click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Kingdom of Khotan

The Kingdom of Khotan was an ancient Iranian Saka Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. The ancient capital was sited to the west of modern-day Hotan at Yotkan. From the Han dynasty until at least the Tang dynasty it was known in Chinese as Yutian; this Buddhist kingdom existed for over a thousand years until it was conquered by the Muslim Kara-Khanid Khanate in 1006, during the Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang. Built on an oasis, Khotan's mulberry groves allowed the production and export of silk and carpets, in addition to the city's other major products such as its famous nephrite jade and pottery. Despite being a significant city on the silk road as well as a notable source of jade for ancient China, Khotan itself is small – the circumference of the ancient city of Khotan at Yōtkan was about 2.5 to 3.2 km. Much of the archaeological evidence of the ancient city of Khotan however had been obliterated due to centuries of treasure hunting by local people.

The inhabitants of Khotan used Khotanese, an Eastern Iranian language, Gandhari Prakrit, an Indo-Aryan language related to Sanskrit. There is debate as to how much Khotan's original inhabitants were ethnically and anthropologically South Asian and speakers of the Gāndhārī language versus the Saka, an Indo-European people of Iranian branch from the Eurasian Steppe. From the 3rd century onwards they had a visible linguistic influence on the Gāndhārī language spoken at the royal court of Khotan; the Khotanese Saka language was recognized as an official court language by the 10th century and used by the Khotanese rulers for administrative documentation. The kingdom of Khotan was given various transcriptions; the ancient Chinese called Khotan Yutian written as 于窴 and other similar-sounding names such as Yudun and Qudan. Sometimes they used Jusadanna, derived from Indo-Iranian Gostan and Gostana, the names of the town and region around it respectively. Others include Huanna. To the Tibetans in the seventh and eighth centuries, the kingdom was called Li and the capital city Hu-ten, Hu-den, Hu-then and Yvu-then.

The name as written by the locals changed over time. From this came Hvamna and Hvam in their latest texts, where Hvam kṣīra or'the land of Khotan' was the name given. Khotan became known to the west while the –t- was still unchanged, as is frequent in early New Persian; the local people used Gaustana under the influence of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Yūttina in the ninth century, when it was allied with the Chinese kingdom of Șacū. The geographical position of the oasis was the main factor in its wealth. To its north is one of the most arid and desolate desert climates on the earth, the Taklamakan Desert, to its south the uninhabited Kunlun Mountains. To the east there were few oasis beyond Niya making travel difficult, access is only easy from the west. Khotan was irrigated from the Kara-kàsh rivers, which water the Tarim Basin; these two rivers produce vast quantities of water which made habitation possible in an otherwise arid climate. The position next to the mountain not only provided irrigation for crops but it increased the fertility of the land as the rivers reduce the gradient and deposited their sediment, creating a more fertile soil.

This therefore increased the productivity of the agricultural industry which has made Khotan famous for its cereal crops and fruits. Therefore, Khotan's lifeline was its vicinity to the Kunlun mountain range and without this Khotan would not have become one of the largest and most successful oasis cities along the Silk Roads; the kingdom of Khotan was one of the many small states found in the Tarim Basin that included Yarkand, Turfan, Kashgar and Kucha. To the west were Central Asian kingdoms of Sogdiana and Bactria, it was surrounded by powerful neighbours, such as the Kushan Empire, China and for a time the Xiongnu, all of which had exerted or tried to exert their influence over Khotan at various times. From an early period, the Tarim Basin had been inhabited by different groups of Indo-European speakers such as the Tocharians and Saka people. Jade from Khotan had been traded into China for a long time before the founding of the city, as indicated by items made of jade from Khotan found in tombs from the Shang and Zhou dynasties.

The jade trade is thought to have been facilitated by the Yuezhi. There are four versions of the legend of the founding of Khotan, these may be found in accounts given by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang and in Tibetan translations of Khotanese documents. All four versions suggest that the city was founded around the third century BC by a group of Indians during the reign of Ashoka. According to one version, the nobles of a tribe in ancient Taxila, who traced their ancestry to the deity Vaiśravaṇa, were said to have blinded Kunãla, a son of Ashoka. In punishment they were banished by the Mauryan emperor to the north of the Himalayas, where they settled in Khotan and elected one of their members as king; however war ensued with another group from China whose leader took over as king, the two colonies merged. In a different version, it was Kunãla himself, exiled and founded Khotan; the legend suggests that Khotan was

Non-Insured Health Benefits

The Non-Insured Health Benefits program provides medically-necessary coverage for eligible First Nations and Inuit people in Canada. It is administered by Health Canada and covers benefit claims for certain drugs, dental care, vision care, medical supplies and equipment, short-term crisis intervention mental health counselling, medical transportation. In Canada and territories deliver health care services, which can be accessed by First Nations people and Inuit; the NIHB program provides health-related goods and services not insured by provinces and territories or other private insurance plans. Health care providers must submit cases to Health Canada for review to access all vision care and counselling, most dental, medical supplies and equipment benefits, for some drug benefits. Benefits are considered for coverage when: listed on an NIHB benefit list or schedule intended for home or other ambulatory care settings prior approval or predetermination is obtained unavailable through other health or social programs prescribed by a licensed health professional provided by a recognized provider.

Non-insured health benefits are available for eligible First Nations people and Inuit in Canada, as well as infants under one year whose parent is eligible. Inuit must be Canadian residents and must be beneficiaries of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement or beneficiaries of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement. Inuit living in Nunavut or the Northwest Territories are automatically registered for the program when they receive their territorial health care card. If they live outside the land claim settlement area they must register with the land claim organization and provide documentation to the government to receive an'N' number, a personal identification number. First Nations people must be Canadian residents and a registered Indian according to the Indian Act in order to access NIHB programs. Health Canada asserts the program exists to support First Nations people and Inuit in reaching an overall health status, comparable with other Canadians. Many First Nations groups assert that health benefits are an inherent Aboriginal and treaty right and are constitutionally protected.

Only Treaty 6 mentions health care, which includes a clause for a medicine chest to be held at the Indian agent’s home and a clause for emergency help. Other treaty negotiations included a discussion about medical services, doctors were in attendance when treaty annuities were paid out; the medicine chest clause and historical documentation of treaty discussions have been interpreted by First Nations groups to signal a responsibility for the government to provide ongoing healthcare. From the government of Canada's perspective, there were no statutory or treaty obligations for providing health care to indigenous people, though health services would be provided when medically necessary. Though they recognized that medical care had been written into Treaty 6, the government provided health services on humanitarian rather than on legal grounds; the Drug Benefit List is a list of drugs. Updates are issued quarterly and drugs are added or removed from the list; the DBL provides a tool for doctors and pharmacists to encourage the use of generic drugs.

Health Canada - Non-Insured Health Benefits for First Nations and Inuit AFN Program Areas- NIHB

DSM-IV codes

DSM-IV codes are the classification found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision known as DSM-IV-TR, a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association that includes all recognized mental health disorders. The DSM-IV codes are thus used by mental health professionals to describe the features of a given mental disorder and indicate how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems; the coding system utilized by the DSM-IV is designed to correspond with codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification referred to as the ICD-9-CM. Since early versions of the DSM did not correlate with ICD codes and updates of the publications for the ICD and the DSM are not simultaneous, some distinctions in the coding systems may still be present. For this reason, it is recommended that users of these manuals consult the appropriate reference when accessing diagnostic codes Note that NOS is an abbreviation for Not Otherwise Specified, indicating a cluster of symptoms that do not fit in any single diagnostic category.

NOS is a provisional diagnosis pending additional information or testing. For an alphabetical list, see DSM-IV codes. 317 Mild mental retardation 318.0 Moderate mental retardation 318.1 Severe mental retardation 318.2 Profound mental retardation 319 Mental retardation. Top Alcohol 305.00 Abuse 303.90 Dependence 291.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 291.89 -Induced mood disorder 291.1 -Induced persisting amnestic disorder 291.2 -Induced persisting dementia 291.5 -Induced psychotic disorder, with delusions 291.3 -Induced psychotic disorder, with hallucinations 291.89 -Induced sexual dysfunction 291.89 -Induced sleep disorder 303.00 Intoxication 291.0 Intoxication delirium 291.9 -Related disorder NOS 291.81 Withdrawal 291.0 Withdrawal delirium Amphetamine 305.70 Abuse 304.40 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced mood disorder 292.11 -Induced psychotic disorder, with delusions 292.12 -Induced psychotic disorder, with hallucinations 292.89 -Induced sexual dysfunction 292.89 -Induced sleep disorder 292.89 Intoxication 292.81 Intoxication delirium 292.9 -Related disorder NOS 292.0 Withdrawal Caffeine 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.89 -Induced sleep disorder 305.90 Intoxication 292.9 -Related disorder NOS Cannabis 305.20 Abuse 304.30 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.11 -Induced psychotic disorder, with delusions 292.12 -Induced psychotic disorder, with hallucinations 292.89 Intoxication 292.81 Intoxication delirium 292.9 -Related disorder NOS Cocaine 305.60 Abuse 304.20 Dependence 292.89 -Induced anxiety disorder 292.84 -Induced

Jennifer Mistry Bansiwal

Jennifer Mistry Bansiwal is an Indian actress. Born and brought up in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, she is a graduate from Guru Gobind Singh Khalsa College, Jabalpur. Starting her acting career in 2008 with the Bollywood film Halla Bol, Bansiwal came into limelight when she appeared in the comedy serial Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah, which aired on SAB TV, in which she plays the role of Mrs. Roshan Sodhi, her character in the series is that of a sweet and innocent Parsi housewife, married to a Sikh Roshan Singh Sodhi. Mistry Bansiwal's recent Bollywood movie appearance was in the 2016 movie Airlift. Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah / as Roshan Kaur Sodhi Naagin as Ramya Mathur Jennifer Mistry Bansiwal on IMDb Jennifer Mistry Bansiwal on Instagram

Tom Arnold (actor)

Thomas Duane Arnold is an American actor and comedian. He has appeared in several films, including Nine Months, True Lies, McHale's Navy, Animal Factory, Cradle 2 the Grave, Mr. 3000, Happy Endings, The Great Buck Howard, Madea's Witness Protection. He was the host of The Best Damn Sports Show Period for four years. Arnold was born Thomas Duane Arnold in Ottumwa, the son of Linda Kay and Jack Arnold, he has six siblings. His mother abandoned the family when he was a child, he and his siblings were raised by their father, he was sexually abused from age 4–7 by a male babysitter. During his youth, he worked at a meatpacking plant, he attended Ottumwa High School, Indian Hills Community College, the University of Iowa from 1981 to 1983, where he studied business administration and writing. In the early 1980s, Arnold had a prop-based comedy routine called "Tom Arnold and the Goldfish Review." Roseanne Barr brought him in as a writer for Roseanne. He married her in 1990. Arnold wrote himself into the show as the character "Arnie Thomas".

The couple's marriage attracted media and tabloid attention due to their sometimes outrageous behavior. In 1992, Arnold starred in The Jackie Thomas Show. Airing after Roseanne on ABC, the show lasted 18 episodes. In 1993, Arnold and Barr bought a house together in Arnold's hometown of Eldon and opened a restaurant,'Roseanne and Tom's Big Food Diner' nearby; the diner served loosemeat sandwiches similar to the specialty of the fictional Lanford Lunch Box on Roseanne, which in turn was based on the real-life Canteen Lunch in the Alley in Ottumwa. Both appeared in the 1993 movie The Woman. Arnold and Barr divorced in 1994 due to irreconcilable differences, their restaurant closed in 1995. After Arnold's divorce from Barr, he narrated and starred in several Craftmatic Adjustable Bed commercials that aired throughout 1995; the last commercial that he filmed culminated in Arnold lying in a bed that caught on fire and melted a strand of his underarm hair during the taping. Arnold commented on Twitter in 2014: "Me and Mike used to laugh about how had a Pepsi commercial of my own".

In November 2000, Arnold played the role of Al Raymond in the second-season Baywatch Hawaii episode, "The Cage". In a late 1990s interview on radio's The Howard Stern Show, Arnold admitted that his share of his and Barr's estate amounted to "over $20,000,000", including a percentage of the Roseanne ABC-TV series, but would not elaborate, citing a confidentiality clause. In 1994, Arnold appeared as the sidekick to Arnold Schwarzenegger's character in the James Cameron feature film True Lies. From 2001 through 2005, he was one of the hosts of The Best Damn Sports Show Period. From 2003 to 2005, Arnold was the voice of Arby's "Oven Mitt" commercials. Arnold had his first romantic leading man part in the 2005 movie Happy Endings; that same year, Arnold starred in The Kid & I. From 2008 to 2011, he hosted, he hosted CMT's The Biggest Redneck Wedding Ever in 2008, in which he served as the wedding planner, created a wedding that exceeded the dreams of a couple who wanted to be married in a mud bog, performed the actual ceremony.

CMT made three series of "My Big Redneck Vacation" presented by Arnold and featuring the Clampet Family from Shreveport, Louisiana. Arnold's role as a child molester in Gardens of the Night sparked revelations that he had been a victim of sexual abuse in his childhood, he decided to take on the role to shed more light on the issue. In January 2017, Tom Arnold was revealed as a celebrity contestant on the Australian edition of I'm A Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here!. He was the first evictee from the jungle, after 17 days, stated he was paid between $US600,000 and $US700,000 for his participation in the program. In June 2017, Arnold filed a lawsuit against companies Network Ten and'A List Entertainment' for defrauding him for being on I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here!. Arnold claims that he was promised a payment of a comedy tour in Australia. However, he was missing Network Ten backed out of the comedy tour. In 2018, Arnold's Viceland show The Hunt for the Trump Tapes premiered to middlings ratings and was canceled after one season.

Arnold met comedian Roseanne Barr when she saw his act in 1983. Their relationship was complicated by his alcoholism and drug addiction, but he became sober; the two married in 1990 and divorced in 1994. In an April 2009 interview on Anytime with Bob Kushell, Arnold discussed why when he divorced Barr, he did not take any alimony. During the next ten years, Arnold married two subsequent times. Both marriages ended in divorce. In August 2008, Arnold broke his scapula in a motorcycle accident on the Pacific Coast Highway. Over Thanksgiving weekend 2009, Arnold married his fourth wife, Ashley Groussman, in Maui before 75 guests. Dax Shepard served as Arnold's best man, he appeared December 2009 on the late night talk show Asia Uncut. The couple have four dogs. In January 2019, the couple announced their intention to divorce. Arnold was raised a Methodist; some sources say he converted to Judaism upon marrying Roseanne Barr in 1990, but in a podcast interview with Andrew Santino he speaks of growing up Jewish in Iowa.

He still practices Judaism. Tom Arnold on IMDb Tom Arnold at AllMovie

Peugeot 108

The Peugeot 108 is a city car, launched by the French manufacturer Peugeot in March 2014, at the Geneva Motor Show. It went on sale in July 2014, for the United Kingdom, it is related to the Citroën C1 and Toyota Aygo, sharing the same chassis, engines and electrics. Sales commenced in June 2014 in Mainland Europe. Cars are built in the same factory, located in the Czech Republic; the 108 is powered by a choice of two three cylinder petrol engines: a 1.0 litre VTi with 68 bhp, emitting up to 97g/km of CO2, with an e VTi producing 88g/km, a larger 1.2 litre VTi has 82 bhp, emits 99g/km of CO2. In an update for 2018, Peugeot introduced an updated interior. There were no exterior changes, it has been reported by Autonews.com in November 2018 that the model will be phased out in 2021, when Toyota will take full ownership of the plant in the Czech Republic, the model will not be renewed. Media related to Peugeot 108 at Wikimedia Commons Official website