It included efforts within the community to integrate into their societies as citizens. It occurred gradually between the late 18th century and the early 20th century, Jewish emancipation followed the Age of Enlightenment and the concurrent Jewish enlightenment. Various nations repealed or superseded previous discriminatory laws applied specifically against Jews where they resided, many became active politically and culturally within wider European civil society as Jews gained full citizenship. They emigrated to countries offering better social and economic opportunities, such as the Russian Empire, some European Jews turned to Socialism, others to Jewish nationalism, Zionism. Jews were subject to a range of restrictions throughout most of European history. The practice of their religions was often restricted, and they had to swear special oaths, Jews were not allowed to vote, and some countries formally prohibited their entry, such as Norway and Spain after the expulsion in the late 15th century.
The Charter is ratified again by subsequent Polish Kings, Casimir the Great of Poland in 1334, Casimir IV of Poland in 1453, after massive expulsions of Jews from Western Europe, they found a refuge in the lands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Large parts of Poland suffered relatively little from the outbreak, while the Jewish immigration brought valuable manpower, the greatest increase in Jewish numbers occurred in the 18th century, when Jews came to make up 7% of the Polish population. The rabbinate was the highest goal of many young Jewish men, and the study of the Torah, Jewish involvement in gentile society began during the Age of Enlightenment. Haskalah, the Jewish movement supporting the adoption of enlightenment values, haskalah followers advocated coming out of the ghetto, not just physically but mentally and spiritually. On September 28,1791, France became the country of the world, after Poland 500 years earlier. There were 40,000 Jews living in France at the time and they were the first to confront the opportunities and challenges offered by emancipation.
The civic equality the French Jews attained became a model for other European Jews, newfound opportunities began to be provided to the Jewish people, and they slowly pushed toward equality in other parts of the world. In 1796 and 1834, the Netherlands granted the Jews equal rights with gentiles, napoleon freed the Jews in areas he conquered in Europe outside France. Greece granted equal rights to Jews in 1830, the early stages of Jewish emancipation movements were part of the general progressive efforts to achieve freedom and rights for minorities. While this was a movement, it was a pursuit for equal rights, the emancipation movement would be a long process. The question of rights for Jews was tied to demands for constitutions. In 1781, the Prussian civil servant Christian Wilhelm Dohm published the famous script Über die bürgerliche Emanzipation der Juden, Dohm disproves the antisemitic stereotypes and pleads for equal rights for Jews
The territory corresponds with the southeastern part of the present-day states of Lower Saxony, western Saxony-Anhalt and northern Thuringia. Together with Westphalia, central Angria and Nordalbingia it was one of the four main Saxon administrative regions and it should not be confused with East Westphalia. The name Ostfalen probably means east plain, the North German Plain of Eastphalia and Westphalia, divided by the Weser river, stand in contrast to the hilly region to the south, the Central Uplands of Franconia and Thuringia. German linguists reintroduced the term in the 19th century in the course of researching the Eastphalian language as a West Low German dialect. With Charlemagnes defeat and baptism of Duke Widukind in 785 during the Saxon Wars, his lands were integrated into the Frankish Empire, the bishoprics of Halberstadt and Hildesheim were established in eastern Saxony, bounded by the Oker river, in 804 and 815 respectively. The medieval Duchy of Saxony was divided between the districts of Eastphalia and Engern, the Saxon tradition was perpetuated by the Ascanian dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg, who secured for themselves the electoral dignity and established the Electorate of Saxony on the upper Elbe.
The exact list is not known for sure and differs among authorities
Westphalia is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It has an area of 7,802 sq mi and 7.9 million inhabitants, the region is almost identical with the Province of Westphalia which was a part of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1815 to 1918 and the Free State of Prussia from 1918 to 1946. In 1946, Westphalia merged with the Northern Rhineland, another part of Prussia. In 1947, the state with its two parts was joined by a third one, Lippe, a former principality and free state. All of the 17 districts and 9 independent cities of Westphalia, the Westphalian language, a variant of the German language, spreads north of Westphalias borders into southwest Lower Saxony. Being a part of the North German Plain, most of Westphalias north is flat, in the south the German Central Uplands emerge. Westphalia is divided into the following landscapes, other important rivers are the Ems and the Lippe. The Langenberg and the Kahler Asten in the Sauerlands part of the Rothaar Mountains are Westphalias, Westphalia is divided into three governmental districts.
These are subdivided into districts and independent cities. All districts and independent cities of the districts of Arnsberg. The District of Lippe as successor of the Free State of Lippe in the Governmental District of Detmold is rather considered to be a historic region. The traditional symbol of Westphalia is the Westphalian Steed, a horse on a red field. It is derived from the Saxon Steed in the coat of arms of the medieval Duchy of Saxony which most of todays Westphalia was part of. In official contexts the coat of arms of Westphalia is being used by the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association which represents these two historic parts of North Rhine-Westphalia. The coat of arms of Lower Saxony uses a different version of the Saxon Steed since the state covers parts of the Old Saxons duchy. The colors of Westphalia are white and red, the flag of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association uses these colors with the Westphalian coat of arms in its center. The flag of North Rhine-Westphalia is a combination of the Northern Rhinelands colors green/white, the flag of the Prussian Province of Westphalia already displayed the colors white and red.
The flag of Lower Saxony shows the colors of Germany and the Saxon Steed, composed in Iserlohn in 1886 by Emil Rittershaus, the Westfalenlied is an unofficial anthem of Westphalia
The metric system is an internationally agreed decimal system of measurement. Many sources cite Liberia and Myanmar as the other countries not to have done so. Although the originators intended to devise a system that was accessible to all. Control of the units of measure was maintained by the French government until 1875, when it was passed to an intergovernmental organisation. From its beginning, the features of the metric system were the standard set of interrelated base units. These base units are used to larger and smaller units that could replace a huge number of other units of measure in existence. Although the system was first developed for use, the development of coherent units of measure made it particularly suitable for science. Although the metric system has changed and developed since its inception, designed for transnational use, it consisted of a basic set of units of measurement, now known as base units. At the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, most countries, the metric system was designed to be universal—in the words of the French philosopher Marquis de Condorcet it was to be for all people for all time.
However, these overtures failed and the custody of the metric system remained in the hands of the French government until 1875. In languages where the distinction is made, unit names are common nouns, the concept of using consistent classical names for the prefixes was first proposed in a report by the Commission on Weights and Measures in May 1793. The prefix kilo, for example, is used to multiply the unit by 1000, thus the kilogram and kilometre are a thousand grams and metres respectively, and a milligram and millimetre are one thousandth of a gram and metre respectively. These relations can be written symbolically as,1 mg =0, however,1935 extensions to the prefix system did not follow this convention, the prefixes nano- and micro-, for example have Greek roots. During the 19th century the prefix myria-, derived from the Greek word μύριοι, was used as a multiplier for 10000, prefixes are not usually used to indicate multiples of a second greater than 1, the non-SI units of minute and day are used instead.
On the other hand, prefixes are used for multiples of the unit of volume. The base units used in the system must be realisable. Each of the units in SI is accompanied by a mise en pratique published by the BIPM that describes in detail at least one way in which the base unit can be measured. In practice, such realisation is done under the auspices of a mutual acceptance arrangement, in the original version of the metric system the base units could be derived from a specified length and the weight of a specified volume of pure water
Kingdom of Prussia
It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia was a power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia. Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more known as Frederick the Great. After the might of Prussia was revealed it was considered as a power among the German states. Throughout the next hundred years Prussia went on to win many battles and it was because of its power that Prussia continuously tried to unify all the German states under its rule. Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful states and Austria. The North German Confederation which lasted from 1867–1871, created a union between the Prussian-aligned states while Austria and most of Southern Germany remained independent.
The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War, the German Empire lasted from 1871–1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony. This was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, in 1871, Germany unified into a single country, minus Austria and Switzerland, with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the predecessor of the unified German Reich. The Kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, in 1415 a Hohenzollern Burgrave came from the south to the March of Brandenburg and took control of the area as elector. In 1417 the Hohenzollern was made an elector of the Holy Roman Empire, after the Polish wars, the newly established Baltic towns of the German states including Prussia, suffered many economic setbacks. Many of the Prussian towns could not even afford to attend political meetings outside of Prussia, the towns were poverty stricken, with even the largest town, having to borrow money from elsewhere to pay for trade.
Poverty in these towns was partly caused by Prussias neighbors, who had established and developed such a monopoly on trading that these new towns simply could not compete and these issues led to feuds, trade competition and invasions. However, the fall of these gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west. It was clear in 1440 how different Brandenburg was from the other German territories, not only did it face partition from within but the threat of its neighbors. It prevented the issue of partition by enacting the Dispositio Achillea which instilled the principle of primogeniture to both the Brandenburg and Franconian territories, the second issue was solved through expansion
Seesen is a town and municipality in the district of Goslar, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the edge of the Harz mountain range. In 1428 Seesen received town privileges by Duke Otto II the One-Eyed of Brunswick-Göttingen, on 17 July 1810, Israel Jacobson dedicated in Seesen the first synagogue which employed an organ and a choir during prayer and introduced some German liturgy. This day is celebrated by Reform Judaism worldwide as its foundation date, in 1836 Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg built his first grand piano in his kitchen in Seesen, the instrument is today on display at New Yorks Metropolitan Museum of Art. In 1801 the merchant Israel Jacobson established the first Haskalah interdenominational school in Germany at Seesen, the piano manufacturer William Steinway was born at Seesen on 5 March 1835 as Wilhelm Steinweg. His father Henry E. Steinway built his first grand piano at a Seesen washkitchen in 1836, emil Wohlwill, born at Seesen. The caricaturist Wilhelm Busch spent his last years at the Mechtshausen vicarage
Battle of Leipzig
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony. Napoleons army contained Polish and Italian troops, as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine, the battle was the culmination of the 1813 German campaign and involved nearly 600,000 soldiers, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I. Being decisively defeated for the first time in battle, Napoleon was compelled to return to France while the Coalition hurried to keep their momentum, Napoleon was forced to abdicate and was exiled to Elba in May 1814. However, the Russian Tsar refused to even as the French occupied the city. With this string of defeats, the armies of France were in retreat on all fronts across Europe, anti-French forces joined Russia as its troops pursued the remnants of the virtually destroyed Grande Armée across central Europe. He sought to regain the offensive by re-establishing his hold in Germany, the victories led to a brief armistice.
He won a victory at the Battle of Dresden on 27 August. This policy led to victories at Großbeeren, Katzbach, after these defeats, the French emperor could not easily follow up on his victory at Dresden. With the intention of knocking Prussia out of the war as soon as possible, Oudinot was defeated at the Battle of Großbeeren, just south of the city. With the intact Prussian force threatening from the north, Napoleon was compelled to withdraw westward and he deployed his army around the city, but concentrated his force from Taucha through Stötteritz, where he placed his command. The Prussians advanced from Wartenburg, the Austrians and Russians from Dresden, the coalition had some 380,000 troops along with 1,500 guns, consisting of 145,000 Russians,115,000 Austrians,90,000 Prussians, and 30,000 Swedes. This made Leipzig the largest battle of the Napoleonic wars, surpassing Borodino, Wagram and Auerstadt, Napoleon conscripted these men to be readied for an even larger campaign against the newly formed Sixth Coalition and its forces stationed in Germany.
While he won several battles, his army was being steadily depleted as Coalition commanders, closely following the Trachenberg Plan. The Swedes had under their command a company of the British Rocket Brigade armed with Congreve rockets, despite being outnumbered, Napoleon planned to take the offensive between the Pleisse and the Parthe rivers. The position at Leipzig held several advantages for his army and his battle strategy, the rivers that converged there split the surrounding terrain into many separate sectors. The northern front was defended by Marshals Michel Ney and Auguste de Marmont, the artillery reserve and parks and baggage stood near Leipzig, which Napoleon made his supply base for the battle. The bridges on the Pleisse and White Elster rivers were defended by infantry, the main battery stood in reserve, and during battle was to be deployed on the Gallows Height. This battery was to be commanded by the artillery expert Antoine Drouot, the western flank of the French positions at Wachau and Liebertwolkwitz was defended by Prince Joseph Poniatowski and Marshal Pierre Augereau and his young French conscripts
Electorate of Hesse
The Electorate of Hesse was a state elevated by Napoleon in 1803 from the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel. When the Holy Roman Empire was abolished in 1806, the Prince-Elector of Hesse chose to remain an Elector, in 1807, with the Treaties of Tilsit the area was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia, but in 1814 the Congress of Vienna restored the electorate. The state—last of its kind—consisted of several detached territories to the north of Frankfurt which survived until 1866 with the name of an electorate within the German Confederation and it comprised a total land area of 3,699 square miles, and its population in 1864 was 745,063. The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel originated in 1567 with the division of the Landgraviate of Hesse between the heirs of Philip I of Hesse after his death. Philips eldest son, William IV, received Hesse-Kassel, which comprised half the area of the Landgraviate of Hesse, including the capital. The reign of the Landgrave William IX was an important epoch in the history of Hesse-Kassel, ascending the throne in 1785, he took part in the War of the First Coalition against French First Republic a few years later, but in 1795 the Peace of Basel was signed.
In 1806 William I signed a treaty of neutrality with Napoleon Bonaparte, Hesse-Kassel was incorporated to the Kingdom of Westphalia under the rule of Jérôme Bonaparte. After the Battle of Leipzig in 1813 the French were driven out of Hesse-Kassel and this treaty, so far as the territories were concerned, was implemented by the Great Powers at the Congress of Vienna. They refused, the Electors request to be recognized as King of the Chatti, William therefore retained the now empty title of prince-elector, with the predicate of Royal Highness. Everything was set back to its condition on 1 November 1806, even the officials had to descend to their rank. William I died on 27 February 1821, and was succeeded by his son William II, under him the constitutional crisis in Kassel came to a head. The July Revolution in Paris gave the signal for disturbances, William II was forced to summon the Estates, the Elector now retired to Hanau, appointed his son Frederick William regent, and took no further part in public affairs.
Frederick William, without his fathers coarseness, had a share of his arbitrary. Constitutional restrictions were intolerable to him, and the consequent friction with the Diet was aggravated when in 1832 Hans Hassenpflug was placed at the head of the administration. After the breakdown of the Frankfurt National Parliament, Frederick William joined the Prussian Northern Union, but as Austria recovered strength, the Electors policy changed. On 2 September the Diet was dissolved, the taxes were continued by Electoral ordinance, and it was at once clear, that the Elector could not depend on his officers or troops, who remained faithful to their oath to the constitution. Hassenpflug persuaded the Elector to leave Kassel secretly with him, and on 15 October appealed for aid to the federal diet. On 1 November an Austrian and Bavarian force marched into the Electorate, War seemed imminent, Prussian troops entered the country, and shots were exchanged between the outposts
Treaties of Tilsit
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland. The first was signed on 7 July, between Tsar Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon I of France, when they met on a raft in the middle of the Neman River, the second was signed with Prussia on 9 July. The treaties were made at the expense of the Prussian king, in Tilsit, he ceded about half of his pre-war territories. Tilsit freed French forces for the Peninsular War, central Europe became a battlefield again in 1809, when Austria and Great Britain engaged France in the War of the Fifth Coalition. Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, the Congress of Vienna would restore many Prussian territories, the treaty ended war between Imperial Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that rendered the rest of continental Europe almost powerless. The two countries agreed to aid each other in disputes. France pledged to aid Russia against Ottoman Turkey while Russia agreed to join the Continental System against the British Empire, Napoleon convinced Alexander to enter into the Anglo-Russian War and to instigate the Finnish War against Sweden to force Sweden to join the Continental System.
More specifically, the agreed to evacuate Wallachia and Moldavia. The Ionian Islands and Cattaro, which had captured by Russian admirals Ushakov. In recompense, Napoleon guaranteed the sovereignty of the Duchy of Oldenburg, talleyrand had advised Napoleon to pursue milder terms, the treaties marked an important stage in his estrangement from the emperor. The cities debts, especially those of Berlin often billetted on, were not assumed by the Prussian government.15 per cent. 98%, many observers in Prussia and Russia viewed the treaty as unequal and as a national humiliation. The Russian soldiers refused to follow Napoleons commands, as the Lisbon Incident demonstrated to all Europe, Napoleons plans to marry the tsars sister were stymied by Russian royalty. Cooperation between Russia and France eventually broke down in 1810 when the tsar began to allow ships to land in Russian ports. In 1812, Napoleon crossed the Neman river and invaded Russia, the Prussian state was diminished by nearly half under the terms of the treaty of Tilsit from 5,700 Prussian square miles to 2,800.
Instead of 9.75 million inhabitants, no more than 4.5 million remained within the new boundaries of Prussia, almost all that Prussia had gained by the partitions of Poland was taken from it. Saxony, a confederate of Prussia, was the recipient of the provinces, and Russia
Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system, political economists, and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire or free market capitalism, welfare capitalism, different forms of capitalism feature varying degrees of free markets, public ownership, obstacles to free competition, and state-sanctioned social policies. Most existing capitalist economies are mixed economies, which elements of free markets with state intervention. Capitalism has existed under many forms of government, in different times, places. Following the decline of mercantilism, mixed capitalist systems became dominant in the Western world, Capitalism has been criticized for prioritizing profit over social good, natural resources, and the environment, and that is a cause of inequality and economic instabilities.
Supporters believe that it provides better products through competition, and creates strong economic growth, the term capitalist, meaning an owner of capital, appears earlier than the term capitalism. It dates back to the mid-17th century, capitalist is derived from capital, which evolved from capitale, a late Latin word based on caput, meaning head – the origin of chattel and cattle in the sense of movable property. Capitale emerged in the 12th to 13th centuries in the sense of referring to funds, stock of merchandise, sum of money, by 1283 it was used in the sense of the capital assets of a trading firm. It was frequently interchanged with a number of other words – wealth, funds, assets, the Hollandische Mercurius uses capitalists in 1633 and 1654 to refer to owners of capital. In French, Étienne Clavier referred to capitalistes in 1788, six years before its first recorded English usage by Arthur Young in his work Travels in France, David Ricardo, in his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, referred to the capitalist many times.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, an English poet, used capitalist in his work Table Talk, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon used the term capitalist in his first work, What is Property. To refer to the owners of capital, benjamin Disraeli used the term capitalist in his 1845 work Sybil. The initial usage of the term capitalism in its modern sense has been attributed to Louis Blanc in 1850, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels referred to the capitalistic system. And to the capitalist mode of production in Das Kapital, the use of the word capitalism in reference to an economic system appears twice in Volume I of Das Kapital, p.124, and in Theories of Surplus Value, tome II, p.493. Marx did not extensively use the form capitalism but instead those of capitalist, and capitalist mode of production, according to the OED, Carl Adolph Douai, a German-American socialist and abolitionist, used the phrase private capitalism in 1863. Capital has existed incipiently on a scale for centuries, in the form of merchant and lending activities.
Simple commodity exchange, and consequently simple commodity production, which are the basis for the growth of capital from trade, have a very long history