The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, was established in 1772 as a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule. In 1804 it became a crownland of the Austrian Empire. From 1867 it was an ethnic Pole-administered autonomous crownland under Cisleithanian Austria-Hungary, until its dissolution in 1918; the country was carved from the entire south-western part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Among the many ceremonial titles of the princes of Hungary was "ruler of Galicia and Lodomeria". Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian Empire ceded portions of Galicia to the Russian Empire, West Galicia and Tarnopol District; the name "Galicia" is the Latinized form of a principality of the medieval Ruthenia. "Lodomeria", is a Latinized form of Volodymyr-Volynskyi, founded in the 10th century by Vladimir the Great and until the partitions of Poland was known as Volodymyr.
King of Galicia and Lodomeria was a medieval title which the King of Hungary adopted during his conquest of the region in the 12th century. This historical region in Eastern Europe is divided today between Ukraine; the nucleus of historic Galicia consists of the modern Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk regions of western Ukraine. The name of the Kingdom in its ceremonial form, in English: Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Grand Duchy of Kraków with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, existed in all languages spoken there including German: Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien mit dem Großherzogtum Krakau und den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator. Galician Ruthenia, Ciscarpathian Ruthenia and propaganda names known in the Russian Empire and among Russophiles of Galicia In 1772, Galicia was the largest part of the area annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy in the First Partition of Poland; as such, the Austrian region of Poland and what was to become Ukraine was known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria to underline the Hungarian claims to the country.
However, after the Third Partition of Poland, a large portion of the ethnically Polish lands to the west was added to the province, which changed the geographical reference of the term Galicia. Lviv served as capital of Austrian Galicia, dominated by the Polish aristocracy, despite the fact that the population of the eastern half of the province was Ukrainian, or "Ruthenian", as they were known at the time. In addition to the Polish aristocracy and gentry who inhabited all parts of Galicia, the Ruthenians in the east, there existed a large Jewish population more concentrated in the eastern parts of the province. During the first decades of Austrian rule, Galicia was governed from Vienna, many significant reforms were carried out by a bureaucracy staffed by Germans and Czechs; the aristocracy was guaranteed its rights, but these rights were circumscribed. The former serfs were no longer mere chattel, but became subjects of law and were granted certain personal freedoms, such as the right to marry without the lord's permission.
Their labour obligations were defined and limited, they could bypass the lords and appeal to the imperial courts for justice. The Eastern Rite "Uniate" Church, which served the Ruthenians, was renamed the Greek Catholic Church to bring it onto a par with the Roman Catholic Church. Although unpopular with the aristocracy, among the common folk and Ukrainian/Ruthenian alike, these reforms created a reservoir of good will toward the emperor which lasted to the end of Austrian rule. At the same time, the Austrian Empire extracted from Galicia considerable wealth and conscripted large numbers of the peasant population into its armed services. In 1815, as a result of decisions of the Congress of Vienna, the Lublin area and surrounding regions were ceded by the Austrian Empire to Congress Poland, ruled by the Tsar, the Ternopil Region, including the historical region of Southern Podolia, was returned to the Austrian Empire by Russia, which had held it since 1809; the large city of Kraków and surrounding territory also part of New or West Galicia, became the semi-autonomous Free City of Kraków unter supervision of the three powers sharing rule over Poland.
The 1820s and 1830s were a period of bureaucratic rule overseen from Vienna. Most administrative positions were filled by German-speakers, including German-speaking Czechs, although some of their children were becoming Polonized. After the failure of the November insurrection in Russian Poland in 1830–31, in which a few thousand Galician volunteers participated, many Polish refugees arrived in Galicia; the latter 1830s were rife with Polish conspiratorial organizations whose work culminated in the unsuccessful Galician insurrection of 1846, put down by the Austrians with the help of a Galician peasantry that remained loyal to the emperor. The insurrectio
Pablo Martín Abal is an Argentine former swimmer, who specialized in butterfly and backstroke events. He is a 2000 Olympian, an Argentine record holder in both sprint backstroke and butterfly, a three-time All-American honoree for the Arizona State University swimming and diving team while studying in the United States. Abal accepted an athletic scholarship to attend the Arizona State University in Tempe, where he played for the Arizona State Sun Devils swimming and diving team, under head coach Mike Chasson. While swimming for the Sun Devils, Abal received three All-American honors, recorded the second-fastest time in school's history for the 100-yard backstroke at the 1999 NCAA Championships. At the end of his college career, Abal graduated from the University with a bachelor's degree in Industrial Engineering. Abal competed in two swimming events for Argentina at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, he achieved a FINA B-cut of 54.67 from the Argentine National Championships in Buenos Aires.
On the sixth day of the Games, Abal placed twenty-eighth in the 100 m butterfly. Swimming in heat five, he posted a lifetime best of 54.45 to pick up a sixth seed, but missed the semifinals by 0.64 of a second with a twenty-eighth-place effort. Abal teamed up with Eduardo Germán Otero, Sergio Andres Ferreyra, José Meolans in the 4 × 100 m medley relay. Swimming a butterfly leg in heat three, Abal recorded a split of 53.96, a national record, but the Argentines settled only for seventh place and eighteenth overall in a final time of 3:43.61. Pablo Abal started competing in Master swimming in 2016, he participated in the X South American championship in short course meters in Uruguay placing 1st in 50 butterfly with 25.83s, 1st in 100 IM with 1´00.68s and 1st in 50 backstroke breaking the World Record for the category 35-39 with 25.70s. Player Bio – Arizona State Sun Devils Swimmer Bio Arizona State University Pablo Abal US Master Swimming Pablo Abal Master US Record Pablo Abal 2001 World Championship Article in Spanish Pablo Abal 2001 USA World Cup Article in Spanish
Harrow Skate Park or Harrow Solid Surf is one of only two remaining 1970s shotcrete Andrew lomas was the first BMX rider in the Uk to ride the park in 1979. Doing 360’s out of the half pipe.andrew now lives in USA Andy skated harrow like everyone else until he came back from Lakewood riding BMX with Eddie fiola skateparks still operating in the United Kingdom. It is located next to Harrow Leisure Centre in Wealdstone in the London Borough of England; because of its age and design, it is one of the most noted skateparks in the UK and is favourably compared to other classic seventies skatepark designs such as Marina del Rey and "Pipeline" in the USA. The skatepark's planning began in 1976 and it was completed and opened to the public on 15 July 1978, it was designed by G-Force designer Adrian Rolt and was built by Skate Park Construction, assisted by Jim Rennie and Rodga Harvey as design consultants, the leading skateboard park construction and design team in the UK at the time. Its pool design was based on the keyhole pool at Skateboard Heaven in California.
Current features include a concrete half-pipe, The Pool, a street section with a concrete bank and a wooden quarter pipe, the snakerun, four moguls. The performance bowl was filled in a number of years ago by the council and remains out of action despite attempts to dig it out; the park did have other recent additions such as a mini ramp, but, destroyed by local vandals. The park is open from 9:00 am till dusk. Due to the site's uniqueness, the UK skateboarding, Roller skating and BMX scene use the park as a place to hang out and socialise as well as to ride the ramps. Since the seventies the park has been the starting ground for a number of professional skaters and BMX users such as Steve Douglas, its significance has been noted by the leading architectural historian Professor Iain Borden who said it was used in the eighties by "the best-known London skaters and'H-Boyz'". It has been threatened with closure on a number of occasions and was out of action for a few years in the eighties. In 2003 it was reopened after the Council spent £60,000 refurbishing it and its opening celebration was attended by the chairman of the Metropolitan Police Authority Toby Harris, Baron Harris of Haringey and Harrow East MP and Minister for London Tony McNulty.
In the year 2007 plans were announced by Harrow council to build over the site as part of a £36m project to rebuild Harrow Leisure Centre, with a new smaller building, leading to storm of protest from users and the international skateboarding community who regarded it as'irreplaceable'. The plan involved selling the existing site to developers. Although the Council was offering £300,000 to replace the park experts have said it will cost at least £600,000 to replace the park; the world-famous skater Tony Hawk stated on the closure "If they feel that the park is irreplaceable they should keep it... I've never been, but I have seen it in magazines and heard about it through the years." On 6 February 2008 Sport England condemned the Leisure centre plan: Sport England considers the proposals to be damaging to a wide range of existing sporting interests and they would reduce opportunities for participation in sport and active recreation in the borough." Mr Durrans supported the objections voiced by various sports groups in the borough, including Harrow and Wealdstone Swimming Club, Harrow Squash Club and Harrow Table Tennis League and the Harrow Skatepark Users' Association.
In October 2008 it was revealed that Harrow Councils plans to demolish the park and build a new leisure centre had been abandoned. The plan was to sell land in and around the site of Harrow Leisure Centre, where the skatepark is based, to fund a new building and skatepark. However, with house prices dropping the council was unable to generate the money it needed to fund the project. A BMX rider at Harrow Skatepark, said: It's brilliant. I'm just over the moon. I hope it stays there for another few years and they don't say "we've got a bit of money now, so we can knock it down." Harrow Councillor Marilyn Ashton has blamed the cancel of regeneration of the leisure centre on the poor condition of the housing market – and the plans may now have to be shelved until the council can raise the money. She said, "I think we could have done with another leisure centre and a brand new assembly hall." Rio Joseph, Youth development officer of Harrow Skate Park, led the war against the new leisure centre: "Other people agree or disagree with the plans, but it ain't going to happen, not for a long time."Many skaters and BMX riders and present, disagree with Cllr Ashton's plans and believe she does not understand what she and the council would be doing if they knocked down one of only two legendary'70s concrete skateparks left in the UK to this day.
On 31 October 2008, there was a "Harroween" skate jam to celebrate Harrow Skate Park not being demolished. From the Harrow Times, 31 October 2008: Skate Jam at Harrow SkateparkBy Jack RoystonSkaters are celebrating Halloween with a "jam" at a skatepark saved from being bulldozed. There will be music and drinks as the band of people who campaigned to stop Harrow Council building over Harrow Skatepark, in Christchurch Avenue, come together to celebrate the festival; the council wanted to build a replacement for Harrow Leisure Centre on the site but had to abandon its plans because of the credit crunch. The Harroween Skate Jam starts at 4 pm and will go on until late, with lights being used to illuminate one of the bowls after it gets dark; the Rom Guide to Harrow Skatepark Youtube – Harrow Skate Park – Do