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Kingdom of Kush

The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the Sudanese and southern Egyptian Nile Valley. The Kushite era of rule in Nubia was established after the Late Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt. Kush was centered at Napata during its early phase. After Kashta invaded Egypt in the 8th century BC, the monarchs of Kush were the pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, until they were defeated by the Neo-Assyrian Empire under the rule of Ashurbanipal a century and expelled from Egypt by Psamtik I. During classical antiquity, the Kushite imperial capital was located at Meroë. In early Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Aethiopia; the Kingdom of Kush with its capital at Meroe persisted until the 4th century AD, when it weakened and disintegrated due to internal rebellion. The seat was captured and burnt to the ground by the Kingdom of Aksum. Afterwards the Nubians established the three Christianized, kingdoms of Nobatia and Alodia.

The native name of the Kingdom was recorded in Egyptian as k3š pronounced or in Middle Egyptian, when the term was first used for Nubia, based on the New Kingdom-era Akkadian transliteration as the genitive kūsi. It is an ethnic term for the native population who initiated the kingdom of Kush; the term is displayed in the names of Kushite persons, such as King Kashta. Geographically, Kush referred to the region south of the first cataract in general. Kush was the home of the rulers of the 25th dynasty; the name Kush, since at least the time of Josephus, has been connected with the biblical character Cush, in the Hebrew Bible, son of Ham. Ham had four sons named: Cush, Put and Mizraim. According to the Bible, Nimrod, a son of Cush, was the founder and king of Babylon, Erech and Calneh, in Shinar; the Bible makes reference to someone named Cush, a Benjamite. In Greek sources Kush was known as Aithiopia. Mentuhotep II, the 21st century BC founder of the Middle Kingdom, is recorded to have undertaken campaigns against Kush in the 29th and 31st years of his reign.

This is the earliest Egyptian reference to Kush. Under Thutmose I, Egypt made several campaigns south; this resulted in their annexation of Nubia c. 1504 BC. After the conquest, Kerma culture was Egyptianized, yet rebellions continued for 220 years until c. 1300 BC. Nubia became a key province of the New Kingdom, economically and spiritually. Indeed, major pharonic ceremonies were held at Jebel Barkal near Napata; as an Egyptian colony from the 16th century BC, Nubia was governed by an Egyptian Viceroy of Kush. With the disintegration of the New Kingdom around 1070 BC, Kush became an independent kingdom centered at Napata in modern northern Sudan; the extent of cultural/political continuity between the Kerma culture and the chronologically succeeding Kingdom of Kush is difficult to determine. The latter polity began to emerge around 500 years after the end of the Kingdom of Kerma. By 1200 BC, Egyptian involvement in the Dongola Reach was nonexistent. By the 8th century BC, the new Kushite kingdom emerged from the Napata region of the upper Dongola Reach.

The first Napatan king, dedicated his sister to the cult of Amun at the rebuilt Kawa temple, while temples were rebuilt at Barkal and Kerma. A Kashta stele at Elephantine, places the Kushites on the Egyptian frontier by the mid-eighteenth century; this first period of the kingdom's history, the'Napatan', was succeeded by the'Meroitic', when the royal cemeteries relocated to Meroë around 300 BC. The Kushites buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. Archaeologists refer to these practices as the "Pan-grave culture"; this was given its name due to the way. They would put stones around them in a circle. Kushites built burial mounds and pyramids, shared some of the same gods worshiped in Egypt Ammon and Isis. With the worshiping of these gods, the Kushites began to take some of the names of the gods as their throne names; the Kush rulers were regarded as guardians of the state religion and were responsible for maintaining the houses of the gods. Some scholars believe; the state would redistribute to the people.

Others believe that most of the society worked on the land and required nothing from the state and did not contribute to the state. Northern Kush seems to have been wealthier than the Southern area. Dental trait analysis of fossils dating from the Meroitic period in Semna, northern Nubia, found that they displayed traits similar to those of populations inhabiting the Nile, Horn of Africa, Maghreb; the Meroitic skeletons and these ancient and recent fossils were phenotypically distinct from those belonging to recent Niger–Congo and Khoisan-speaking populations in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as from the Mesolithic inhabitants of Jebel Sahaba in Nubia. Resistance to the early eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian rule by neighbouring Kush is evidenced in the writings of Ahmose, son of Ebana, an Egyptian warrior who served under Nebpehtrya Ahmose, Djeserkara Amenhotep I and Aakheperkara Thutmose I. At the end of the Second Intermediate Period, Egypt faced the twin existential threats—the Hyksos in the North and the Kushites in the So

Viridian Housing

Viridian Housing was a housing association that provided social housing to over 30,000 people in the south of England and the Midlands. Viridian was a registered Community Benefit Society. Nick Apetroaie – Chief Executive Nick was recruited into the permanent role of Chief Executive in October 2015. Prior to this Nick held the same role for 16 month as Viridian’s Interim CEO. With 20 years of experience in the housing and care sector, Nick joined Viridian in 2008 as the Director of Care and, in 2011. Nick sits on the Board of Radian Support and Ungureni Trust charity, he is married, with two lives in West London. Nick A web Matt Campion – Director of Operations Matt is our Director of Operations, overseeing Housing, Social Impact, Commercial Operations, Customer Service and Legal, he held the role of Social Impact Director. Matt joined Viridian in April 2005 through the association’s merger with Riverhaven, he had worked as the director for care and support and as a Supported housing manager for Riverhaven.

Matt has worked for a specialist BME housing association, large RSLs and local authorities. Before working in housing Matt worked as a lecturer in psychology. Matt C web Iain Bacon – Director of Finance Iain is a Chartered Accountant with extensive experience from a number of senior roles in the Public and Not-for Profit sectors. Previous roles include pricing major bids and working as a Management Consultant for Capita, Director of Finance and Infrastructure for Centrex, interim roles which include setting up a Shared Service Centre in South Wales for Reliance Security. Iain has considerable property experience and worked for the Guinness Partnership prior to joining Viridian. Iain B web Neal Ackcral – Director of Property Services Neal is a member of the Chartered Institute of Building and has over 24 years of senior management experience within the Property Sector. Neal has extensive experience of setting up and establishing a number of successful maintenance teams and direct labour organisations within the housing sector.

Neal joined Viridian in 2006. He was appointed Head of Reinvestment in April 2012 and was instrumental in assisting the Reinvestment team to obtain the Best National In-house Maintenance Provider Award in 2014 from the National Housing Maintenance Forum. Neal A web Kerry Tromanhauser – Director of Governance and Assurance Kerry qualified a barrister and a solicitor and worked in the private and public sectors in Canada before immigrating to the U. K. in 2004. Following two governance related roles in the social housing sector, he joined Viridian Housing in November 2011 in the newly created Head of Governance role. In addition to his Viridian duties, Kerry is a reservist in the field of Media Operations with the Royal Navy and deployed in support of current operations in 2014. Kerry T web Chris Miller – Director of Development and Commercial Projects Chris is a member of the Chartered Institute of Housing and has worked in the affordable housing sector for 27 years and in Development for the last 17 years.

He joined Viridian in 2007 as Head of Business Development focussing on developing our Retirement village programme before becoming Head of Development and Sales in 2012 with responsibility for our whole development programme. He has been integral in securing multimillion-pound investment and development opportunities for Viridian with major house builders and developing successful relationships with some of our key stakeholders. Chris is a Board member of St. Basils, a small Birmingham based Housing Association who specialise in housing homeless young people. Media related to Viridian Housing at Wikimedia Commons

Penn Township, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania

Penn Township is a defunct township, located in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. The township ceased to exist and was incorporated into the City of Philadelphia following the passage of the Act of Consolidation, 1854. Penn Township was formed from the western portion of the Northern Liberties Township by order of the Court of Quarter Sessions in the year 1807, it was north of Vine Street, bounded on the east by Sixth Street to the intersection of the road to Germantown. Its greatest length was four miles; the districts of Spring Garden and Penn were created out of this township, it included portions of Rising Sun and Nicetown and Fort St. Davids, afterward called Falls Village, it was traversed in a northwestern direction by the Ridge Avenue, from Nine and Vine Streets, northeastwardly from the Schulykill, between Fairmount and Lemon Hill, by Farmers’ Lane, which ran into the Germantown Road, by Nicetown Lane, from the Ridge Road below the Falls, over to Nicetown and beyond. Chronology of the Political Subdivisions of the County of Philadelphia, 1683-1854 Information courtesy of ushistory.org Incorporated District and Townships in the County of Philadelphia, 1854 By Rudolph J. Walther - excerpted from the book at the ushistory.org website