Kingdom of Saxony

The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany. The kingdom was formed from the Electorate of Saxony. From 1871 it was part of the German Empire, it became a free state in the era of Weimar Republic in 1918 after the end of World War I and the abdication of King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony. Its capital was the city of Dresden, its modern successor state is the Free State of Saxony. Before 1806, Saxony was part of the Holy Roman Empire, a thousand-year-old entity that had become decentralised over the centuries; the rulers of the Electorate of Saxony of the House of Wettin had held the title of elector for several centuries. When the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in August 1806 following the defeat of Emperor Francis II by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz, the electorate was raised to the status of an independent kingdom with the support of the First French Empire the dominant power in Central Europe.

The last elector of Saxony became King Frederick Augustus I. Following the defeat of Saxony's ally Prussia at the Battle of Jena in 1806, Saxony joined the Confederation of the Rhine, remained within the Confederation until its dissolution in 1813 with Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Leipzig. Following the battle, in which Saxony – alone of all the German states – had fought alongside the French, King Frederick Augustus I was deserted by his troops, taken prisoner by the Prussians, considered to have forfeited his throne by the allies, who put Saxony under Prussian occupation and administration; this was more due to the Prussian desire to annex Saxony than to any crime on Frederick Augustus's part, the fate of Saxony would prove to be one of the main issues at the Congress of Vienna. In the end, 40% of the Kingdom, including the significant Wittenberg, home of the Protestant Reformation, was annexed by Prussia, but Frederick Augustus was restored to the throne in the remainder of his kingdom, which still included the major cities of Dresden and Leipzig.

The Kingdom joined the German Confederation, the new organization of the German states to replace the fallen Holy Roman Empire. During the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, Saxony sided with Austria, the Saxon army was seen as the only ally to bring substantial aid to the Austrian cause, having abandoned the defense of Saxony itself to join up with the Austrian army in Bohemia; this effectiveness allowed Saxony to escape the fate of other north German states allied with Austria – notably the Kingdom of Hanover – which were annexed by Prussia after the war. The Austrians and French insisted as a point of honour that Saxony must be spared, the Prussians acquiesced. Saxony joined the Prussian-led North German Confederation the next year. With Prussia's victory over France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, the members of the Confederation were organised by Otto von Bismarck into the German Empire, with WIlliam I as its emperor. John, as Saxony's incumbent king, was subordinate and owed allegiance to the Emperor, although he, like the other German princes, retained some of the prerogatives of a sovereign ruler, including the ability to enter into diplomatic relations with other states.

Wilhelm I's grandson Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated in 1918 as a result of a revolution set off in the days before Germany's defeat in World War I. King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony followed him into abdication and the erstwhile Kingdom of Saxony became the Free State of Saxony within the newly formed Weimar Republic; the 1831 Constitution of Saxony established the state as a parliamentary monarchy. The king was named as head of the nation, he was required to follow the provisions of the constitution, could not become the ruler of any other state without the consent of the Diet, or parliament. The crown was hereditary in the male line of the royal family through agnatic primogeniture, though provisions existed allowing a female line to inherit in the absence of qualified male heirs. Added provisions concerned the formation of a regency if the king was too young or otherwise unable to rule, as well as provisions concerning the crown prince's education. Any acts or decrees signed or issued by the king had to be countersigned by at least one of his ministers, who thus took responsibility for them.

Without the ministerial countersignature, no act of the king was to be considered valid. The king was given the right to declare any accused person innocent, or alternately to mitigate or suspend their punishment or pardon them, he was given supreme power over religious matters in Saxony. He appointed the president of the upper house of the Diet, together with a proxy from among three candidates suggested by that house, appointed the president and proxy of the lower house, as well; the king was given sole power to promulgate laws, to carry them into effect, only by his consent could any proposal for a law be advanced in the Diet. He had authority to issue emergency decrees and to issue non-emergency laws that he found needful or "advantageous", though such instruments required the counter-signature of at least one of his ministers, had to be presented to the next Diet for approval, he could not, change the constitution itself or the electoral laws in this manner. He was permitted to veto laws passed by the Diet, or to send them back with proposed amendments for reconsideration.

He was permitted to issue extraordinary decrees to obtain money for state expenditures r

Armadillo (2010 film)

Armadillo is a 2010 Danish documentary film about Danish soldiers in the War in Afghanistan directed by Janus Metz. The film follows a group of soldiers from the Guard Hussars Regiment who are on their first mission in Helmand Province at a forward operating base near Gereshk named FOB Armadillo; the film premièred at the Cannes Film Festival in 2010. It was awarded the Grand Prix de la Semaine de la Critique; the Semaine de la Critique screening described the film as "a journey into the soldiers' minds and a unique film on the mythological story of man and war staged in its contemporary version in Afghanistan". The film starts with the soldiers' last days in Denmark before leaving for Afghanistan. Scenes include their emotional goodbyes as well as a party with a striptease dancer, they are posted for a six-month tour at FOB Armadillo, a forward operating base in Helmand Province, where some 270 Danish and British soldiers are based. The film shows the soldiers going out on patrol, they hand out candy and gifts to the children.

They question a local man about the Taliban who declines to cooperate and they return to base without incident. The film depicts them as dividing their leisure time between maintaining their equipment and working out, calling home, playing shooter games and watching pornographic videos amongst other things. In the tour, the soldiers encounter armed resistance from the Taliban. In the ensuing battles, buildings are damaged and locals report livestock killed; some locals receive compensations from the base. A Danish commander becomes a victim of a roadside bomb and is evacuated to receive treatment for a skull fracture, he returns to Armadillo. Three Danish soldiers from a neighbouring camp die in an IED incident and the film records a memorial service for them. Directly following this there is a discussion over whether ambushing the Taliban will work and subsequently volunteers are recruited for a night patrol. At dawn, civilians are seen fleeing the area; the patrol comes under fire and a soldier is hit.

In the ensuing chaos the Taliban position is discovered to be directly in front of the patrol in a ditch only three metres away. A hand grenade is tossed into the ditch followed by the order to'neutralize them' and subsequent sporadic gunfire is heard. Five Taliban are killed and there are graphic scenes of their bodies being pulled from the ditch and stripped of their weapons, it shows that the Taliban fighters were armed with a single RPG-7 rocket propelled grenade, two PK machine guns and one AKM. There is a subsequent air strike. Back at base the patrol members congratulate each other on the morning's work and there is a debriefing with accounts of at least one Taliban fighter found alive but wounded in the ditch. There are further insinuations that any movement within the ditch would have represented a possible threat and that it was thus deemed necessary to spray the enemy fighters with another volley of bullets just to be sure. Subsequently it transpires that a soldier has called home discussing the episode with his parents and has given them the impression that wounded Taliban had been liquidated and that the soldiers had laughed about it at the debriefing.

The parents contacted the Danish Command about it and the ranking officer addresses his men about the issues that raises. A discussion amongst. Two of the soldiers on the patrol are awarded medals and the film concludes with scenes of jubilant homecomings and, for some, a return to civilian life; the final scene is a close-up shot of water streaming down onto the head and face of an introspective commander while he is taking a shower. A number of critics have expressed concern that the film blurs the divide between fiction. Writing in The Globe and Mail Guy Dixon remarks "there's another controversy of the more cinematic kind: While the footage is expertly photographed, all the different uses of filters and postproduction colour correction – which gives the film an Apocalypse Now quality at times – is disturbing when we're talking not about the mythology and madness of war, but about showing real, dead people in a ditch or actual children running from fighting."Politiken journalist Carsten Jensen said, "After Armadillo, it will not be possible to talk about Afghanistan, in the same way as before."The film was nominated in four categories for the 2012 News & Documentary Emmy Award, won the Editing category.

The film generated a brief political controversy in Denmark when the Danish Socialist People's Party accused the soldiers of deliberately breaking the rules of engagement during one of the firefights, demanded an investigation. Following procedure, the Danish Defence Judge Advocate Corps conducted an independent investigation, the soldiers were cleared of any wrongdoing. Restrepo, a 2010 documentary about US soldiers stationed at an outpost in the Korangal Valley, Afghanistan Forward Operating Base Armadillo Official website Armadillo on IMDb Armadillo Review Politikere splittede efter at have set'Armadillo', May 17th 2010

Holbrook Radar Bomb Scoring Site

Holbrook Radar Bomb Scoring Site is a Formerly Used Defense Site of 8 acres near Winslow, used as a Cold War Strategic Air Command radar station for the Holbrook Radar Bomb Scoring Range. Detachment 2 of the Radar Bomb Scoring Division transferred its personnel and equipment from the South Dakota Interior Radar Bomb Scoring Site Spring 1968; the site had a housing area, after the division became the 1st Electronic Combat Range Group, in August 1989 the detachment and site transferred from the 1ECRG to the 99th Strategic Weapons Wing."The last ECM-only sortie" scored by the site was c. September 30, 1993 by a C-130 Hercules from Hurlburt Field, Holbrook's detachment merged with Detachment 19 from the Poplar, site to become Detachment 4 at Harrison, Arkansas. In 1993, "part of Holbrook Radar Bomb Scoring Site conveyed to the National Park Service"