The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
New Kingdom of Egypt
Radiocarbon dating places the exact beginning of the New Kingdom between 1570–1544 BC. The New Kingdom followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period and it was Egypt’s most prosperous time and marked the peak of its power. The part of period, under the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties is known as the Ramesside period. It is named after the pharaohs that took the name of Ramesses I. Egyptian armies fought Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria, the Eighteenth Dynasty contained some of Egypts most famous Pharaohs, including Ahmose I, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun. Queen Hatshepsut concentrated on expanding Egypts external trade by sending an expedition to the land of Punt. Thutmose III expanded Egypts army and wielded it with success to consolidate the empire created by his predecessors. This resulted in a peak in Egypts power and wealth during the reign of Amenhotep III, during the reign of Thutmose III, originally referring to the kings palace, became a form of address for the person who was king.
Akhenatens religious fervor is cited as the reason why he was written out of Egyptian history. Under his reign, in the 14th century BC, Egyptian art flourished and attained a level of realism. Towards the end of the 18th Dynasty, the situation had changed radically, Ramesses II sought to recover territories in the Levant that had been held by the 18th Dynasty. His campaigns of reconquest culminated in the Battle of Kadesh, where he led Egyptian armies against those of the Hittite king Muwatalli II. Ramesses was caught in historys first recorded military ambush, although he was able to rally his troops, the outcome of the battle was undecided with both sides claiming victory at their home front, ultimately resulting in a peace treaty between the two nations. The last great pharaoh from the New Kingdom is widely considered to be Ramesses III, in the eighth year of his reign the Sea Peoples invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great land and sea battles and he incorporated them as subject peoples and settled them in Southern Canaan although there is evidence that they forced their way into Canaan.
Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states, such as Philistia and he was compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypts Western Delta in his sixth year and eleventh year respectively. The heavy cost of this warfare slowly drained Egypts treasury and contributed to the decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Something in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground, one proposed cause is the Hekla 3 eruption of the Hekla volcano in Iceland but the dating of this remains disputed
The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the eastern Sudan region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956. It attained independence as the Republic of the Sudan, which since 2011 has been split into Sudan, until 1914, Egypt itseslf was nominally part of the Ottoman Empire. During the 19th century, it expanded its control of the Sudan as far south as the Great Lakes region. In 1881 the Mahdist revolt broke out in Sudan and in 1882 the British invaded Egypt, Egypt became a de facto protectorate of Britain and together British and Egyptian forces gradually re-conquered the Sudan. In 1899, they agreed to establish a joint protectorate, Egypt on the basis of its previous claims. Between 1914 and 1922, Egypt and thus the Sudan were formally a part of the British Empire, after Egyptian independence in 1922, Britain gradually assumed more control of the condominium, edging out Egypt almost completely by 1924. Increasing Egyptian dissatisfaction with this arrangement came to a head after the overthrow of the Egyptian monarch in 1952, on 1 January 1956, Egypt and Britain ceded Sudan its independence.
In 1820, the army of Egyptian wāli Muhammad Ali Pasha, commanded by his son Ismail Pasha, the region had longstanding linguistic, cultural and economic ties to Egypt and had been partially under the same government at intermittent periods since the times of the pharaohs. Muhammad Ali was aggressively pursuing a policy of expanding his power with a view to possibly supplanting the Ottoman Empire and this policy was expanded and intensified most notably by Muhammad Alis grandson, Ismail Pasha, under whose reign most of the remainder of modern-day Sudan was conquered. Ten years in 1879, the foreign debt of Ismail Pashas government served as the pretext for the Great Powers to force his abdication. The situation was compounded by Tewfiks perceived corruption and mismanagement that ultimately culminated in the Urabi Revolt, with the survival of his throne in dire jeopardy, Tewfik appealed for British assistance. In 1882, at Tewfiks invitation, the British bombarded Alexandria and Sudans primary seaport, British forces overthrew the Urabi government in Cairo and proceeded to occupy the rest of Egypt and Sudan in 1882.
Though officially the authority of Tewfik had been restored, in reality the British largely took control of Egyptian, Tewfiks acquiescence to British occupation as the price for securing the monarchy was deeply detested by many throughout Egypt and Sudan. With the bulk of British forces stationed in northern Egypt, protecting Cairo, Alexandria, in contrast, the British military presence in Sudan was comparatively limited and eventually revolt broke out. The rebellion in Sudan, led by the Sudanese religious leader Muhammad ibn Abdalla, Abdalla wished not only to expel the British, but to overthrow the monarchy, viewed as secular and Western-leaning, and replace it with a pure Islamic government. Whilst primarily a Sudanese figure, Abdalla even attracted the support of some Egyptian nationalists and caught Tewfik, the revolt culminated in the fall of Khartoum and the death of the British General Charles George Gordon in 1885. Tewfiks forces and those of the United Kingdom were forced to withdraw from almost all of Sudan with Abdalla establishing a theocratic state and this invasion was halted by Tewfiks forces, and was followed by withdrawal from Ethiopia.
Abdullahi wrecked virtually all of the previous Turkish and Fung administrative systems, from 1885 to 1898 the population of Sudan collapsed from eight to three million due to war, famine and persecution
Egyptian revolution of 1952
The Egyptian revolution of 1952, known as the July 23 revolution, began on July 23,1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The revolution was aimed at overthrowing King Faruq. The revolutionary government adopted a staunchly nationalist, anti-imperialist agenda, which came to be expressed chiefly through Arab nationalism, the ongoing state of war with Israel posed a serious challenge, as the Free Officers increased Egypts already strong support of the Palestinians. These two issues conflated four years after the revolution when Egypt was invaded by Britain and this strengthened the appeal of the revolution in other Arab and African countries. By the 1960s, Arab socialism had become a dominant theme and these restrictions on political activity would remain in place until the presidency of Anwar Sadat from 1970 onwards, during which many of the policies of the revolution were scaled back or reversed. It inspired the toppling of existing pro-Western monarchies and governments in the region, the revolution is commemorated each year on July 23.
The revolution in 1952 found its genesis within the voice of the people and it was first time for Egyptians to rule since time of Pharaohs. The new regime was common to all Egyptians in terms of religion, the end of monarchy signaled an end for British intervention. A government that is 100 percent consisting of Egyptians was expected to act in favor of society, a mixture of agrarian capitalism and feudalism initiated the anti-feudal coup. The Egyptian economy was capitalist since last quarter of the 19th century, the loss of the 1948 war with Israel led to the Free Officers accusations of corruption towards the King and his court and the promotion of that feeling among the Egyptian people. The Free Officers Movement was formed by a group of reform minded officers which, backed by the Soviet Union and they used an army general, Muhammad Naguib, as its head to show their seriousness and attract more army followers. You manifested this during and after the Palestine War in the corrupt arms scandals and your open interference in the courts to try to falsify the facts of the case, thus shaking faith in justice.
The army places upon Your Majesty the burden of everything that may result from failure to abdicate according to the wishes of the people. Causes • The Egyptian monarchy was seen as corrupt and pro-British, with its lavish lifestyle that seemed provocative to the free officers movement who lived in poverty. Its policies completed the image of the Egyptian government being a puppet-figure in the hands of the British government, • Promoting the feeling of corruptness of several Egyptian institutions such as the police, the palace and even the political parties by the free officers. • The loss of 1948 war with Israel led to the free officers blame of the King, as a result, a group of army officers who named themselves the free officers movement was formed by a young officer named Gamal Abdel Nasser. They used a general, Mohamed Naguib, as its head to show seriousness. You manifested this during and after the Palestine War in the corrupt arms scandals and your open interference in the courts to try to falsify the facts of the case, thus shaking faith in justice
There were numerous new nations in Eastern Europe, most of them small in size. The United States gained dominance in world finance, by the middle of the decade, prosperity was widespread, with the second half of the decade known, especially in Germany, as the Golden Twenties. The Roaring Twenties highlighted novel and highly social and cultural trends. These trends, made possible by sustained economic prosperity, were most visible in major cities like New York, Paris, the Jazz Age began and Art Deco peaked. For women, knee-length skirts and dresses became socially acceptable, as did bobbed hair with a marcel wave, the women who pioneered these trends were frequently referred to as flappers. Not all was new, “normalcy” returned to politics in the wake of hyper-emotional wartime passions in the United States and Germany. The leftist revolutions in Finland, Germany, Austria and Spain were defeated by conservatives, but succeeded in Russia, in Italy the fascists came to power under Mussolini after threatening a march on Rome.
Most independent countries enacted womens suffrage in the era, including Canada in 1917, Britain in 1918. There were a few countries that held out until after the Second World War. If women could work in factories, it seemed both ungrateful and illogical to deny them a place in the polling booth. But the vote was more than simply a reward for war work. The Netherlands, Sweden and Greece did especially well, in advanced economies the prosperity reached middle class households and many in the working class. With radio, automobiles and electric lighting and appliances, there was unprecedented industrial growth, accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle and culture. The media began to focus on celebrities, especially sports heroes, major cities built large sports stadiums for the fans, in addition to palatial cinemas. The Great Depression was a worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century.
The depression originated in the United States, after a decline in lofty stock prices. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Fuad I of Egypt
Fuad I was the Sultan and King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917 and he substituted the title of King for Sultan when the United Kingdom recognised Egyptian independence in 1922. His name is sometimes spelled Fouad, Fuad was born in Giza Palace in Cairo, the seventh son of Ismail the Magnificent. He spent his childhood with his father in Naples. He got his education from the academy in Turin, Italy. Prior to becoming sultan, Fuad had played a role in the establishment of Cairo University. He became the universitys first rector in 1908, and remained in the post until his resignation in 1913 and he was succeeded as rector by then-minister of Justice Hussein Rushdi Pasha. In 1913, Fuad made unsuccessful attempts to secure the throne of Albania for himself, at the time and Sudan was ruled by his nephew, Abbas II, and the likelihood of Fuad becoming the monarch in his own country seemed remote.
This, and the fact that the Muhammad Ali dynasty was of Albanian descent, Fuad served as President of the Egyptian Geographic Society from 1915 until 1918. Fuad came under consideration as a candidate for the Albanian throne and he ascended the throne of the Sultanate of Egypt upon the death of his brother Hussein Kamel in 1917. In the aftermath of the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, the United Kingdom ended its protectorate over Egypt, on 15 March 1922, Fuad issued a decree changing his title from Sultan of Egypt to King of Egypt. In 1930, he attempted to strengthen the power of the Crown by abrogating the 1923 Constitution, large scale public dissatisfaction compelled him to restore the earlier constitution in 1935. The 1923 Constitution granted Fuad vast powers and he made frequent use of his right to dissolve Parliament. During his reign, cabinets were dismissed at royal will, Fuad was an instrumental force in modern Egyptian historiography. Fuad married his first wife in Cairo,30 May 1895 at the Abbasiya Palace in Cairo,14 February 1896 and she was his cousin and the only daughter of Field Marshal Prince Ibrahim Fahmi Ahmad Pasha.
They had two children, a son, Ismail Fuad, who died in infancy, and a daughter, unhappily married, the couple divorced in 1898. During a dispute with the brother of his first wife, Fuad was shot in the throat and he survived, but carried that scar the rest of his life. Fuad married his wife at the Bustan Palace in Cairo on 24 May 1919
This Predynastic era is traditionally equivalent to the final part of the Neolithic period beginning c.6000 BC and corresponds to the Naqada III period. The Predynastic period is divided into cultural periods, each named after the place where a certain type of Egyptian settlement was first discovered. The Late Paleolithic in Egypt started around 30,000 BC, the Nazlet Khater skeleton was found in 1980 and dated in 1982 from nine samples ranging between 35,100 and 30,360 years. This specimen is the only complete human skeleton from the earliest Late Stone Age in Africa. Excavation of the Nile has exposed early stone tools, the earliest of these lithic industries were located within the 100-foot terrace, and were Chellean, primitive Acheulean and an Egyptian form of the Clactonian. Within the 50-foot terrace was developed Acheulean, originally reported as Early Mousterian but since changed to Levalloisean, other implements were located in the 30-foot terrace. The 15- and 10-foot terraces saw a more developed version of the Levalloisean, tools of the Egyptian Sebilian technology and an Egyptian version of the Aterian technology were located.
Some of the oldest known buildings were discovered in Egypt by archaeologist Waldemar Chmielewski along the border near Wadi Halfa. They were mobile structures—easily disassembled and reassembled—providing hunter-gatherers with semi-permanent habitation, Aterian tool-making reached Egypt c.40,000 BC. The Khormusan industry in Egypt began between 40,000 and 30,000 BC, khormusans developed advanced tools not only from stone but from animal bones and hematite. They developed small arrow heads resembling those of Native Americans, the end of the Khormusan industry came around 16,000 B. C. with the appearance of other cultures in the region, including the Gemaian. The Halfan culture flourished along the Nile Valley of Egypt and Nubia between 18,000 and 15,000 BC, though one Halfan site dates to before 24,000 BC, people survived on a diet of large herd animals and the Khormusan tradition of fishing. Greater concentrations of artifacts indicate that they were not bound to seasonal wandering and they are viewed as the parent culture of the Ibero-Maurusian industry, which spread across the Sahara and into Spain.
The Halfan culture was derived in turn from the Khormusan, which depended on specialized hunting, the primary material remains of this culture are stone tools, and a multitude of rock paintings. Qadan peoples developed sickles and grinding stones to aid in the collecting and processing of plant foods prior to consumption. However, there are no indications of the use of these tools after around 10,000 BC, in Egypt, analyses of pollen found at archaeological sites indicate that the Sebilian culture were gathering wheat and barley. It has been hypothesized that the sedentary lifestyle used by farmers led to increased warfare, continued expansion of the desert forced the early ancestors of the Egyptians to settle around the Nile more permanently and adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. The period from 9000 to 6000 BC has left little in the way of archaeological evidence
Demographics of Egypt
Egypt is the most populous country in the Africa and the third-most populous on the African continent. About 95% of the countrys 94.7 million people live along the banks of the Nile and in the Nile Delta, which fans out north of Cairo, and along the Suez Canal. These regions are among the worlds most densely populated, containing an average of over 3,820 persons per square mile, small communities spread throughout the desert regions of Egypt are clustered around oases and historic trade and transportation routes. The government has tried with mixed success to encourage migration to newly irrigated land reclaimed from the desert, the proportion of the population living in rural areas has continued to decrease as people move to the cities in search of employment and a higher standard of living. An estimated 75% of Egyptians are under the age of 25 with just 3% over the age of 65, Egypt has a population of 92 million. According to the OECD/World Bank statistics population growth in Egypt from 1990 to 2008 was 23.7 million, Data taken from Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics.
Approximately 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries and the remaining 30% are living mostly North America, figures from CAPMAS, The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics has released high/medium/low population projections for 2011-2031 based on Final Results of 2006 Population Census. The 2020 high variant is 92.6 million, the medium -91.0 million, the 2030 high variant is 104.4 million, the medium -101.7 million, the low -99.8 million. However the information could be misleading as the 2013 population figure of 84.6 million is higher than the high of 83 million. Vital statistics, Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics Fertility Rate and CBR, Data taken from CAPMAS, information for population is in thousands, pop density - persons/km2 and area is in km2. The CIA World Factbook lists Egyptians as 99. 6%, other refers to people who are not citizens of Egypt, who come to Egypt to work for international companies, etc. The vast majority of the population of Egypt consists of Egyptians including Copts, the vast majority of Egyptians are native speakers of modern Egyptian Arabic.
There are minorities of Beja and Dom. The country still hosts some 90,000 refugees and asylum seekers, mostly Palestinians, other sources give more detailed statistics, including the Beja, the Nubians, Berbers. Arabic, Some Christians speak Egyptian language * The language of Pharaohs* in order to keep their identity and to protect the language of their ancestors, the pharaohs. So in the Coptic Church, the Egyptian language is used through the majority of the prayers, masses. English widely understood as well as French, siwa language used in ethnic Berber tribal areas in the western desert, and Nubian language is widely used among the ethnic Nubians in the southern areas. According to the CIA World Factbook, approximately 90% of the population is Muslim, estimates of the Christian population in Egypt range from 6% to 20%
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II in order to prevent another such conflict, at its founding, the UN had 51 member states, there are now 193. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, further main offices are situated in Geneva and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states, the UNs mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades by the Cold War between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies. The organization participated in actions in Korea and the Congo. After the end of the Cold War, the UN took on major military, the UN has six principal organs, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Trusteeship Council.
UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, the UNs most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese António Guterres since 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UNs work, the organization won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001, and a number of its officers and agencies have been awarded the prize. Other evaluations of the UNs effectiveness have been mixed, some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, corrupt, or biased. Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939. It incorporated Soviet suggestions, but left no role for France, four Policemen was coined to refer to four major Allied countries, United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China, which emerged in the Declaration by United Nations.
Roosevelt first coined the term United Nations to describe the Allied countries, the term United Nations was first officially used when 26 governments signed this Declaration. One major change from the Atlantic Charter was the addition of a provision for religious freedom, by 1 March 1945,21 additional states had signed. Each Government pledges itself to cooperate with the Governments signatory hereto, the foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which are, or which may be, rendering material assistance and contributions in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism. During the war, the United Nations became the term for the Allies. To join, countries had to sign the Declaration and declare war on the Axis, at the meetings, Lord Halifax deputized for Mr. Eden, Wellington Koo for T. V. Soong, and Mr Gromyko for Mr. Molotov. The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented, the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the UN, and the facility was completed in 1952.
Its site—like UN headquarters buildings in Geneva and Nairobi—is designated as international territory, the Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-General