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Kingdom of Mysore

The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, ruled by the Wodeyar family served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire. With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire, the kingdom became independent; the 17th century saw a steady expansion of its territory and during the rule of Narasaraja Wodeyar I and Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, the kingdom annexed large expanses of what is now southern Karnataka and parts of Tamil Nadu to become a powerful state in the southern Deccan. The kingdom experienced sustained growth in per capita income and population, structural change in the economy, increased pace of technological innovation, reached the height of its economic and military power and dominion in the latter half of the 18th century under the de facto ruler Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. During this time, it came into conflict with the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Kingdom of Travancore and the British, which culminated in the four Anglo-Mysore Wars.

Success in the first Anglo-Mysore war and a stalemate in the second was followed by defeat in the third and fourth. Following Tipu's death in the fourth war of 1799, large parts of his kingdom were annexed by the British, which signalled the end of a period of Mysorean hegemony over southern Deccan; the British restored the Wodeyars to their throne by way of a subsidiary alliance and the diminished Mysore was transformed into a princely state. The Wodeyars continued to rule the state until Indian independence in 1947, when Mysore acceded to the Union of India; as a princely state, Mysore came to be counted among the more developed and urbanised regions of India. This period saw Mysore emerge as one of the important centres of art and culture in India; the Mysore kings were not only accomplished exponents of the fine arts and men of letters, they were enthusiastic patrons as well, their legacies continue to influence music and art today. Sources for the history of the kingdom include numerous extant lithic and copper plate inscriptions, records from the Mysore palace and contemporary literary sources in Kannada and other languages.

According to traditional accounts, the kingdom originated as a small state based in the modern city of Mysore and was founded by two brothers and Krishnaraya. Their origins are still a matter of debate. Yaduraya is said to have married Chikkadevarasi, the local princess and assumed the feudal title "Wodeyar", which the ensuing dynasty retained; the first unambiguous mention of the Wodeyar family is in 16th century Kannada literature from the reign of the Vijayanagara king Achyuta Deva Raya. The kings who followed ruled as vassals of the Vijayanagara empire until the decline of the latter in 1565. By this time, the kingdom had expanded to thirty-three villages protected by a force of 300 soldiers. King Timmaraja II conquered some surrounding chiefdoms, King Bola Chamaraja IV, the first ruler of any political significance among them, withheld tribute to the nominal Vijayanagara monarch Aravidu Ramaraya. After the death of Aravidu Aliya Rama Raya, the Wodeyars began to assert themselves further and King Raja Wodeyar I wrested control of Srirangapatna from the Vijayanagara governor Aravidu Tirumalla – a development which elicited, if only ex post facto, the tacit approval of Venkatapati Raya, the incumbent king of the diminished Vijayanagar empire ruling from Chandragiri.

Raja Wodeyar I's reign saw territorial expansion with the annexation of Channapatna to the north from Jaggadeva Raya – a development which made Mysore a regional political factor to reckon with. By 1612–13, the Wodeyars exercised a great deal of autonomy and though they acknowledged the nominal overlordship of the Aravidu dynasty and transfers of revenue to Chandragiri stopped; this was in marked contrast to other major chiefs Nayaks of Tamil country who continued to pay off Chandragiri emperors well into the 1630s. Chamaraja VI and Kanthirava Narasaraja I attempted to expand further northward but were thwarted by the Bijapur Sultanate and its Maratha subordinates, though the Bijapur armies under Ranadullah Khan were repelled in their 1638 siege of Srirangapatna. Expansionist ambitions turned southward into Tamil country where Narasaraja Wodeyar acquired Satyamangalam while his successor Dodda Devaraja Wodeyar expanded further to capture western Tamil regions of Erode and Dharmapuri, after repulsing the chiefs of Madurai.

The invasion of the Keladi Nayakas of Malnad was dealt with successfully. This period was followed by one of complex geo-political changes, when in the 1670s, the Marathas and the Mughals pressed into the Deccan. Chikka Devaraja, the most notable of Mysore's early kings, who ruled during much of this period, managed to not only survive the exigencies but further expanded territory, he achieved this by forging strategic alliances with the Marathas and the Mughals. The kingdom soon grew to include Salem and Bangalore to the east, Hassan to the west and Tumkur to the north and the rest of Coimbatore to the south. Despite this expansion, the kingdom, which now accounted for a fair share of land in the southern Indian heartland, extending from the Western Ghats to the western boundaries of the Coromandel plain, remained landlocked without direct coastal access. Ch

1924 Women's Olympiad

The 1924 Women's Olympiad was the first international competition for women in track and field in the United Kingdom. The tournament was held on 4 August 1924 in United Kingdom. After the successful first 1922 Women's World Games in Paris and the three Women's Olympiads in Monaco the interest for women's sports grew internationally. In 1922 the "Women's Amateur Athletic Association" was founded in the UK: the WAAA organised the first official British women championships in track and field on 18 August 1923 at the Oxo Sports Ground in Downham outside London. In the US the "Amateur Athletic Union" organised the first official American women championships in track and field on 29 September 1923 at Weequahic Park in Newark, New Jersey; the 1924 Women's Olympiad was organised in cooperation with the newspapers News of the World, Sporting Life and Daily Mirror in cooperation with the WAAA and the Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale under chairwoman Alice Milliat. The games were attended by participants from 8 nations: Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Italy, the United Kingdom and the USA.

The tournament was a huge promotion for women's sports. The athletes competed in 12 events: running (100 yards, 250 metres, 1000 metres, Relay race 4 x 110 yards and 4 x 220 yards and 120 yards, Racewalking 1000 metres, high jump, long jump, discus throw, shot put and javelin; the tournament held exhibition events in cycling and gymnastics. The multi-sport event was held at "Stamford Bridge" in Fulham in southwest London; the games attended an audience of 25,000 spectators. All medals went to athletes from France and the United Kingdom. During the games 7 world records were set: Mary Lines in hurdling 120 yd and running 250 m, Edith Trickey in running 1000 m, Albertine Regel in walking 1000 m, Elise van Truyen in high jump, Violett Morris in discus and Louise Groslimond in javelin. Poorly performed measuring however led to that only 2 records, Trickey in running 1000 metres and Regel in walking 1000 metres were ratified. Results in each event: nb Each athlete in the shot put and javelin throw events threw using their right hand their left.

Their final mark was the total of the best mark with their right-handed throw and the best mark with their left-handed throw. The tournament was a huge promotion for women's sports, a follow-up was held in 1925 at Stamford Bridge. In 1926 the second regular Women's World Games were held at Gothenburg. Film 1924 Women's Olympiad, Topical Budget Film 1924 Women's Olympiad

USS LST-332

USS LST-332 was one of 390 tank landing ships built for the United States Navy during World War II. LST-332 was laid down on 29 October 1942 at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. During World War II, LST-332 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the Sicilian occupation, Salerno landings, Invasion of Normandy. Upon her return to the United States, she was decommissioned on 22 May 1945 for conversion to landing craft repair ship USS Feronia at the New York Navy Yard; the conversion was canceled 12 September 1945 and the ship reverted to LST-332. On 17 October 1946 the tank landing ship was sold to the Suwannee Steamship Company of Charleston, South Carolina for conversion to merchant service. LST-332 earned three battle stars for World War II service. List of United States Navy LSTs This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. "LST-332". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Retrieved 6 May 2007. "LST-332 / ARL-45 Feronia". Amphibious Photo Archive.

Retrieved 6 May 2007