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Kingston, Jamaica

Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica, located on the southeastern coast of the island. It faces a natural harbour protected by the Palisadoes, a long sand spit which connects the town of Port Royal and the Norman Manley International Airport to the rest of the island. In the Americas, Kingston is the largest predominantly English-speaking city south of the United States; the local government bodies of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrew were amalgamated by the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation Act of 1923, to form the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation. Greater Kingston, or the "Corporate Area" refers to those areas under the KSAC. Kingston Parish had a population of 96,052, St. Andrew Parish had a population of 555,828 in 2001. Kingston is only bordered by Saint Andrew to the east and north; the geographical border for the parish of Kingston encompasses the following communities, Tivoli Gardens, Denham Town, Rae Town, Kingston Gardens, National Heroes Park, Bournemouth Gardens, Norman Gardens, Rennock Lodge and Port Royal, along with portions of Rollington Town, Franklyn Town and Allman Town.

The city proper is bounded by Six Miles to the west, Stony Hill to the north, Papine to the northeast and Harbour View to the east, communities in urban and suburban Saint Andrew. Communities in rural St. Andrew such as Gordon Town, Mavis Bank, Lawrence Tavern, Mt. Airy and Bull Bay would not be described as being in Kingston city. Two parts make up the central area of Kingston: the historic Downtown, New Kingston. Both are served by Norman Manley International Airport and by the smaller and domestic Tinson Pen Aerodrome. Kingston was founded in July 1693 after the earthquake that devastated Port Royal in 1692, the original section of the city, situated at the bottom of the Liguanea Plains was laid out to house survivors of the earthquake. Before the earthquake, Kingston's functions were purely agricultural; the earthquake survivors set up a camp on the sea front. Two thousand people died due to mosquito-borne diseases; the people lived in a tented camp on Colonel Barry's Hog Crawle. The town did not begin to grow until after the further destruction of Port Royal by fire in 1703.

Surveyor John Goffe drew up a plan for the town based on a grid bounded by North, East and Harbour Streets. The new grid system of the town was designed to facilitate commerce the system of main thoroughfares 66 feet across which allowed transportation between the port and plantations farther inland. By 1716 it had become the centre of trade for Jamaica; the government sold land to people with the regulation that they purchase no more than the amount of the land that they owned in Port Royal, only land on the sea front. Wealthy merchants began to move their residences from above their businesses to the farm lands north on the plains of Liguanea; the first free school, Wolmers's, was founded in 1729 and there was a theatre, first on Harbour Street and moved in 1774 to North Parade. Both are still in existence. In 1755 the governor, Sir Charles Knowles, had decided to transfer the government offices from Spanish Town to Kingston, it was thought by some to be an unsuitable location for the Assembly in proximity to the moral distractions of Kingston, the next governor rescinded the Act.

However, by 1780 the population of Kingston was 11,000, the merchants began lobbying for the administrative capital to be transferred from Spanish Town, by eclipsed by the commercial activity in Kingston. By the end of the 18th century, the city contained more than 3,000 brick buildings; the harbour fostered trade, played part in several naval wars of the 18th century. Kingston took over the functions of Spanish Town; these functions included agriculture, processing and a main transport hub to and from Kingston and other sections of the island. In 1788, Kingston had a population of 25,000, about a tenth of the overall population of the island. One in every four people living in Kingston was white, there was a large population of free people of color there too, meaning that two out of every five people living in Kingston were free; the remaining three-fifths of Kingston's population was made up of black slaves. The government passed an act to transfer the government offices to Kingston from Spanish Town, which occurred in 1872.

It kept this status when the island was granted independence in 1962. In 1907, 800 people died in another earthquake known as the 1907 Kingston earthquake, destroying nearly all the historical buildings south of Parade in the city; that was. These three-story-high buildings were built with reinforced concrete. Construction on King Street in the city was the first area to breach this building code. During the 1930s, island-wide riots led to the development of trade unions and political parties to represent workers; the city became home to the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies founded in 1948, with 24 medical students. Not until the 1960s did major change occur in the development of Kingston's city centre; the international attention of reggae music at that time coincided with the expansion and development of 95 acres of the Kingston city centre waterfront area. These developments led to an influx of shops and offices, the development of a new financial centre: New Kingston, which replaced the Knutsford Racetrack.

Multi-story buildings and boulevards were placed within that section. In 1966 Kingston was the host city to the Commonwealth Games; the we

Lody Kong

Lody Kong is an American sludge metal band from Phoenix, formed in 2011. The band is known for being led by brothers Igor and Zyon Cavalera, both sons of former Sepultura and current Soulfly frontman Max Cavalera. Lody Kong formed in 2011 after the split of metalcore quintet Mold Breaker, which included Zyon and Igor on drums and guitar, respectively. Recruiting local musicians John Bauer and Shea "Shanks" Fahey, Igor covered vocal duties and Lody Kong began writing material, adopting their name from their friend Cody Long. In 2012 they released their first demo tracks "Rumsfield" and "Crazy Joe", opened for Soulfly on the inaugural Maximum Cavalera Tour. After the tour in early 2013, the quartet entered the studio with producer Roy Mayorga to record their debut EP, entitled No Rules and released digitally on December 17 via Minus Head Records, after being available on tour throughout the year, along with a music video for the track "Monkeys Always Look". In 2014 they released an extra track entitled "Some Pulp", while in 2015 Igor toured on bass guitar with Soulfly after the departure of Tony Campos.

News surfaced in late 2015 that the group were set to release an album in 2016 consisting of recordings made up to two years with producer John Gray. In January 2016 Lody Kong announced their debut album and Visions, will be released on March 25 worldwide via Mascot Label Group. During the 2016 Maximum Cavalera Tour they debuted Travis Stone and Noah Shepherd. On February 26, they released a lyric video for the song "Chillin', Killin'". Shepherd left the band in 2016 with Igor moving to vocals and bass. Lody Kong's music differs from the members' other projects and associated acts. Critics and media have referred to the band as a mix of sludge metal, punk rock, hardcore punk and thrash metal. Igor Cavalera Jr. – vocals, bass guitar, rhythm guitar Zyon Cavalera – drums Travis Stone – lead guitar John Bauer – lead guitar Shea "Shanks" Fahey – bass Noah Shepherd – bass DemosBird EP Extended PlaysNo Rules Studio albumsDreams and Visions

Jacob Horwitz

Jacob Horwitz was a politician in Queensland, Australia. He was a Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. Horwitz was born in 1830 in East Prussia. Together with his brother, he ran the Exchange Store general store in the town of Warwick, owned the local Ellenthorpe Flour Mill. Horwitz began public life as Mayor of Warwick from 1876-1878, he resigned in 1878 to contest the seat of Warwick in the Queensland Legislative Assembly. A member of the Liberal party, Horwitz was elected to the seat in 1878, defeating James Morgan, dying from an injury sustained some months earlier. Horwitz served two terms as member for the district from 1878-1887. In February 1887, he embarked on a trip to Europe. Despite some pressure, he did not resign his seat in parliament. A by-election was held on 2 July 1887, won by Independent candidate Arthur Morgan who became Premier of Queensland. Horwitz was a prominent philanthropist in the Darling Downs region, including gifting ₤7500 to the Warwick General Hospital for the creation of a new ward.

He died in Berlin on 24 March 1920

Bijan Kian

Bijan R. Kian, sometimes written Bijan Rafiekian, is an Iranian-American businessman, he has been an board member of many businesses and organizations. Kian was a member of the Board of Directors of the Export–Import Bank of the United States from 2006 to 2011, after being nominated by President George W. Bush and receiving Senate confirmation. Kian was a partner of retired United States Army Lieutenant General Michael Flynn in the Flynn Intel Group and worked with the incoming Trump administration's transition team on matters relating to the Office of the Director of National Intelligence; the US Special Counsel's office opened an investigation into Flynn and the Flynn Intel Group, including Kian, in 2017. On December 17, 2018, several months after Flynn entered into a cooperation agreement with the Special Counsel's office, two weeks after Flynn pleaded guilty in federal court for lying to the FBI, Kian and Kamil Ekim Alptekin were indicted in US federal court. Kian was charged with illegally acting as an unregistered agent of a foreign government and for lobbying the US government on behalf of Turkey to extradite Fethullah Gülen, who lives in the U.

S. to Turkey, where Gülen was blamed for orchestrating a failed coup in 2016. Kian pleaded not guilty; the trial began on July 15, 2019. Contractors of the intel company gave testimony in the trial of the subject, which revealed the subject had requested surveillance of Gülen supporters, investigations of terrorist connections, classified FBI documents on Gülen, he was convicted on July 23, 2019. On September 24th, 2019, "Judge Anthony Trenga of the Eastern District of Virginia dismissed the indictment against Bijan Rafiekian, citing insufficient evidence to sustain his conviction on either count." Judge throws out guilty verdict against Michael Flynn's lobbying partner Bijan Kian Mueller Report Timeline of investigations into Trump and Russia Timeline of the presidency of Donald Trump

Melvill Jones

Sir Bennett Melvill Jones, was Francis Mond Professor of Aeronautical Engineering at the University of Cambridge from 1919 to 1952. He demonstrated the importance of streamlining in aircraft design, it had been known since the time of Aristotle, that a moving body passing through air or another fluid encounters resistance, but Jones developed the ideas of Louis Charles Breguet into a refined theory to demonstrate emphatically the importance of drag to the performance of aircraft. He was the eldest of the three children of Benedict Jones, a barrister, Henrietta Cornelia Melvill, the South African widow of George William Bennett, his father served as mayor of Birkenhead. Jones was born in a suburb of Birkenhead. After attending a preparatory school in Rock Ferry, he was educated at Birkenhead School from 1898–1906, he recalled having great admiration for the headmaster who allowed him to give up cricket to give him more time to work with his father on engineering projects. He graduated with a first class honours degree from Emmanuel College, Cambridge in the mechanical sciences tripos in 1909.

After university he worked at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich in their workshop and was there until January 1911 when he joined in the Aerodynamics Department of the National Physical Laboratory at Teddington and at Armstrong Whitworths where he worked on the design of airships until the outbreak of war in 1914. He was seconded to the Royal Aircraft Factory the Royal Aircraft Establishment, where he worked on aerial gunnery until 1916 when he was transferred to the Air Armaments Experimental Station at Orfordness, which had established by Bertram Hopkinson, Head of the Engineering Department at Cambridge. Whilst there, Melvill learned to fly and served as a gunner for about six weeks in 1918 in a Bristol Fighter in No. 48 Squadron RAF with his younger brother, Benedict Henry Melvill Jones, as pilot. He was awarded the Air Force Cross and promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel In March 1919 Jones returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Emmanuel College and a member of staff of the Engineering Department.

In October he was elected as the first Francis Mond Professor of Aeronautical Engineering in which position he remained until his retirement in 1952. At Cambridge the Air Ministry provided aircraft and flying facilities to develop a successful school of aviation research. With characteristic modesty he said that he expected his small team four, to work with him rather than for him, his work on stalls led to a great understanding of the phenomenon and reduced accidents. From 1926 his work was principally connected with reducing drag. In 1929 his paper The Streamline Airplane presented to the Royal Aeronautical Society was seminal, he proposed an ideal aircraft that would have minimal drag which led to the concepts of a'clean' monoplane and retractable undercarriage. The aspect of Jones's paper that most shocked the designers of the time was his plot of the horse power required versus velocity, for an actual and an ideal plane. By looking at a data point for a given aircraft and extrapolating it horizontally to the ideal curve, the velocity gain for the same power can be seen.

When Jones finished his presentation, a member of the audience described the results as being of the same level of importance as the Carnot cycle in thermodynamics. Before the Second World War, he was asked to return to his work on gunnery, his four years of work led to the development of the gyroscopic gunsight. In 1943 he moved to the Ministry of Aircraft Production and became chairman of the Aeronautical Research Committee until 1946 In 1946 he resumed his work on drag. After retirement he became a consultant for the Royal Aircraft Establishment. In the King's Birthday Honours 1938 Jones was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire, in the New Year Honours 1942 was appointed a Knight Bachelor. Jones was elected Fellow of the Royal Society and awarded the Medal of Freedom by the US in 1947 for his work on aerial gunnery and he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Aeronautical Society and became an honorary fellow of the society in 1951. In 1916 he married Dorothy Laxton, they had a daughter and two sons and Geoffrey.

Warren was a pilot, killed in action in 1940. He was a strong swimmer and keen rock climber, he was regarded as'one of the kindest and friendliest of men'. He died in Devon on 31 October 1975. Images at the National Portrait Gallery


Düsseldorf-Hafen is an urban borough of Düsseldorf, located on the river Rhine and the location of the city's docks. The borough covers 3.85 km2 and is predominantly commercial and industrial in nature, with a small residential population. It had 212 residents in the year 2000, making it the Düsseldorf borough with the lowest population density; the docks prospered for decades but lost much of their trade when Mannesmann closed its nearby pipe factory. As a result the eastern part of the docks started to be redeveloped, attracting businesses in the service sector such as media and fashion companies. One of the first new residents to the so-called Media Harbour was Westdeutscher Rundfunk with its current affairs TV and radio studios. Düsseldorf local radio station Antenne Düsseldorf is based in the harbour area. One of the largest cinemas of Düsseldorf is in the Hafen; the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia and the Rheinturm are situated right next to the harbour. Within the Hafen district is the Neuer Zollhof an ensemble of three warped-looking buildings by architect Frank Gehry and other postmodernist buildings.

There are many restaurants, a few clubs, which make the Hafen a prominent lifestyle district. The western part of the area still has used docks for barges that transport materials on the Rhine. There are plans for further redevelopment with the construction of high end apartment buildings. In 2003 the port company merged with the port of Neuss on the opposite bank of the Rhine to form Neuss-Düsseldorfer Häfen GmbH & Co. KG. Neuss Düsseldorfer Häfen, History Communal Administration, Der Medienhafen Communal Administration, District Mayor This article is based on a translation of an article from the German Wikipedia