grant Thomond to Philip de Braose this situation was overturned; the Dál gCais defeated a Norman army at the Battle of Thurles in 1174. The following year when Raymond le Gros captured Limerick through a naval invasion, Domhnall re-took it and burned it rather than have it in foreign hands.
The twenty years after that for the Gaels of Thomond were more secure. After the death of Domhnall Mór a period of destructive feuding among his offspring caused a great territorial decline in Thomond; the brothers Muircheartach Finn Ó Briain and Conchobhar Ruadh Ó Briain fought with each other, seeing Muircheartach's reign interrupted between 1198-1203. Muirchertach himself was blinded by the Normans in 1208 and was soon forced into abdication due to no longer being righdamhna. Donnchadh Cairprech Ó Briain had to deal with dissent from the Mac Con Mara and Ó Coinn against his rule, so brought in the Laigin's Mac Gormáin as his standard bearers. Donnchadh enlisted the support of the de Burgh and other Normans in this fight, which came at a costl
Henry II of England
Henry II known as Henry Curtmantle, Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou and Nantes, Lord of Ireland. Before he was 40 he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France—an area that would come to be called the Angevin Empire. Henry was the son of daughter of Henry I of England, he became involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England occupied by Stephen of Blois, was made Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards became the Duke of Aquitaine by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII of France had been annulled. Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in 1153, Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his grandfather Henry I.
During the early years of his reign the younger Henry restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou and Touraine. Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury; this controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket's murder in 1170. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "cold war" over several decades. Henry expanded his empire at Louis' expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse. Henry and Eleanor had eight children -- five sons. Three of his sons would be king, though Henry the Young King was named his father's co-ruler rather than a stand-alone king; as the sons grew up, tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began to emerge, encouraged by Louis and his son King Philip II. In 1173 Henry's heir apparent, "Young Henry", rebelled in protest.
France, Brittany and Boulogne allied themselves with the rebels. The Great Revolt was only defeated by Henry's vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in 1183; the Norman invasion of Ireland provided lands for his youngest son John, but Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy all his sons' desires for land and immediate power. By 1189, Young Henry and Geoffrey were dead, Philip played on Richard's fears that Henry II would make John king, leading to a final rebellion. Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon castle in Anjou, he was succeeded by Richard. Henry's empire collapsed during the reign of his youngest son, John. Many of the changes Henry introduced during his long rule, had long-term consequences. Henry's legal changes are considered to have laid the basis for the English Common Law, while his intervention in Brittany and Scotland shaped the development of their societies and governmental systems.
Historical interpretations of Henry's reign have changed over time. In the 18th century, scholars argued that Henry was a driving force in the creation of a genuinely English monarchy and a unified Britain. During the Victorian expansion of the British Empire, historians were keenly interested in the formation of Henry's own empire, but they expressed concern over his private life and treatment of Becket. Late-20th-century historians have combined British and French historical accounts of Henry, challenging earlier Anglocentric interpretations of his reign. Henry was born in France at Le Mans on 5 March 1133, the eldest child of the Empress Matilda and her second husband, Geoffrey the Fair, Count of Anjou; the French county of Anjou was formed in the 10th century and the Angevin rulers attempted for several centuries to extend their influence and power across France through careful marriages and political alliances. In theory, the county answered to the French king, but royal power over Anjou weakened during the 11th century and the county became autonomous.
Henry's mother was King of England and Duke of Normandy. She was born into a powerful ruling class of Normans, who traditionally owned extensive estates in both England and Normandy, her first husband had been the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. After her father's death in 1135, Matilda hoped to claim the English throne, but instead her cousin Stephen of Blois was crowned king and recognised as the Duke of Normandy, resulting in civil war between their rival supporters. Geoffrey took advantage of the confusion to attack the Duchy of Normandy but played no direct role in the English conflict, leaving this to Matilda and her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester; the war, termed the Anarchy by Victorian historians, degenerated into stalemate. Henry spent some of his earliest years in his mother's household, accompanied Matilda to Normandy in the late 1130s. Henry's childhood from the age of seven, was spent in Anjou, where he was educated by Peter of Saintes, a noted grammarian of the day. In late 1142, Geoffrey decided t
Kingdom of Munster
The Kingdom of Munster was a kingdom of Gaelic Ireland which existed in the south-west of the island from at least the 1st century BC until 1118. According to traditional Irish history found in the Annals of the Four Masters, the kingdom originated as the territory of the Clanna Dedad, an Érainn tribe of Irish Gaels; some of the early kings were prominent in the Red Branch Cycle such as Conaire Mór. For a few centuries they were competitors for the High Kingship or Ireland, but lost out to the Connachta, descendants of Conn Cétchathach; the kingdom had internal divisions at different times during its history. Major changes reshaped Munster in the 7th century. Osraige, brought under the control of Munster for two centuries was retaken by the Dál Birn. Various subordinate groups, such as the Múscraige, switched their alliance and helped to bring the Eóganachta to power in Munster. For the next three centuries, various subgroups such as the Eóganacht Chaisil and Eóganacht Glendamnach competed for control of Munster.
Celtic Christian civilisation developed at this time and the Rock of Cashel became a seat of power. Two kings, Faílbe Flann mac Áedo Duib and Cathal mac Finguine, were able to raise Munster to the premier Irish kingdom for a time. Munster had to contend with raids from the Vikings under the Uí Ímair from the 9th century onwards, who established themselves at Limerick and Cork. Around the same time the Dál gCais known as the Déisi, were in the ascendancy in Munster. Aided in part by the Uí Néill, the subordinate Dál gCais came to challenge the Eóganachta for control of Munster; the exploits of their most famous member Brian Bóruma, known for the Battle of Clontarf established Dál gCais rule for the rest of the 11th century. After internal divisions, Munster was partitoned by High King Toirdelbach Ó Conchobhair with the Treaty of Glanmire in 1118, between Thomond ruled by the Ó Briain and Desmond ruled by the Mac Cárthaigh. A late medieval text in Middle Irish named, it claims that the name derives from Eochaidh Mumu, one of the early Heberian High Kings of Ireland who ruled the area.
This High King held the royal nickname mó-mó meaning "greater-greater", because he was supposed to be more powerful and greater in stature than any other Irishman of his time. The Cóir Anmann claims that the word mó with ána combined to form Mumu, because the kingdom was more propserous than any other in Ireland; the second word ána is associated with the goddess Anu. Indeed, Munster includes within it a pair of breast shaped mountains near Killarney named the Two Paps of Ána; the early Kings of Munster, derived from the Érainn, were mentioned in the Red Branch Cycle of Irish traditional history. Prominent figures featuring in this Cycle are Cú Roí mac Dáire, Conaire Mór, Lugaid mac Con Roí and others; these men are all presented as great warriors, in particular Cú Roí features in the Táin bó Cúailnge, where he fights Amergin mac Eccit, until requested to stop by Meadhbh. Cú Roí is killed by Cú Chulainn after being betrayed by Bláthnat who he had captured, his death was avenged by his son Lugaid mac Con Roí.
The Dáirine, or Clanna Dedad, a major branch of the Érainn, were a significant power in Gaelic Ireland, providing several High Kings of Ireland at the Hill of Tara in addition to ruling Munster. There was a Temair Luachra, existing as the royal site of Munster, but this is lost to history; some of the most prominent High Kings from this time provided by the Érainn of Munster include Eterscél Mór and Conaire Mór who are the subject of the Togail Bruidne Dá Derga. The Laigin in particular were major rivals for Munster at the time; the Chronicle of Ireland places the start of these rulers at the 1st century BCE. Outside of Gaelic sources, the predominant people of Munster, the Érainn, along with other tribes in the area are attested to in Ptolemy's Geographia, where they are known as the Iverni. According to the Book of Glendalough, a member of the Munster royal family, Fíatach Finn, moved north and became King of Ulster, establishing the Érainn kindred known as the Dál Fiatach; this meant competing with the Ulaid rulers of Clanna Rudhraighe.
A great revival of power for Munster occurred in the 2nd century AD, as one of their kings, Conaire Cóem, established himself as High King of Ireland. This was a time for pioneering figures, as major High Kings representing other Gaelic groups in Ireland lived such as Conn Cétchathach founder of the Connachta and Cathair Mór a prominent king of the Laigin. Conaire Cóem holds an important place in Irish genealogies as the forefather of the Síl Conairi, his sons. Another High King from Munster's Dáirine around this period was Lugaid Mac Con, the progenitor of Corcu Loígde, his mother was Sadb ingen Chuinn from t
Kingdom of Ireland
The Kingdom of Ireland was a client state of England and of Great Britain that existed from 1542 until 1800. It was ruled by the monarchs of England and of Great Britain in personal union with their other realms; the kingdom was administered from Dublin Castle nominally by the King or Queen, who appointed a viceroy to rule in their stead. It had its own legislature, legal system, state church; the territory of the Kingdom had been a lordship ruled by the kings of England, founded in 1177 after the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. By the 1500s the area of English rule had shrunk and most of Ireland was held by Gaelic Irish chiefdoms. In 1542, King Henry VIII of England was made King of Ireland; the English began establishing control over the island, which sparked the Desmond Rebellions and the Nine Years’ War. It was completed in the 1600s; the conquest involved confiscating land from the native Irish and colonising it with settlers from Britain. In its early years, the Kingdom had limited recognition, as no Catholic countries in Europe recognised Henry and his heir Edward as monarch of Ireland.
Catholics, who made up most of the population, were discriminated against in the Kingdom, which from the late 17th century was dominated by a Protestant Ascendancy. This discrimination was one of the main drivers behind several conflicts which broke out: the Irish Confederate Wars, the Williamite-Jacobite War, the Armagh disturbances and the Irish Rebellion of 1798; the Parliament of Ireland passed the Acts of Union 1800 by which it abolished itself and the Kingdom. The act was passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, it established the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on the first day of 1801 by uniting the Crowns of Ireland and of Great Britain. The papal bull Laudabiliter of Pope Adrian IV was issued in 1155, it granted the Angevin King Henry II of England the title Dominus Hibernae. Laudabiliter authorised the king to invade Ireland. In return, Henry was required to remit a penny per hearth of the tax roll to the Pope; this was reconfirmed by Adrian's successor Pope Alexander III in 1172.
When Pope Clement VII excommunicated the king of England, Henry VIII, in 1533, the constitutional position of the lordship in Ireland became uncertain. Henry declared himself the head of the Church in England, he had petitioned Rome to procure an annulment of his marriage to Queen Catherine. Clement VII refused Henry's request and Henry subsequently refused to recognise the Roman Catholic Church's vestigial sovereignty over Ireland, was excommunicated again in late 1538 by Pope Paul III; the Treason Act 1537 was passed to counteract this. Following the failed revolt of Silken Thomas in 1534–35, the lord deputy, had some military successes against several clans in the late 1530s, took their submissions. By 1540 most of Ireland seemed under the control of the king's Dublin administration. Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, an Act of the Irish Parliament; the new kingdom was not recognised by the Catholic monarchies in Europe. After the death of King Edward VI, Henry's son, the papal bull of 1555 recognised the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I as Queen of Ireland.
The link of "personal union" of the Crown of Ireland to the Crown of England became enshrined in Catholic canon law. In this fashion, the Kingdom of Ireland was ruled by the reigning monarch of England; this placed the new Kingdom of Ireland in personal union with the Kingdom of England. In line with its expanded role and self-image, the administration established the King's Inns for barristers in 1541, the Ulster King of Arms to regulate heraldry in 1552. Proposals to establish a university in Dublin were delayed until 1592. In 1593 war broke out, as Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, led a confederation of Irish lords and Spain against the crown, in what became known as the Nine Years' War. A series of stunning Irish victories brought English power in Ireland to the point of collapse by the beginning of 1600, but a renewed campaign under Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy forced Tyrone to submit in 1603, completing the Tudor conquest of Ireland. In 1603 James VI King of Scots became James I of England, uniting the Kingdoms of England and Ireland in a personal union.
The political order of the kingdom was interrupted by the Wars of the Three Kingdoms starting in 1639. During the subsequent interregnum period, England and Ireland were ruled as a republic until 1660; this period saw the rise of the loyalist Irish Catholic Confederation within the kingdom and, from 1653, the creation of the republican Commonwealth of England and Ireland. The kingdom's order was restored 1660 with the restoration of Charles II. Without any public dissent, Charles's reign was backdated to his father's execution in 1649. Poynings' Law was repealed in 1782 in what came to be known as the Constitution of 1782, granting Ireland legislative independence. Parliament in this period came to be known as Grattan's Parliament, after the principal Irish leader of the period, Henry Grattan. Although Ireland had legislative independence, executive administration remained under the control of the executive of the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1788 -- 89 a Regency crisis arose. Grattan wanted to appoint the Prince of Wales George