Eden Park is New Zealand's largest sports stadium. Located in central Auckland, New Zealand's largest city, it is three kilometres southwest of the CBD, on the boundary between the suburbs of Mount Eden and Kingsland. Although used for rugby union in winter and cricket in summer, it has hosted rugby league and football matches. In 2011 it hosted pool games, two quarter-finals, both semi-finals and the final of 2011 Rugby World Cup. In doing so it became the first stadium in the world to host two Rugby World Cup Finals, having held the inaugural final in 1987, it was a venue for the 2015 Cricket World Cup, jointly hosted by Australia and New Zealand. Eden Park has been a sports ground since 1900; the park began as a cricket ground in 1903, was due to the vision of one Harry Ryan, a cricket enthusiast who approached landowner John Walters to lease part of his land as a sports field. In the book Eden Park: A History, the authors write, "Certainly the rough paddock strewn with stones, studded with outcrops of rock and streaked with cowpats, falling away to a boggy trough that filled in a downpour and remained flooded throughout the winter, looked better suited to frog-hunting or duck-shooting than cricket, let alone rugby.
Ryan knew or at least imagined better." That bit of land was in fact located just up the road from Cabbage Tree Swamp, now Gribblehirst Park. Those who saw Ryan's vision as madness most felt vindicated when, in 1907, massive downpours of rain saw the ground submerged in water for a week; the same thing happened again in the year. Drainage problems were a scourge as late as 1975 when severe rain before the one-off test between the All Blacks and Scotland saw the event close to being called off with the drainage system unable to cope with the flooding. In 1913 the park was leased to the Auckland Rugby Union so it became both a summer and winter sporting venue, in 1921 hosted the first international event, a NZ v South Africa Test; the Western part of the ground was just open space until 1950 when a temporary stand was erected for the British Empire Games. In 1956 a permanent stand subsequently moved to North Harbour Stadium; the name ‘Eden Park’ settled into general usage around 1912, soon after it had been taken over by the Auckland Cricket Association.
Still the home of Auckland Cricket, Eden Park has hosted many international Tests, One Day International and Twenty/20 cricket matches. Rugby arrived in 1913 when, after negotiations with the Auckland Cricket Association, Auckland Rugby was granted a 21-year lease for games during the winter season; the first rugby test was held on 27 August 1921, when the Springboks beat the All Blacks 5–9 before a crowd of 40,000. The Auckland Rugby Football Union made Eden Park its home in 1925. In 1926 a Trust was set up to manage Eden Park for the benefit of Auckland Cricket and Auckland Rugby; the Trust still manages the Park. Eden Park has hosted events over the years from the 1950 Empire Games, the Queen Mother's visit in 1966, the infamous flour bombing test at the NZ v South Africa rugby game, to the Dalai Lama visit in 2002. In 1987, the ground hosted several matches of the inaugural Rugby World Cup, including the final, where New Zealand defeated France in the final; the ground was the subject of a hotly debated dilemma leading up to the 2011 Rugby World Cup, as to whether the event should be hosted at historic Eden Park or a new city centre stadium.
In 1996, the Auckland Blues began playing at the ground, with the inaugural Super 12 final held at the ground, the home side defeating the Natal Sharks in the match. Three subsequent finals have been held at the ground. In 2011, the ground hosted several matches of the 2011 Rugby World Cup, including the final, where New Zealand again defeated France in the final. In 2013 the New Zealand Warriors announced they would be playing three home games at Eden Park in the 2014 NRL season. In 2015, it hosted four matches during the 2015 Cricket World Cup, co-hosted by Australia and New Zealand including the first semi final between New Zealand and South Africa; the $256 million redevelopment completed in October 2010 provided a permanent capacity of 50,000 with a further 10,000 temporary seats for the 2011 Rugby World Cup games. This is the largest of any New Zealand sports arena. There are no standing areas. Temporary seating in front of the North Stand and the West Stand is required for the capacity to be reached.
Due to sight-screens and the larger area required for cricket matches, cricket capacity is smaller. Prior to redevelopment, Eden Park had a crowd capacity of 47,500 for 42,000 for cricket; the redevelopment project included a three-tier South stand replacing the old South and West stands, with a capacity of 24,000, a three-tier East replacing the Terraces. The number of covered seats increased from 23,000 to 38,000; the redeveloped Eden Park has an internal concourse that allows people to circulate around the grounds inside the stadium, world-class facilities, including food and beverage outlets and corporate areas, were incorporated. The open plan approach to the design and establishment of a community centre and green space, the removal of the perimeter fence, mean that the stadium has become more publicly accessible and a part of the neighbourhood. There were public concerns about the height of the new structure and its shading effect on many nearby houses. Auckland City Council received 470 submissions on the resource consent application, over 300 of which were in favour of the redevelopment.
On 26 January 2007, Eden Park received resource consent with 91 conditions imposed. The consent permitted the building of new stands in place of the terraces and south stand, but did not
Ngāti Whātua is a Māori iwi of the lower Northland Peninsula of New Zealand's North Island. It comprises a confederation of four hapū interconnected both by ancestry and by association over time: Te Uri-o-Hau, Te Roroa, Te Taoū, Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei; the four hapū can act separately as independent tribes. Ngāti Whātua's territory or rohe is traditionally expressed as: Tāmaki ki Maunganui i te Tai Hauauru and Tāmaki ki Manaia i te Rawhiti; the northern boundary is expressed as: Manaia titiro ki Whatitiri, Whatitiri titiro ki Tutamoe, Tutamoe titiro ki Maunganui. The southern boundary is expressed as: Te awa o Tāmaki; the area runs from Tāmaki River in the south to Maunganui Bluff in the north, to Whangarei Harbour on the east coast. By the time of European settlement in New Zealand, Ngāti Whātua's territory was around the Kaipara Harbour and stretching south to Tāmaki Makaurau, the site of present-day Auckland. Ngāti Whātua descends from the ancestor Tuputupuwhenua; the iwi traces its arrival in New Zealand to the Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi canoe, which landed north of the Kaipara Harbour.
They descend from ancestors who migrated from Muriwhenua in the Far North and intermarried with the tribes in Ngāti Whātua's territory. Ake 1179 is the official station of Ngāti Whātua, but is not part of the iwi radio network, it broadcasts on 1179 AM in Auckland, features a combination of urban contemporary music and traditional storytelling. Rivalry with Ngāpuhi escalated in the early 19th century. Ngāpuhi attacked Ngāti Whātua in 1807 or 1808 in the battle of Moremonui north of Dargaville - the occasion of the first use of firearms in Māori warfare. Ngāti Whātua overcame the Ngāpuhi warriors with hand weapons while Ngāpuhi were reloading their muskets, winning a decisive victory over the attackers. Ngāpuhi, led by Hongi Hika, exacted revenge in 1825 when they defeated Ngāti Whātua in the battle of Te Ika a Ranganui near Kaiwaka. Wishing to attract European settlement in their area, in hopes of avoiding future requisition by unsatisfied officials, Ngāti Whātua offered land at Tāmaki Makaurau to Governor William Hobson in 1840.
Hobson took up the offer and moved the capital of New Zealand to Tāmaki Makaurau, naming the settlement Auckland. Ngāti Whātua came to national prominence in the 1970s in a dispute over vacant land at Bastion Point, a little way east of the Auckland city centre, adjoining the suburb of Orakei; the land, which the New Zealand government had acquired cheaply for public works many decades before reverted to the tribe after a long occupation and passive resistance. Ngāti Hinga hapu, based at Ahikiwi marae, Kaihū Ngāti Torehina, based at Taita marae, Māmaranui Unidentified hapu, based at Kāpehu marae and Tama te Uaua marae, Kaihū Te Kuihi, based at Te Houhanga marae, Dargaville Te Popoto, based at Ōtūrei marae, Aratapu Te Roroa, based at Pananawe marae, Waipoua; the Whangarei district has four hapu: Patuharakeke hapu, based at Takahiwai marae, Takahiwai Te Kuihi hapu, based at Tangiterōria marae, Tangiterōria Te Parawhau hapu, based at Korokota marae, Tītoki and Tangiterōria marae, Tangiterōria Te Uriroroi hapu, based at Toetoe mare, Ōtaika Ngā Oho, based at Ōrākei marae, Ōrākei Te Taoū, based at Ōrākei marae, Ōrākei Te Uri Ngutu, based at Ōrākei marae, Ōrākei Te Runanga o Ngāti Whātua has a mandate, recognised by the New Zealand Government, to negotiate Treaty of Waitangi settlements for Ngāti Whatua.
It is a mandated iwi organisation under the Māori Fisheries Act, an iwi acquaculture organisation Aquaculture Organisation in the Māori Commercial Aquaculture Claims Settlement Act, represents Ngāti Whatu as an iwi authority under the Resource Management Act and is a Tūhono organisation. It is a Māori Trust Board governed by 11 trustees from 5 takiwā or districts: 1 trustee from Ōrakei, 2 from South Kaipara, 3 from Otamatea, 1 from Whangarei and 4 from Northern Wairoa; as of 2016, the chairperson of the trust is Russell Kemp, the support services manager is Pat Murray, the trust is based in Whangarei. The iwi has interest in the territory of Northland Regional Council, Auckland Council, Kaipara District Council and Whangarei District Council. Naida Glavish and community leader Joe Hawke and businessman Josh Hohneck, rugby union player Hugh Kāwharu and academic Merata Kawharu and academic Graham Latimer, former Māori Council president Manos Nathan, ceramicist Paraire Karaka Paikea and church minister Otene Paora, Māori leader and land negotiator Tame Te Rangi, civil servant and sports commentator Ngapipi Reweti, land negotiator Āpihai Te Kawau, tribal leader Pāora Tūhaere, tribal leader Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Whātua Ngāti Whātua Ōrākei Ngāti Whātua, Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand Orakei resource kit, Waitangi Tribunal
In Māori mythology, Rongo or Rongo-mā-Tāne is a major god of cultivated plants kumara, a vital crop. Other crops cultivated by Māori in traditional times included taro, yams and gourds; because of their tropical origin, most of these crops were difficult to grow except in the far north of the North Island, hence the importance of Rongo in New Zealand. He was an important god of agriculture and god of war in the southern Cook Islands on Mangaia where the Akaoro marae and Orongo marae were centres of his worship. A legend concerning Rongo flying the first kite is told in the waiting room of Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room, in which Rongo is voiced by Ernest Tavares. In the creation story of the tribes of the Arawa canoe, with his brothers Tū, Tāne, Haumia-tiketike, agreed that the primordial parents Rangi and Papa needed to be separated to allow daylight into the world. A sixth brother, Tāwhirimātea, the god of storms, did not consent to this and afterwards attacked his brothers with unrelenting fury.
Rongo and Haumia, the god of wild food, took refuge in the body of Papa, mother earth, who hid them until the storm passed. He would have had more of an association with the small, yellow-skin, finger-sized variety known as hutihuti and taputini, which the Māori had brought with them from eastern Polynesia, rather than larger varieties brought by sealers and whalers in the early 19th century. In the Māori language, rongo can mean'peace'. Rongo is portrayed as the creator of the kumara, a plant associated with peace. In Ngāti Awa traditions, Rongo is a son of Tāne and father of the kumara, but a man named Rongo-māui travels to Whānui, from whom he steals the kumara and returns to Earth with it. Small statues representing Rongo were once placed alongside kumara fields. In southern Cook Islands mythology, Rongo was the god of agriculture and one of the children of Vatea and Papa, his twin brother was the god of the sea. Rongo was the principal deity of Mangaia. In the Mangaian legend of origin, Rongo's sons by his wife Tavake, Rangi and Akatauira, lifted the island of Mangaia up out of the underworld, becoming the first settlers and the ancestors of the Nga Ariki tribe, with Rangi becoming the first chief.
The traditional name of the island was A'u A'u, which means'terraced', short for A'u A'u Nui o Rongo ki te Ao Marama. In Mangaian society, the ritual system to become the principal chief, Te Mangaia, emphasized the worship of Rongo; the installation of a new Te Mangaia after a war of conquest of the puna lands required a human sacrifice to Rongo. He was both the god of god of taro irrigation; the ideological linkages between Rongo, war and human sacrifice were complex: Rongo assured success in war and fertility of the land, but these required continual sacrifices in both human bodies and taro in an endless cycle. He would feast on the souls of those. Principal places of Rongo's Mangaian worship were at two marae in the Keia district. Both have since been destroyed along with many other symbols of old gods with the introduction of Christianity in the early 19th century, they were presided over by two hereditary High Priests of Rongo. At the Orongo marae a human sacrifice was laid on a smooth block of limestone or sandstone in front of Rongo's image.
Human bone fragments can still be found among the remnants at the site. At the Akaoro marae, it is evident that a platform of hala wood was erected for human sacrifice, although no traces of raised platforms have been found. In the Ivirua district was Ivanui marae, but this was abandoned in favour of Orongo marae. 1956. M. Orbell, The Concise Encyclopedia of Māori Myth and Legend, 1998. E. R. Tregear, Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, 1891. Patrick V. Kirch, "Natural Experiments of History" anthology edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson, Chapter one "Controlled Comparison and Polynesian Cultural Evolution" by Patrick V. Kirch, pages 28 & 29, 2010
Eden Valley, New Zealand
Eden Valley is an inner-city suburb of Auckland, the largest and most populous urban area in New Zealand. The suburb grew around Dominion one of the Auckland's main arterial routes. Eden Valley's commercial hub is made up of a collection of businesses and dining options that service the area; the eclectic collection of shop fronts and signage on Dominion Road has aptly been described as, "colour and chaos". The "colour and chaos" of the commercial hub is contrasted by the surrounding residential area. Eden Valley is characterized by heritage buildings that house modern day businesses, a residential area that has a range of late Victorian and transitional bay villas, basalt and scoria stone walls that give the area a long established feel. Eden Valley is located 3.5 km south of the Auckland Central Business District. Dominion Road makes up the spine of Eden Valley. Eden Valley itself has no definitive beginning or end, but runs from View Road to Ballantyne Square with the intersection of Valley Road and Dominion Road as its central axis from which the suburb radiates out.
Maungawhau provides a navigational landmark to the east and Eden Park is located to the west. Dominion Road traverses some of Auckland’s early lava flows from volcanic Maungawhau and Te Tatua-a-Riukiuta. Eden Valley, as a city suburb, originated as farmland before it was subdivided for residential use and commercial development followed. During the 1840s, John Walters, George Nicol and James Brown were early landowners of Eden Valley, holding substantial land for farming and quarrying stone. Auckland’s volcanic landscape was a blessing for the area. Suburban development in Auckland depended on the availability of land, affordable transport, desire of the middle class to move out of the crowded inner city. Auckland experienced significant growth in population between 1874 and 1886, putting pressure on the areas closest to the city; the population growth combined with public transportation extending outside of the present city centre in the early 1880s created prime conditions for landowners to subdivide their properties for residential use.
Eden Valley's commercial hub began to develop in the 1880s, but it was not until the early 1900s that the development took off. The development and expansion of Dominion Road from 1900 to 1930 mirrored that in nearby Mt Eden village; the principal corner sites were redeveloped with Edwardian two-storey shops with dwellings above. The number of shops increased in the 1920s after the intersection of Dominion Road and Valley Road became the end of the tram line. In Mt Eden, the plentiful supply of volcanic stone, as well as, the ready supply of labourers from the Mt Eden Prison, allowed for a progressive development of early roads, many of which still exist today as main arterial routes. Toll gates were established on several main roads, including Mt Eden Road and Dominion Road, during the 19th century in order to help pay for their upkeep. Public transportation extended from the inner city to the surrounding areas in the late 1870s and early 1880s with horse-drawn buses being the first mode of regular public transportation in the late 1870s.
In 1881 the long-awaited railway came, connecting Newmarket with Helensville with stops in Mt Eden, Morningside and Mt Albert. At the beginning of the 20th century, trams began connecting Mt. Eden, Kingsland, Mt Albert with the city; the trams ran for the last time in the 1950s. Eden Valley falls on the border between the Epsom and Mt Albert constituencies for national Parliament. In terms of local government, Eden Valley comes under the Albert-Eden Local Board, of Auckland Council; the Albert-Eden Local Board includes the suburbs of Waterview, Point Chevalier, Mount Albert, Owairaka, Kingsland, Mount Eden and Greenlane. During the 19th century, the planning and maintenance of the main arterial roads provided the impetus to form local governing bodies in the area; the Mt Eden Highway Board held its first meeting in 1868. At the time it was responsible for building and maintaining the roads, for dealing with the pigs, horses and sheep that roamed the area. In 1882, it became the Mt Eden Road Board.
In 1906, Mt Eden gained the Mt Eden Borough Council was formed. In 1989 the Borough Council amalgamated with Auckland City Council in a nationwide local government reorganisation, and in November 2010, the council was dissolved and it became a ward of the Auckland Council. Dominion Road is a main arterial route in Auckland running north-south across most of the central isthmus; the road is a major public transport route which carries 50,000 bus passengers each week, making it one of the few roads in Auckland on which similar or greater numbers of people travel by public transport than by private car. Dominion Road began as a track created by early landowner, John Walters, connecting his property to Eden Terrace at the Whau Road. Dominion Road known as Mt Roskill Road, was further developed over the years because contractors needed the road to cart basalt and scoria from Mount Roskill and Three Kings quarries. A toll booth near Railway Bridge collected tolls from road users to fund its maintenance.
New Zealand received dominion status in 1907 and Mt Roskill Ro
Arch Hill, New Zealand
Arch Hill is a small suburb of Auckland, New Zealand. Arch Hill is under the local governance of the Auckland Council; the area is called Arch Hill due to its "natural features". In 1730 this may have been the site of the "Broken Calabash ": Te Ipu Pakore; this battle between two warring Maori tribes happened along this ridge around the Arch Hill area. In the 1880s this was part of an 80-acre farm which stretched from what is now Great North Road, down the gulley where the North Western Motorway cuts through, up the other side to the Morningside area, it was owned by Joseph and Jane Young who had arrived in Auckland in 1842, the farm was called'Arch Hill', after the farm Joseph had been raised on near Strabane, County Londonderry, Ireland. Joseph died in 1880 on his Arch Hill' property at the age of 78. In 1885 their son, Joseph built a house called Breveg Villa, located at 47 Western Springs Road, now separated from Arch Hill by the 1960s motorway. Most of the houses on the Arch Hill area date from around the turn of the 20th century and many are small workers cottages or wooden villas.
As Arch Hill faces south away from the sun it is and always was a less desirable location than either neighbouring Grey Lynn or Kingsland. Some light industrial commercial premises have replaced parts of the housing stock with one & two storey commercial properties and more apartment complexes have been built. Before the north-western motorway was cut through the bottom of the suburb, known as Arch Hill Gully, in the 1960s and 70s, many of the streets running down from Great North Road linked up with those in Kingsland. Now the only through road is Bond Street, the others have become quiet cul-de-sacs; the Arch Hill Roads Board was formed after the Provincial abolition of the 1870s and was an independent municipality until it was incorporated into the City of Auckland in the 1910s following a referendum. The Arch Hill electorate was created for the 1946 elections, formed out of portions of the Auckland Central, Auckland West, Grey Lynn electorates; the Arch Hill Hotel was a landmark on the corner of Great North Road and Tuarangi Road at what is now the Surrey Crescent shops.
Built in the 19th century it still stands on its original site. It closed around 1900; as the Old Stone Jug Pub at Western Springs no longer operated this resulted in there being no pubs between the Gluepot at Three lamps, The Star at the corner of Krd & Ponsonby Road and the Avondale Hotel. The local secondary schools are Western Springs College, Mount Albert Grammar School, St Paul's College and St Mary's College. Photographs of Arch Hill held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
New Zealand Parliament
The New Zealand Parliament is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is represented by a governor-general. Before 1951, there was the New Zealand Legislative Council; the Parliament was established in 1854 and is one of the oldest continuously functioning legislatures in the world. The House of Representatives has met in the Parliament Buildings located in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, since 1865, it consists of 120 members of Parliament, though sometimes more due to overhang seats. There are 71 MPs elected directly in electorate seats and the remainder are filled by list MPs based on each party's share of the total party vote. Māori were represented in Parliament from 1867, in 1893 women gained the vote. Although elections can be called early, each three years the House is dissolved and goes up for reelection; the Parliament is linked to the executive. The New Zealand Government comprises other ministers.
In accordance with the principle of responsible government, these individuals are always drawn from the House of Representatives, are held accountable to it. Neither the monarch nor her governor-general participates in the legislative process, save for signifying the Queen's approval to a bill passed by the House, known as the granting of Royal Assent, necessary for a bill to be enacted as law; the New Zealand Parliament is consciously modelled on the Westminster system of parliamentary representation, developed in the United Kingdom. This system can be traced back to the "Model Parliament" of 1295 regarded as the first recognisable parliament. Over the centuries, parliaments progressively limited the power of the monarchy; the Bill of Rights 1688 established Parliament's role in law-making and supply. Among its provisions, the Bill confirmed absolute freedom of speech in Parliament; as early as 1846, the British settlers in New Zealand petitioned for self-government. The New Zealand Parliament was created by the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, an Act of the British Parliament, which established a bicameral legislature called the "General Assembly", but referred to as Parliament.
It had a lower house, called the House of Representatives, an upper house, called the Legislative Council. The members of the House were elected under the first-past-the-post voting system, while those of the Council were appointed by the Governor; the first members were sworn in on 24 May 1854 in Auckland. Legislative Councillors were appointed for life, but their terms were fixed at seven years; this change, coupled with responsible government and party politics, meant that by the 20th century, the government controlled the Council as well as the House, the passage of bills through the Council became a formality. In 1951, the Council was abolished altogether. At the time of its abolition the Council had fifty-four members, including its own Speaker. Under the Constitution Act, legislative power was conferred on New Zealand's provinces, each of which had its own elected provincial council; these provincial councils were able to legislate for their provinces on most subjects. However, New Zealand was never a federation comparable to Australia.
Over a twenty-year period, political power was progressively centralised, the provinces were abolished altogether in 1876. Unlike other countries, New Zealand had representatives of the indigenous population in its parliament from an early date. Reserved Māori seats were created in 1867 during the term of the 4th Parliament; the Māori electorates have lasted far longer than the intended five years. In 2002, the seats increased in number to seven. One historical speciality of the New Zealand Parliament was the country quota, which gave greater representation to rural politics. From 1889 on, districts were weighted according to their urban/rural split; those districts which had large rural proportions received a greater number of nominal votes than they contained voters – as an example, in 1927, Waipawa, a district without any urban population at all, received an additional 4,153 nominal votes to its actual 14,838 – having the maximum factor of 28% extra representation. The country quota was in effect until it was abolished in 1945 by a urban-elected Labour government, which switched to a one-vote-per-person system.
The New Zealand Parliament remained subordinate to the British Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire—although, in practice, Britain's role was minimal from the 1890s. The New Zealand Parliament received progressively more control over New Zealand affairs through the passage of Imperial laws such as the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865, constitutional amendments, an hands-off approach by the British government. In 1947, the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act gave Parliament full power over New Zealand law, the New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1947, an Act of the British
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala