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Kingdom of Germany

The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom developed out of Eastern Francia, the eastern division of the former Carolingian Empire, over the 9th to 11th centuries. East Francia was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective; the initial electors were the rulers of the stem duchies, who chose one of their own. After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, East Francia formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire along with Italy. Like medieval England and medieval France, medieval Germany consolidated from a conglomerate of smaller tribes, nations or polities by the High Middle Ages; the term rex teutonicorum first came into use in Italy around the year 1000. It was popularized by the chancery of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy as a polemical tool against Emperor Henry IV. In the twelfth century, in order to stress the imperial and transnational character of their office, the emperors began to employ the title rex Romanorum on their election.

Distinct titulature for Germany and Burgundy, which traditionally had their own courts and chanceries dropped from use. After the Imperial Reform and Reformation settlement, the German part of the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Reichskreise, which defined Germany against imperial territories outside the Imperial Circles: imperial Italy, the Bohemian Kingdom, the Old Swiss Confederacy. There are few references to a German realm distinct from the Holy Roman Empire; the eastern division of the Treaty of Verdun was called the regnum Francorum Orientalium or Francia Orientalis: the Kingdom of the Eastern Franks or East Francia. It was the eastern half of the old Merovingian regnum Austrasiorum; the "east Franks" themselves were the people of Franconia, settled by Franks. The other peoples of East Francia were Saxons, Frisians and the like, referred to as Teutonici and sometimes as Franks as ethnic identities changed over the course of the ninth century. An entry in the Annales Iuvavenses for the year 919 contemporary but surviving only in a twelfth-century copy, records that Baiuarii sponte se reddiderunt Arnolfo duci et regnare ei fecerunt in regno teutonicorum, i.e. that "Arnulf, Duke of the Bavarians, was elected to reign in the Kingdom of the Germans".

Historians disagree on. Beginning in the late eleventh century, during the Investiture Controversy, the Papal curia began to use the term regnum teutonicorum to refer to the realm of Henry IV in an effort to reduce him to the level of the other kings of Europe, while he himself began to use the title rex Romanorum or King of the Romans to emphasise his divine right to the imperium Romanum; this title was employed most by the German kings themselves, though they did deign to employ "Teutonic" titles when it was diplomatic, such as Frederick Barbarossa's letter to the Pope referring to his receiving the coronam Theutonici regni. Foreign kings and ecclesiastics continued to refer to the regnum Alemanniae and règne or royaume d'Allemagne; the terms imperium/imperator or empire/emperor were employed for the German kingdom and its rulers, which indicates a recognition of their imperial stature but combined with "Teutonic" and "Alemannic" references a denial of their Romanitas and universal rule.

The term regnum Germaniae begins to appear in German sources at the beginning of the fourteenth century. Therefore, throughout the Middle Ages, the convention was that the king of Germany was Emperor of the Romans, his title was royal from his election to his coronation in Rome by the Pope. After the death of Frederick II in 1250, the trend toward a "more conceived German kingdom" found no real consolidation; the title of "king of the Romans" became less and less reserved for the emperor-elect but uncrowned in Rome. The reign was dated to begin either on the day of the coronation; the election day became the starting date permanently with Sigismund. Maximilian I changed the style of the emperor in 1508, with papal approval: after his German coronation, his style was Dei gratia Romanorum imperator electus semper augustus; that is, he was "emperor elect": a term that did not imply that he was emperor-in-waiting or not yet emperor, but only that he was emperor by virtue of the election rather than papal coronation.

At the same time, the custom of having the heir-apparent elected as king of the Romans in the emperor's lifetime resumed. For this reason, the title "king of the Romans" came to mean heir-apparent, the successor elected while the emperor was still alive; the Archbishop

Frank Morgan (Home and Away)

Frank Jonathan Morgan is a fictional character from the Australian Channel Seven soap opera Home and Away, played by Alex Papps. Frank was the first character to appear. Frank is one of the five foster children of Pippa and Tom Fletcher who move to Summer Bay to begin a new life; the serial's creator Alan Bateman thought of the idea while observing the locals of a rural town in New South Wales opposing the idea of foster children living in the area. Papps was cast into the role and began receiving fan mail. Frank has been played by actors Bradley Michael Scilusa during flashback sequences. Frank fills the role of the serial's first heart-throb and he sports a "trademark mullet". With a backstory consisting of an alcoholic mother and a criminal father, Frank became wayward by the age of eight; however and Tom helped him to change his ways. Frank's main narrative is themed with romance – during his tenure his main love interests are Roo Stewart and Bobby Simpson. Roo becomes pregnant by Brett Macklin and she deceives Frank into believing that he is the father.

Frank decides to marry Roo and their ceremony was dubbed a "shotgun wedding" by the media. Roo reveals the truth -- which results in Frank having a car accident. Frank and Bobby start a relationship and soon marry. Papps left the series in May 1989 to join the cast of The Flying Doctors. Frank's departure storyline soon aired with his marriage to Bobby failing and him leaving her to be with Roo. Papps returned to the series in 1991 for the annual cliff-hanger episode. Frank fails to win Bobby back from her new love Greg Marshall, he returned again for guest stints in 2000 and 2002. The character became known for his "hunky" appearance and was labelled a heartthrob. While Frank and Roo's wedding became infamous – a writer from Inside Soap said that it was one of the greatest moments in the genre. A columnist from TV Life said. While Matt Buchanan from The Sydney Morning Herald said that he could not remember the character. Off-screen the role had propelled Papps into fame and he was a firm favourite with viewers.

The actor was never comfortable with the attention. He has spoke of dismay of the "hype" surrounding the role. However, Papps was still being recognised as the character twenty years later. Home and Away was created by Alan Bateman, his inspiration developed after witnessing a foster home being built in a remote town in New South Wales and the locals opposing the idea of "degenerate kids running riot". Bateman thought. Home and Away focuses Pippa and Tom Fletcher on who move to the rural town of Summer Bay with their five foster children – one of these being Frank. Over three hundred young actors auditioned for the roles of the foster children. Bateman said; the cast filmed the pilot in 1987. Papps' casting was announced ahead of the series debut; the series first aired on 17 January 1988 on the Seven Network. Frank was the first character to appear, although a Police officer spoke the first piece of dialogue. Frank was played by Bradley Pilato in the scene, set in 1978 as a young Frank tries to escape from the Police officer.

The series switches to 1988, where Frank is one of five foster children alongside Carly Morris, Steven Matheson, Lynn Davenport and Sally Fletcher. Tom moves the Fletcher family to the town of Summer Bay. In Frank's backstory, he is a product of a broken home, born to a criminal father and an alcoholic mother, his father was sent to prison and his mother became incapable of looking after him. As a result, Frank became wayward. Frank's ethnicity is Greek Australian, he is characterised as having "streetwise ways" and a "disarming smile". Frank has roll ambitions because he has never been academically successful, he faced hardship to get through school. Frank only just managed to pass his exams into Year 10. However, his ambitions are reachable. Frank wants to form his own band. In Kesta Desmond's Home and Away Annual, he is described as being "coaxed away from a life of crime" by Tom and Pippa. Frank enjoys a "relatively stable home life". In his book Home and Away Special, said that Frank had was "streetwise" by the age of eight, when he first "fell afoul of the law".

Papp's mullet hair style became a trademark of Frank. Papps said that it was fashionable at the time and while he had sported the style for a previous project, it "evolved into the Home and Away mullet". Papps told Clayden that Frank was so ignorant that at times he wanted to "shake him". Frank is given a love interest in the form of Roo Stewart. In the storyline Roo tells Frank that he is the father; the character fills the role of "the bitch" and the storyline turned Roo into a public hate figure. While doing promotional events, Clarke was called a "slut" for Roo's deception of Frank. Clarke had tried to lead a normal life away from filming, she left her home phone number in the telephone directory, she was forced to change her number after fans ran

Emmaus (charity)

Emmaus is an international solidarity movement founded in Paris in 1949 by Catholic priest and Capuchin friar Abbé Pierre to combat poverty and homelessness. Since 1971 regional and national initiatives have been grouped under a parent organization, Emmaus International, now run by Jean Rousseau, representing 350 groups in 37 countries, offering a range of charitable services. Emmaus is a secular organisation, but Communities around the world have kept the name because of its symbolism; the biblical story, found in the Gospel of Luke, describes how two men saw the resurrected Jesus on the road to the town of Emmaus, so regained hope. The organization's guiding principle can be found in the Universal Manifesto of Emmaus International: Serve those worse off than yourself before yourself. Serve the most needy first; the first Emmaus Community was founded by Father Henri-Antoine Groues in Paris in 1949. The former Resistance member was an MP who fought to provide accommodation for the homeless people of Paris.

He was assisted by Lucie Coutaz. Abbé Pierre took on the first Emmaus Companion, a former convict called Georges who had attempted suicide in the Seine. George helped to build temporary homes for those in need, on any land they could obtain. From Parliament in 1951, Abbé Pierre dedicated himself to the homeless cause, he struggled to pay the first 18 members of the Emmaus Community. The priest was rebuffed by his Church for begging at restaurants and so organised'rag pickers' to collect unwanted items for resale; this formed the basis of Emmaus Communities using profits to help others. The harsh winter of 1954 led to a number of homeless people's deaths and Abbé Pierre appealed through the newspapers and on the radio for donations; the French people responded and Emmaus grew from a national charity into an international one. Emmaus Communities now began to appear across Europe, French West Africa, the Far East and South America. By 2017 there were 400 Emmaus organisations in 44 countries; the first British Emmaus Community appeared in Cambridge in 1992.

It was set up by Selwyn Image, a student volunteer at an Emmaus Community in Paris. The charity provides homeless people with a home and work collecting and reselling donated furniture and household goods. Emmaus UK acts as a central resource to local Emmaus Communities across the UK; as of February September 2016 there are 28 Emmaus Communities operating in the UK, with others under development. These communities provide accommodation and meaningful work for homeless people. Abbé Pierre Terry Waite The Duchess of Cornwall HomeSense Mehran Karimi Nasseri Tracy Edwards Emmaus Mouvement Emmabuntüs Poverty reduction Brodiez-Dolino, Axelle. Emmaüs et l’abbé Pierre. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po. ISBN 9782724613919. OCLC 858176971. Emmaus International, Abbé Pierre’s sole legatee https://www.emmaus-international.org/images/site/menu/qui-sommes-nous/emmaus-monde/EI_repertoire012016_sans_elus.pdf Directory of Emmaus groups worldwide] Emmaus groups in the UK Emmaus groups in the USA