Kingdom of Sardinia

The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century. The Kingdom was a member of the Council of Aragon and consisted of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, sovereignty over both of, claimed by the Papacy, which granted them as a fief, the regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae, to King James II of Aragon in 1297. Beginning in 1324, James and his successors conquered the island of Sardinia and established de facto their de jure authority. In 1420, after the Sardinian-Catalan War, the last competing claim to the island was bought out. After the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, Sardinia became a part of the burgeoning Spanish Empire. In 1720, the island was ceded by the Habsburg and Bourbon claimants to the Spanish throne to the Duke of Savoy Victor Amadeus II; the Savoyards united it with their historical possessions on the Italian mainland, the Kingdom came to be progressively identified with the Mainland states, which included, besides Savoy and Aosta, dynastic possessions like the Principality of Piedmont and the County of Nice.

The formal name of such composite state was the "States of His Majesty the King of Sardinia" and is referenced to as either Savoy-Sardinia, Piedmont-Sardinia, or the Kingdom of Piedmont to emphasise that the island of Sardinia had always been of secondary importance to the monarchy. While in theory the traditional capital of the island of Sardinia and the seat of its viceroys had always been Cagliari, it was the Piedmontese city of Turin, the capital of Savoy since the mid 16th century, the de facto chosen seat of power under Savoyard rule; when the Mainland domains of the House of Savoy were occupied and annexed by Napoleonic France, the king of Sardinia temporarily resided on the island for the first time in Sardinia's history under Savoyard rule. The Congress of Vienna, which restructured Europe after Napoleon's defeat, returned to Savoy its Mainland possessions and augmented them with Liguria, taken from the Republic of Genoa. In 1847–48, through an act of Union analogous to the Irish-British one, the various Savoyard states were unified under one legal system with their capital in Turin, granted a constitution, the Statuto Albertino.

By the time of the Crimean War in 1853, the Savoyards had built the kingdom into a strong power. There followed the annexation of Lombardy, the central Italian states and the Two Sicilies and the Papal States. On 17 March 1861, to more reflect its new geographic extent, the Kingdom of Sardinia changed its name to the Kingdom of Italy, its capital was moved first to Florence and to Rome; the Savoy-led Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was thus the legal predecessor of the Kingdom of Italy, which in turn is the predecessor of the present-day Italian Republic. In 238 BC Sardinia became, along with a province of the Roman Empire; the Romans ruled the island until the middle of the 5th century when it was occupied by the Vandals, who had settled in north Africa. In 534 AD it was reconquered by the Romans, but now from Byzantium, it remained a Byzantine province until the Arab conquest of Sicily in the 9th century. After that, communications with Constantinople became difficult, powerful families of the island assumed control of the land.

Facing Arab attempts to sack and conquer, while having no outside help, Sardinia utilized the principle of translatio imperii and continued to organize itself along the ancient Roman and Byzantine model. The island was not the personal property of the ruler and of his family, as was the dominant practice in western Europe, but rather a separate entity and during the Byzantine Empire, a monarchical republic, as it had been since Roman times. Starting from 705–706, Saracens from north Africa harassed the population of the coastal cities. Information about the Sardinian political situation in the following centuries is scarce. Due to Saracen attacks, in the 9th century Tharros was abandoned in favor of Oristano, after more than 1800 years of occupation. There is a record of another massive Saracen sea attack in 1015–16 from the Balearics, commanded by Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī; the Saracen attempt to invade the island was stopped by the Judicates with the support of the fleets of the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa, free cities of the Holy Roman Empire.

Pope Benedict VIII requested aid from the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa in the struggle against the Arabs. After the Great Schism, Rome made many efforts to restore Latinity to the Sardinian church and society, to reunify the island under one Catholic ruler, as it had been for all of southern Italy, when the Byzantines had been driven away by Catholic Normans; the title of "Judge" was a Byzantine reminder of the Greek church and state, in times of harsh relations between eastern and western churches. Before the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica, the Archons or, in Latin, who reigned in the island from the 9th or 10th century until the beginning of the 11th century, can be considered real kings of all Sardinia though nominal vassals of the Byzantine emperors. Of these sovereigns, only two names are known: Turcoturiu and Salusiu (Tουρκοτουριου βασιλικου προτοσπαθαριου και Σαλουσιου τω

Herman R. Salmon Award

The Herman R. Salmon Technical Publications Award recognizes the most outstanding technical paper published in Cockpit magazine, a quarterly journal of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots; the award was established in 1971 and renamed in 1981 to honor the memory of test pilot Herman R. "Fish" Salmon, killed in an aircraft accident. The Society lists five criteria for nominations to this award: Originality and/or ingenuity of the article Interest of subject material to the membership Contribution to flight testing Contribution to the exchange of information between test pilots that would not otherwise be available Organization of material and clarity of presentation Recipients of this award, from 1971 to present, include: 1971—John F. Farley 1972—Jack F. Woodman 1973—Gilbert Defer 1974—Pietro P. Trevisan 1975—Robert R. Stone 1976—William H. Brinks 1977—Richard G. Thomas 1978—A. W. "Bill" Bedford 1979—Charles A. Sewell 1980—LCdr. Richard N. Richards, USN. Paul Metz 1985—Walter Spychiger 1986—Frank C. Sanders.

Pasquet 1988—Major Troy D. Pennington, USMC. Weingarten 1990—Paul W. Herrick 1991—George L. Wiser 1992—Michael Barnes. John Deaton, USN. William A. Flynn, CAF. Michael Adam-Swales, Agusta Westland Helicopter, Mr. Andrew Strachan, Agusta Westland Helicopters 2002—Capt Kevin A. Gibbons, USAF. Bob Riser. Guy Gratton, Dr. Simon Newman 2007—Lt Col Geno Wagner, USAF 2008—Lt Col Daniel D. Daetz, USAF. Allen Peterson, Sierra Nevada Corporation 2010—Maj Aaron A. Tucker, USAF, Maj Christopher E. Childress, USAF, Lt Col Robert J. Poremski, USAF 2011—Mark A. Mitchell, Norman E. Howell 2012—Nicola Pecile, National Test Pilot School and Lt Col Raffaele Di Caprio, Italian Air Force 2013—LTC Jeffrey Trang, USA, American Eurocopter, Denis Hamel, American Eurocopter 2014—Robert Moreau, FedEx 2015—David L. Lawrence 2016—Timothy S. McDonald, U. S. Air Force Test Pilot School 2017—LTC Tucker Hamilton, USAF 2018—James E. ″JB″ Brown, III, National Test Pilot School 2019 - Dr. Brian Lee and Dr. Kirk Vining, The Boeing Company List of aviation awards

Icosahedral pyramid

The icosahedral pyramid is a four-dimensional convex polytope, bounded by one icosahedron as its base and by 20 triangular pyramid cells which meet at its apex. Since an icosahedron's circumradius is less than its edge length, the tetrahedral pyramids can be made with regular faces; the regular 600-cell has icosahedral pyramids around every vertex. The dual to the icosahedral pyramid is the dodecahedral pyramid, seen as a dodecahedral base, 12 regular pentagonal pyramids meeting at an apex. Olshevsky, George. "Pyramid". Glossary for Hyperspace. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007. Klitzing, Richard. "4D Segmentotopes". Klitzing, Richard. "Segmentotope ikepy, K-4.84". Richard Klitzing, Axial-Symmetrical Edge Facetings of Uniform Polyhedra