Bouldering is a form of rock climbing, performed on small rock formations or artificial rock walls, known as boulders, without the use of ropes or harnesses. While it can be done without any equipment, most climbers use climbing shoes to help secure footholds, chalk to keep their hands dry and provide a firmer grip, bouldering mats to prevent injuries from falls. Unlike free solo climbing, performed without ropes, bouldering problems are less than 6 meters tall. Traverses, which are a form of boulder problem, require the climber to climb horizontally from one end to another. Artificial climbing walls allow boulderers to train indoors in areas without natural boulders. In addition, Bouldering competitions take place in both outdoor settings; the sport was a method of training for roped climbs and mountaineering, so climbers could practice specific moves at a safe distance from the ground. Additionally, the sport served to build increase finger strength. Throughout the 1900s, bouldering evolved into a separate discipline.
Individual problems are assigned ratings based on difficulty. Although there have been various rating systems used throughout the history of bouldering, modern problems use either the V-scale or the Fontainebleau scale; the growing popularity of bouldering has caused several environmental concerns, including soil erosion and trampled vegetation as climbers hike off-trail to reach bouldering sites. This has caused some landowners to prohibit bouldering altogether; the characteristics of boulder problems depend on the type of rock being climbed. For example, granite features long cracks and slabs while sandstone rocks are known for their steep overhangs and frequent horizontal breaks. Limestone and volcanic rock are used for bouldering. There are many prominent bouldering areas throughout the United States, including Hueco Tanks in Texas, Mount Evans in Colorado, The Buttermilks in Bishop, California. Squamish, British Columbia is one of the most popular bouldering areas in Canada. Europe hosts a number of bouldering sites, such as Fontainebleau in France, Albarracín in Spain, various mountains throughout Switzerland.
Africa's most prominent bouldering areas are the more established Rocklands in South Africa and the new kid on the block Oukaimeden in Morocco or opened areas like Chimanimani in Zimbabwe. Highball bouldering is climbing tall boulders. Using the same protection as standard bouldering climbers venture up house-sized rocks that test not only their physical skill and strength but mental focus. Highballing, like most of climbing, is open to interpretation. Most climbers say anything above 15 feet is a highball and can range in height up to 35–40 feet where highball bouldering turns into free soloing. Highball bouldering may have begun in 1961 when John Gill bouldered a steep face on a 37-foot granite spire called "The Thimble". Gill's achievement initiated a wave of climbers making ascents of large boulders. With the introduction and evolution of crash pads, climbers were able to push the limits of highball bouldering higher. In 2002 Jason Kehl completed the first hard highball, called Evilution, a 55-foot boulder in the Buttermilks of California, earning the grade of V12.
This climb marked the beginning of a new generation of highball climbing that pushed not only height, but difficulty. Groundbreaking ascents in this style include. Too Big to Flail, V10, another 55 foot line in Bishop, climbed by Alex Honnold in 2016. Livin' Large, a 35-foot V15 in Rocklands, South Africa and established by Nalle Hukkataival in 2009, has become the "test piece" of hard high ball climbing in the 21st century and has only been repeated by only one person, Jimmy Webb; the Process, a 55-foot V16 in Bishop, first climbed by Daniel Woods in 2015. The line was worked with another climber, Dan Beal, but a hold broke after Woods's top and the climb has yet to see a second ascent. Artificial climbing walls are used to simulate boulder problems in an indoor environment at climbing gyms; these walls are constructed with wooden panels, polymer cement panels, concrete shells, or precast molds of actual rock walls. Holds made of plastic, are bolted onto the wall to create problems; the walls feature steep overhanging surfaces which force the climber to employ technical movements while supporting much of their weight with their upper body strength.
Climbing gyms feature multiple problems within the same section of wall. In the US the most common method Routesetters use to designate the intended problem is by placing colored tape next to each hold. For example, red tape would indicate one bouldering problem while green tape would be used to set a different problem in the same area. Across much of the rest of the world problems and grades are designated using a set color of plastic hold to indicate problems. For example, green may be v0–v1, blue may be v2–v3 and so on. Using colored holds to set has certain advantages, the most notable of which are that it makes it more obvious where the holds for a problem are, that there is no chance of tape being accidentally kicked off footholds. Smaller, resource-poor climbing gyms may prefer taped problems because large, expensive holds can be used in multiple routes by marking them with more than one color of tape; the International Federation of Sport Climbing employs an indoor format that breaks the co
Thomas Burrowes (artist)
Thomas Burrowes was a Captain with the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners who served as both a surveyor and overseer during the construction of the Rideau Canal in Ontario, Canada. Burrowes is known, for having documented the construction of the canal and the landscape of the surrounding area in a series of watercolour paintings, thus creating an important eyewitness record of one of the most important engineering projects of 19th century Canada. Burrowes was born in 1796 in England. At the age of 17, he enlisted in the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners, he was posted to Fort Henry in Kingston, Upper Canada in 1815. In 1826, he joined a team assembling in Montreal to build a military canal linking Lake Ontario to the Ottawa River. Assigned to Bytown, Burrowes served as Assistant Overseer of Works for the Rideau Canal project, he was one of the first persons to take up land and build a home on Wellington Street, the road upon which Canada's Parliament Buildings would be built decades later. In 1829, Burrowes was posted to Kingston Mills, upstream from Kingston, where he served as Clerk of the Works of the Cataraqui section of the Rideau Canal until his retirement in 1846.
In retirement, Burrowes worked as a farmer, supplementing his income by serving both as a postmaster and Justice of the Peace in Kingston Mills. Burrowes died in 1866, his home, still stands. Throughout his career, Burrowes painted watercolours documenting the construction of the canal and the landscape of Upper Canada, his paintings were discovered in 1907 in the attic of one of Burrowes' daughters in Detroit and were donated to the Archives of Ontario in 1948 by Burrowes' grandson. The paintings have been referred to as "some of the most famous images in Ontario history", constituting "one of the most important private donations to the Archives of Ontario". Notes Bibliography Eyewitness: Thomas Burrowes on the Rideau Canal - Online exhibit of the Archives of Ontario Osborne, B; the Artist as Historical Commentator: Thomas Burrowes and the Rideau Canal. 1983 Jan 1. Archivaria 1:17. Retrieved 2008-01-22
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars. From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain impressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. Incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war, inflamed anti-British sentiment in the US. In 1811, the British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied Native Americans who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment. Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America contributed to the American decision to go to war. On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations limited to the border, the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity in New England, where it was derogatorily referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal failed. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, at the Battle of the Thames defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy, securing a primary war goal. A final American attempt to invade Canada was fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions of the northern and mid-Atlantic United States from Canada.
Fighting took place overseas in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In neighbouring Spanish Florida, a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation. With the abdication of Napoleon, the war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment, rendering the issue of the impressment of American sailors moot; the British were able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, annihilating American maritime trade, but attempts to invade the U. S. ended unsuccessfully. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. Unaware of the treaty, British forces invaded Louisiana and were defeated at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; these late victories were viewed by Americans as having restored national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
News of the treaty arrived shortly thereafter. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes. Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812; this section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States. As Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; the approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have called it the United States' "Second War of Independence". The British were offended by what they considered insults such as the Little Belt affair.
This gave the British a particular interest in capturing the United States flagship President, which they succeeded in doing in 1815. In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, which Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars; the United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law. Historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."The American merchant marine had nearly doubled between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton and 50% of other U. S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of commercial competition; the United States' view was. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.
While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shi
Kingston is a city in Eastern Ontario, Canada. It is on the eastern end of Lake Ontario, at the beginning of the St. Lawrence River and at the mouth of the Cataraqui River; the city is midway between Toronto and Montreal, Quebec. The Thousand Islands tourist region is nearby to the east. Kingston is nicknamed the "Limestone City" because of the many heritage buildings constructed using local limestone. Growing European exploration in the 17th century and the desire for the Europeans to establish a presence close to local Native occupants to control trade led to the founding of a French trading post and military fort at a site known as "Cataraqui" in 1673; this outpost, called Fort Cataraqui, Fort Frontenac, became a focus for settlement. Cataraqui would be renamed Kingston after the British took possession of the fort and Loyalists began settling the region in the 1780s. Kingston was named the first capital of the United Province of Canada on February 10, 1841. While its time as a capital city was short, the community has remained an important military installation.
Kingston was the county seat of Frontenac County until 1998. Kingston is now a separate municipality from the County of Frontenac. A number of origins of "Cataraqui", Kingston's original name, have been postulated. One is it is derived from the Iroquois word that means "the place where one hides"; the name may be derivations of Native words that mean "impregnable", "muddy river", "place of retreat", "clay bank rising out of the water", "where the rivers and lake meet", or "rocks standing in water". Cataraqui was referred to as "the King's Town" or "King's Town" by 1787 in honour of King George III; the name was shortened to "Kingston" in 1788. Cataraqui today refers to an area around the intersection of Princess Street and Sydenham Road, where a village which took that name was located. Cataraqui is the name of a municipal electoral district. Archaeological evidence suggests. Evidence of Late Woodland Period early Iroquois occupation exists; the first more permanent encampments by aboriginal people in the Kingston area began about 500 AD.
The group that first occupied the area before the arrival of the French was the Wyandot people, who were displaced by Iroquoian groups. At the time the French arrived in the Kingston area, Five Nations Iroquois had settled along the north shore of Lake Ontario. Although the area around the south end of the Cataraqui River was visited by Iroquois and other groups, Iroquois settlement at this location only began after the French established their outpost. By 1700, the north shore Iroquois had moved south, the area once occupied by the Iroquois became occupied by the Mississaugas who had moved south from the Lake Huron and Lake Simcoe regions. European commercial and military influence and activities centred on the fur trade developed and increased in North America in the 17th century. Fur trappers and traders were spreading out from their centres of operation in New France. French explorer Samuel de Champlain visited the Kingston area in 1615. To establish a presence on Lake Ontario for the purpose of controlling the fur trade with local indigenous people, Louis de Buade de Frontenac, Governor of New France established Fort Cataraqui to be called Fort Frontenac, at a location known as Cataraqui in 1673.
The fort served as a trading post and military base, attracted indigenous and European settlement. In 1674, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was appointed commandant of the fort. From this base, de La Salle explored south as far as the Gulf of Mexico; the fort was experienced periods of abandonment. The Iroquois siege of 1688 led to many deaths, after which the French destroyed the fort, but would rebuild it; the British destroyed the fort during the Battle of Fort Frontenac in 1758 and its ruins remained abandoned until the British took possession and reconstructed it in 1783. The fort was renamed Tête-de-Pont Barracks in 1787, it is still being used by the military. It was renamed Fort Frontenac in 1939. Reconstructed parts of the original fort can be seen today at the western end of the La Salle Causeway. In 1783, Frederick Haldimand, governor of the Province of Quebec directed Deputy Surveyor-General John Collins to lay out a settlement for displaced British colonists, or "Loyalists", who were fleeing north because of the American Revolutionary War and "minutely examine the situation and site of the Post occupied by the French, the land and country adjacent".
Haldimand had considered the site as a possible location to settle loyal Mohawks. The survey would determine whether Cataraqui was suitable as a navy base since nearby Carleton Island on which a British navy base was located had been ceded to the Americans after the war. Holland's report about the old French post mentioned "every part surpassed the favorable idea I had formed of it", that it had "advantageous Situations" and that "the harbour is in every respect Good and most conveniently situated to command Lake Ontario". Major John Ross, commanding officer of the King's Royal Regiment of New York at Oswego rebuilt Fort Frontenac in 1783; as commander, he played a significant role in establishing the Cataraqui settlement. To facilitate settlement, the British Crown entered into an agreement with the Mississaugas in October 1783 to purchase land east of the Bay of Quinte. Known as the Crawford Purchase, this agreement enabled se
A swing bridge is a movable bridge that has as its primary structural support a vertical locating pin and support ring at or near to its center of gravity, about which the turning span can pivot horizontally as shown in the animated illustration to the right. Small swing bridges as found over canals may be pivoted only at one end, opening as would a gate, but require substantial underground structure to support the pivot. In its closed position, a swing bridge carrying a road or railway over a river or canal, for example, allows traffic to cross; when a water vessel needs to pass the bridge, road traffic is stopped, motors rotate the bridge horizontally about its pivot point. The typical swing bridge will rotate 90 degrees, or one-quarter turn; as this type requires no counterweights, the complete weight is reduced as compared to other moveable bridges. Where sufficient channel is available to have individual traffic directions on each side, the likelihood of vessel-to-vessel collisions is reduced.
The central support is mounted upon a berm along the axis of the watercourse, intended to protect the bridge from watercraft collisions when it is opened. This artificial island forms an excellent construction area for building the movable span as the construction will not impede channel traffic. For a symmetrical bridge, the central pier forms a hazard to navigation. Asymmetrical bridges may place the pivot near one side of the channel. Where a wide channel is not available, a large portion of the bridge may be over an area that would be spanned by other means. A wide channel will be reduced by foundation; when open, the bridge will have to maintain its own weight as a balanced double cantilever, while when closed and in use for traffic, the live loads will be distributed as in a pair of conventional truss bridges, which may require additional stiffness in some members whose loading will be alternately in compression or tension. If struck from the water near the edge of the span, it may rotate enough to cause safety problems.
Buna River Bridge, in Shkodra, Albania. Puente de la Mujer, an asymmetrical cable-stayed span. Gladesville Bridge, Australia. Had a small swing span on the southern end. Pyrmont Bridge, Australia. Glebe Island Bridge, Australia. Victoria Bridge, Queensland, Australia; the Sale Swing Bridge, Victoria, Australia. Dunalley Bridge, Tasmania Still in use. Belize City Swing Bridge, Belize City, Belize. Oldest such bridge in Central America and one of the few manually operated swing bridge in world still in operation; the longest swing bridge span. Le pont tournant rue Dieu, across the Canal Saint-Martin in Paris, is a distinctive location in the 1938 film Hôtel du Nord, is featured in the opening shot of the film. Kaiser-Wilhelm-Brücke in Wilhelmshaven, built in 1907, with the length of 159m, it was once Europe's biggest swing bridge Garden Reach Road Swing Bridge, for Calcutta Port, Kolkata Poira-Corjuem Bridge, for GSIDC, Goa by Rajdeep Buildcon Pvt. Ltd. Samuel Beckett Bridge, Ireland Seán O'Casey Bridge, Ireland Michael Davitt Bridge, County Mayo, Ireland Portumna bridge, between County Galway and County Tipperary, Ireland Ponte Girevole, Taranto – a unusual type, with two spans that separate at the bridge's center and pivot sideways from the bridge's outer ends.
Kalpaka Tilts, Liepāja, connecting the city with the former Russian/Soviet port Karosta. Chain Bridge, Klaipeda. Built in 1855 and still working today, this is the only swing bridge in Lithuania; when the bridge is turned and yachts can enter the Castle port. Rotation of the bridge is manual, two people can rotate the bridge; the "Abtsewoudsebrug" in Delft, close to the Technische Universiteit Delft, is a bridge of this type. 52°0′5.71″N 4°21′50.10″E There's another one on the channel between Ghent and Terneuzen at Sas Van Gent. Many inner cities have swing bridges, since these require less street space than other types of bridges. Kopu Bridge, Waihou River, near Thames, New Zealand A swing bridge at the Gatun Locks provides the only road passage over the Atlantic side of the Panama Canal; this is a small bridge. Another larger swing bridge at the Miraflores Locks is on the Pacific side but is used, having been supplanted by the Bridge of the Americas and the Centennial Bridge. A swing bridge at the Giżycko is one of four bridges.
It is the only swing bridge in Poland. Varvarivskyi Bridge over Southern Bug in Mykolaiv, with Europe's largest span In the UK, there is a legal definition in current statute as to what is, or is not a'swing bridge' Acton swing bridge - road Barmouth Bridge - rail Beccles swing bridge - rail Bethells Swing Bridge Boothferry swing bridge at Boothferry, Yorkshire Caernarfon swing bridge Co
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity; the hydro station consumes no water, unlike gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down rapidly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, in many cases, has a lower output level of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
Hydropower has been used since ancient times to perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William Armstrong, it was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone. At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law; the Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Bonneville Power Administration were created. Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U. S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers was involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.
Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its plenty. Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power station was the world's largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; the Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity; the United States has over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, 49% of its renewable electricity. The technical potential for hydropower development around the world is much greater than the actual production: the percent of potential hydropower capacity that has not been developed is 71% in Europe, 75% in North America, 79% in South America, 95% in Africa, 95% in the Middle East, 82% in Asia-Pacific.
The political realities of new reservoirs in western countries, economic limitations in the third world and the lack of a transmission system in undeveloped areas result in the possibility of developing 25% of the remaining technically exploitable potential before 2050, with the bulk of that being in the Asia-Pacific area. Some countries have developed their hydropower potential and have little room for growth: Switzerland produces 88% of its potential and Mexico 80%. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator; the power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine; this method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir.
When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storag
Butler's Rangers was a Loyalist, British provincial military unit of the American Revolutionary War, raised by Loyalist John Butler. Most members of the regiment were Loyalists from upstate New York. Among the Rangers was a body of African American former slaves, the total number of their presence in Butler's Rangers is unknown, with estimates ranging from two to "more than a dozen". While some served in other Loyalist units and as sappers in the Engineer Corps and Royal Artillery, Sir William Howe prohibited their enlistment in the British Army, ordered the disbandment of existing black regiments; the Rangers were accused of participating in — or at least failing to prevent — the Wyoming Valley massacre of July 1778 and the Cherry Valley massacre of November 1778 of European settlers by Iroquois forces under the command of Joseph Brant. These actions earned, they fought principally in Western New York and Pennsylvania, but ranged as far west as Ohio and Michigan and as far south as Virginia.
Their winter quarters were constructed on the west bank of the Niagara River, in what is now Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. Although the building that houses The Lincoln and Welland Regiment Museum, in that community was traditionally known as "Butler's Barracks", it is not the original barracks and never housed Butler's Rangers, it was built in the years following the War of 1812 to house the Indian Department, received the name because Butler had been a Deputy Superintendent in that department. Similar to other Loyalist regiments that fought for the British Crown during the American Revolution, for example the King's Royal Regiment of New York, or Jessup's Loyal Rangers, Butler's Rangers were made up of American Loyalist refugees who had fled to Canada, following the outbreak of the American Revolution. John Butler was a French and Indian War veteran-turned landowner with a 26,000 acre estate near Caughnawaga in the Mohawk Valley. However, on the outbreak of American Revolutionary War, Butler abandoned these landholdings and fled to Canada in the company of other Loyalist leaders, such as the Iroquois chief, Joseph Brant.
John Butler served as a deputy to Guy Johnson, himself a loyalist from the Mohawk Valley who led mixed anti-Republican First Nations and loyalist militias. During the Saratoga Campaign Lieutenant Colonel Butler distinguished himself at the Battle of Oriskany on August 6, 1777; as a result, he was commissioned a lieutenant colonel and allowed to raise his own British provincial regiment. This military group would come to be known as Butler's Rangers; the regimental company commanders of Butler's Rangers, 1777–1784, were: Captain Andrew Bradt Captain Walter Butler Captain William Caldwell, victor at the Battle of Sandusky and the Battle of Blue Licks Captain George Dame Captain Bernard Frey Captain Lewis Geneway Captain Peter Hare Captain John McDonell Captain John McKinnon Captain Benjamin Pawling Captain Peter Ten Broeck Captain Andrew Thompson There is an historical debate as to what the Butler's Ranger uniform looked like. Variation A Their uniforms consisted of a green woolen coat faced white and a white woolen waistcoat.
Their pant garment was gaitered trousers made from a hemp product. Their hats were round hats, useful in shielding their faces from the sun; when in garrison or on parade, they could bring up the leaves of that hat to form a cocked hat. Their belting was black. Variation B Dark green coats faced with scarlet and lined with the same, a waistcoat of green cloth, Buckskin Indian leggings reaching from the ankle to the waist...their caps were skull caps of black jacket leather or turned up felt with a black cockade on the left side. Their belts were of buff leather and crossed at the breast where they were held in place by a brass plate marked in the same manner and with the same words as the cap plate; this version is based on supposition rather than primary source materials. They used both the Long-Land and Short-Land forms of the Brown Bess musket. A mix of other firearms may have been used but would have created a supply issue due to calibre variations. Butler's Rangers were disbanded in June 1784, its veterans were given land grants in the Nassau District, now the Niagara region of Ontario, as a reward for their services to the British Crown.
In 1788 the Nassau Militia was formed with John Butler as its Commander, filling its ranks with the demobilized officers and men of Butler's Rangers. In 1792 the Nassau District was changed to the county of Lincoln and the name of the militia changed to Lincoln Militia by 1793, it was the Lincoln Militia who fought in the War of 1812. This regiment exists today, following a splitting of Lincoln county into the counties of Lincoln and Welland in 1845, as The Lincoln and Welland Regiment, a primary reserve regiment of the Canadian Forces, based out of St. Catharines, Ontario. Richard Pierpoint Butler's Rangers, The Revolutionary Period by E. A. Cruikshank, published by the Lundy's Lane Historical Society, 1893, fourth reprint edition includes: A Nominal Roll of Butler's Rangers compiled by Lieutenant Colonel William A. Smy, OMM, CD, UE An account of the most significant actions of Butler's Rangers during the American Revolution can be found in: Williams, Glenn F. Year of the Hangman: George Washington's Campaign Against the Iroquois.
Yardley: Westholme Publishing, 2005 and in. Brick, The King's Rangers, 1954 References to this war are described in the novel "Zach" by William Bell Miller, Orlo, "Raiders of the Mohawk," 1966; the Story of Butler's Rangers. A romanticized account based on the true life experiences of Daniel Springer, who served