Advanced Micro Devices
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara and Austin, Texas that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets. While it manufactured its own processors, the company outsourced its manufacturing, a practice known as fabless, after GlobalFoundries was spun off in 2009. AMD's main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers and personal computers, embedded systems applications. AMD is the second-largest supplier and only significant rival to Intel in the market for x86-based microprocessors. Since acquiring ATI in 2006, AMD and its competitor Nvidia have maintained a duopoly in the discrete Graphics Processing Unit market. Advanced Micro Devices was formally incorporated on May 1, 1969, by Jerry Sanders, along with seven of his colleagues from Fairchild Semiconductor. Sanders, an electrical engineer, the director of marketing at Fairchild, like many Fairchild executives, grown frustrated with the increasing lack of support and flexibility within the company, decided to leave to start his own semiconductor company.
The previous year Robert Noyce, who had invented the first practical integrated circuit or the microchip in 1959 at Fairchild, had left Fairchild together with Gordon Moore and founded the semiconductor company Intel in July 1968. In September 1969, AMD moved from its temporary location in Santa Clara to California. To secure a customer base, AMD became a second source supplier of microchips designed by Fairchild and National Semiconductor. AMD first focused on producing logic chips; the company guaranteed quality control to United States Military Standard, an advantage in the early computer industry since unreliability in microchips was a distinct problem that customers – including computer manufacturers, the telecommunications industry, instrument manufacturers – wanted to avoid. In November 1969, the company manufactured its first product, the Am9300, a 4-bit MSI shift register, which began selling in 1970. In 1970, AMD produced its first proprietary product, the Am2501 logic counter, successful.
Its best-selling product in 1971 was the Am2505, the fastest multiplier available. In 1971, AMD entered the RAM chip market, beginning with the Am3101, a 64-bit bipolar RAM; that year AMD greatly increased the sales volume of its linear integrated circuits, by year end the company's total annual sales reached $4.6 million. AMD went public in September 1972; the company was a second source for Intel MOS/LSI circuits by 1973, with products such as Am14/1506 and Am14/1507, dual 100-bit dynamic shift registers. By 1975, AMD was producing 212 products – of which 49 were proprietary, including the Am9102 and three low-power Schottky MSI circuits: Am25LS07, Am25LS08, Am25LS09. Intel had created the first microprocessor, its 4-bit 4004, in 1971. By 1975, AMD entered the microprocessor market with the Am9080, a reverse-engineered clone of the Intel 8080, the Am2900 bit-slice microprocessor family; when Intel began installing microcode in its microprocessors in 1976, it entered into a cross-licensing agreement with AMD, granting AMD a copyright license to the microcode in its microprocessors and peripherals, effective October 1976.
In 1977, AMD entered into a joint venture with Siemens, a German engineering conglomerate wishing to enhance its technology expertise and enter the U. S. market. Siemens purchased 20 % of AMD's stock; that year the two companies jointly established Advanced Micro Computers, located in Silicon Valley and in Germany, giving AMD an opportunity to enter the microcomputer development and manufacturing field, in particular based on AMD's second-source Zilog Z8000 microprocessors. When the two companies' vision for Advanced Micro Computers diverged, AMD bought out Siemens' stake in the U. S. division in 1979. AMD closed its Advanced Micro Computers subsidiary in late 1981, after switching focus to manufacturing second-source Intel x86 microprocessors. Total sales in fiscal year 1978 topped $100 million, in 1979, AMD debuted on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1979, production began in AMD's new semiconductor fab in Austin, Texas. In 1980, AMD began supplying semiconductor products for telecommunications, an industry undergoing rapid expansion and innovation.
Intel had introduced the first x86 microprocessors in 1978. In 1981, IBM created its PC, wanted Intel's x86 processors, but only under the condition that Intel provide a second-source manufacturer for its patented x86 microprocessors. Intel and AMD entered into a 10-year technology exchange agreement, first signed in October 1981 and formally executed in February 1982; the terms of the agreement were that each company could acquire the right to become a second-source manufacturer of semiconductor products developed by the other. The technical information and licenses needed to make and sell a part would be exchanged for a royalty to the developing company; the 1982 agreement extended the 1976 AMD–Intel cross-licensing agreement through 1995. The agreement included the right to invoke arbitration of disagreements, after five years the right of either party to end the agreement with one year's notice; the main result of the 1982 agreeme
USB is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables and protocols for connection and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices. Released in 1996, the USB standard is maintained by the USB Implementers Forum. There have been three generations of USB specifications: USB 2.0 and USB 3.x. USB was designed to standardize the connection of peripherals like keyboards, pointing devices, digital still and video cameras, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power, it has replaced interfaces such as serial ports and parallel ports, has become commonplace on a wide range of devices. USB connectors have been replacing other types for battery chargers of portable devices; this section is intended to allow fast identification of USB receptacles on equipment. Further diagrams and discussion of plugs and receptacles can be found in the main article above; the Universal Serial Bus was developed to simplify and improve the interface between personal computers and peripheral devices, when compared with existing standard or ad-hoc proprietary interfaces.
From the computer user's perspective, the USB interface improved ease of use in several ways. The USB interface is self-configuring, so the user need not adjust settings on the device and interface for speed or data format, or configure interrupts, input/output addresses, or direct memory access channels. USB connectors are standardized at the host, so any peripheral can use any available receptacle. USB takes full advantage of the additional processing power that can be economically put into peripheral devices so that they can manage themselves; the USB interface is "hot pluggable", meaning devices can be exchanged without rebooting the host computer. Small devices can be powered directly from displacing extra power supply cables; because use of the USB logos is only permitted after compliance testing, the user can have confidence that a USB device will work as expected without extensive interaction with settings and configuration. Installation of a device relying on the USB standard requires minimal operator action.
When a device is plugged into a port on a running personal computer system, it is either automatically configured using existing device drivers, or the system prompts the user to locate a driver, installed and configured automatically. For hardware manufacturers and software developers, the USB standard eliminates the requirement to develop proprietary interfaces to new peripherals; the wide range of transfer speeds available from a USB interface suits devices ranging from keyboards and mice up to streaming video interfaces. A USB interface can be designed to provide the best available latency for time-critical functions, or can be set up to do background transfers of bulk data with little impact on system resources; the USB interface is generalized with no signal lines dedicated to only one function of one device. USB cables are limited in length, as the standard was meant to connect to peripherals on the same table-top, not between rooms or between buildings. However, a USB port can be connected to a gateway.
USB has "master-slave" protocol for addressing peripheral devices. Some extension to this limitation is possible through USB On-The-Go. A host cannot "broadcast" signals to all peripherals at once, each must be addressed individually; some high speed peripheral devices require sustained speeds not available in the USB standard. While converters exist between certain "legacy" interfaces and USB, they may not provide full implementation of the legacy hardware. For a product developer, use of USB requires implementation of a complex protocol and implies an "intelligent" controller in the peripheral device. Developers of USB devices intended for public sale must obtain a USB ID which requires a fee paid to the Implementers' Forum. Developers of products that use the USB specification must sign an agreement with Implementer's Forum. Use of the USB logos on the product require annual fees and membership in the organization. A group of seven companies began the development of USB in 1994: Compaq, DEC, IBM, Microsoft, NEC, Nortel.
The goal was to make it fundamentally easier to connect external devices to PCs by replacing the multitude of connectors at the back of PCs, addressing the usability issues of existing interfaces, simplifying software configuration of all devices connected to USB, as well as permitting greater data rates for external devices. Ajay Bhatt and his team worked on the standard at Intel; the original USB 1.0 specification, introduced in January 1996, defined data transfer rates of 1.5 Mbit/s Low Speed and 12 Mbit/s Full Speed. Microsoft Windows 95, OSR 2.1 provided OEM support for the devices. The first used version of USB was 1.1, released in September 1998. The 12 Mbit/s data rate was intended for higher-speed devices such as disk drives, the lower 1.5 Mbit/s rate for low data
IronKey is the brand name of a family of encrypted USB portable storage devices owned by Kingston Digital, the flash memory affiliate of Kingston Technology Company, Inc. From 2005 to 2012, IronKey was an Internet privacy company based in California. IronKey's founding was funded by the U. S. federal government, with a grant of US$1.4 million through the Homeland Security Research Projects Agency. Their products have been used by the U. S. government in various areas. Imation acquired IronKey in September 2011. In October 2012, IronKey rebranded itself as Marble Security, the IronKey brand became wholly owned by Imation; as part of Imation, the IronKey portfolio includes products and intellectual property from the former IronKey, as well as technologies from Imation acquisitions of MXI Security and ENCRYPTX. On February 8, 2016, Kingston Digital, Inc. the Flash memory affiliate of Kingston Technology Company, Inc. announced it had acquired the USB technology and assets of IronKey from Imation. Among Imation’s IronKey products are flash drives certified by Microsoft for Windows To Go.
Windows To Go is an enterprise feature of Windows 8 that enables the creation of a workspace that can be booted from a USB-connected external drive on PCs that meet Microsoft certification requirements, regardless of the operating system running on the PC. A Windows To Go product, the IronKey Workspace W300, received the Editors’ Choice accolade from PC Magazine in February 2013. IronKey Enterprise S250 and D250 USB flash drives IronKey F200 Biometric Flash Drive IronKey Basic S250 and D250 USB flash drives IronKey F150 Flash Drive IronKey Personal S250 and D250 USB flash drives IronKey H100 External USB Hard Drive IronKey H200 Biometric External USB Hard Drive IronKey F100 Flash Drive IronKey D80 Flash Drive IronKey H80 External USB Hard Drive Windows 8: IronKey Workspace W700 Windows To Go IronKey Workspace W500 Windows To Go IronKey Workspace W300 Windows To Go Windows 7: IronKey Workspace MWES USB Flash Drive with Microsoft Windows Embedded Standard edition software. Official website
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
A SIMM, or single in-line memory module, is a type of memory module containing random-access memory used in computers from the early 1980s to the late 1990s. It differs from a dual in-line memory module, the most predominant form of memory module today, in that the contacts on a SIMM are redundant on both sides of the module. SIMMs were standardised under the JEDEC JESD-21C standard. Most early PC motherboards used socketed DIP chips for DRAM; as computer memory capacities grew, memory modules were used to save motherboard space and ease memory expansion. Instead of plugging in eight or nine single DIP chips, only one additional memory module was needed to increase the memory of the computer. SIMMs were invented in 1982 by James J. Parker at Zenith Microcircuits and the first Zenith Microcircuits customer was Wang Laboratories. Wang Laboratories tried to patent it and were granted a patent in April 1987; that patent was voided when Wang Laboratories sued multiple companies for infringement and it was publicized that they were the prior invention of Parker at Zenith Microcircuits.
The lawsuit was dropped and the patent was vacated. The original memory modules were built upon ceramic substrates with 64K Hitachi "flip chip" parts and had pins, i.e. single in-line package packaging. There was an 8-bit part and a 9-bit part both at 64K; the pins were the costliest part of the assembly process and Zenith Microcircuits, in conjunction with Wang and Amp, soon developed an easy insertion, pinless connector. The modules were built on ceramic substrates with Fujitsu plastic J-lead chips and still they were made on standard PCB material. SIMMs using pins are called SIP or SIPP memory modules to distinguish them from the more common modules using edge connectors; the first variant of SIMMs provides 8 bits of data. They were used in AT-compatible, 386-based, 486-based, Macintosh Plus, Macintosh II, Quadra and Atari STE microcomputers, Wang VS minicomputers; the second variant of SIMMs provides 32 bits of data. These appeared first in the early 1990s in models of the IBM PS/2, in systems based on the 486, Pentium Pro, early Pentium II, contemporary/competing chips of other brands.
By the mid-90s, 72-pin SIMMs had replaced 30-pin SIMMs in new-build computers, were starting to themselves be replaced by DIMMs. Non-IBM PC computers such as UNIX workstations may use proprietary non-standard SIMMs; the Macintosh IIfx uses proprietary non-standard SIMMs with 64 pins. DRAM technologies used in SIMMs include FPM, the higher-performance EDO DRAM. Due to the differing data bus widths of the memory modules and some processors, sometimes several modules must be installed in identical pairs or in identical groups of four to fill a memory bank; the rule of thumb is a 286, 386SX, 68000 or low-end 68020 / 68030 system would require two 30-pin SIMMs for a memory bank. On 386DX, 486, full-spec 68020 through 68060 systems, either four 30-pin SIMMs or one 72-pin SIMM are required for one memory bank. On Pentium systems, two 72-pin SIMMs are required. However, some Pentium systems have support for a "half bank mode", in which the data bus would be shortened to only 32 bits to allow operation of a single SIMM.
Conversely, some 386 and 486 systems use what is known as "memory interleaving", which requires twice as many SIMMs and doubles the bandwidth. The earliest SIMM sockets were conventional push-type sockets; these were soon replaced by ZIF sockets in which the SIMM was inserted at an angle tilted into an upright position. To remove one, the two metal or plastic clips at each end must be pulled to the side the SIMM must be tilted back and pulled out; the earlier sockets used plastic retainer clips which were found to break, so steel clips replaced them. Some SIMMs support presence detect. Connections are made to some of the pins that encode the capacity and speed of the SIMM, so that compatible equipment can detect the properties of the SIMM. PD SIMMs can be used in equipment which does not support PD. Standard SIMMs can be converted to support PD by fitting jumpers, if the SIMMs have solder pads to do so, or by soldering wires on. Standard sizes: 256 KB, 1 MB, 4 MB, 16 MB 30-pin SIMMS have 12 address lines, which can provide a total of 24 address bits.
With an 8 bit data width, this leads to an absolute maximum capacity of 16 MB for both parity and non-parity modules. * Pins 26, 28 and 29 are not connected on non-parity SIMMs. Standard sizes: 1 MB, 2 MB, 4 MB, 8 MB, 16 MB, 32 MB, 64 MB, 128 MB With 12 address lines, which can provide a total of 24 address bits, two ranks of chips, 32 bit data output, the absolute maximum capacity is 227 = 128 MB. * Pins 35, 36, 37 and 38 are not connected on non-parity SIMMs. †/RAS1 and /RAS3 are only used on two-rank SIMMS: 2, 8, 32, 128 MB. # These lines are only defined on 3.3V modules. X Presence Detect signals are detailed in JEDEC Standard. Several CPU cards from Great Valley Pro
Toshiba Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Its diversified products and services include information technology and communications equipment and systems, electronic components and materials, power systems and social infrastructure systems, consumer electronics, household appliances, medical equipment, office equipment, as well as lighting and logistics. Toshiba was founded in 1939 as Tokyo Shibaura Denki K. K. through the merger of Shibaura Seisaku-sho and Tokyo Denki. The company name was changed to Toshiba Corporation in 1978, it is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices, the Osaka Securities Exchange and the Nagoya Stock Exchange. Toshiba is the ninth largest semiconductor manufacturer in the world. In 2017, Toshiba filed unaudited quarterly results because of uncertainties at Westinghouse, which had filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Toshiba stated that "substantial doubt about the company's ability to continue as a going concern exists".
Toshiba is organized into four groupings: the Digital Products Group, the Electronic Devices Group, the Home Appliances Group and the Social Infrastructure Group. Midea Group, a Chinese company, bought a controlling 80.1% stake in the Toshiba Home Appliances Group in 2016. Toshiba was founded in 1939 by the merger of Tokyo Denki. Shibaura Seisakusho had been founded as Tanaka Seisakusho by Tanaka Hisashige in July 1875 as Japan's first manufacturer of telegraph equipment. In 1904, it was renamed Shibaura Seisakusho. Through the first decades of the 20th century, Shibaura Seisakusho had become a major manufacturer of heavy electrical machinery as Japan modernized during the Meiji Era and became a world industrial power. Tokyo Denki was founded as Hakunetsusha in 1890 and had been Japan's first producer of incandescent electric lamps, it diversified into the manufacture of other consumer products and in 1899 had been renamed Tokyo Denki. The merger of Shibaura and Tokyo Denki created, it was soon nicknamed Toshiba, but it was not until 1978 that the company was renamed Toshiba Corporation.
The group expanded driven by a combination of organic growth and by acquisitions, buying heavy engineering and primary industry firms in the 1940s and 1950s. Groups created include Toshiba Music Industries/Toshiba EMI, Toshiba International Corporation Toshiba Electrical Equipment, Toshiba Chemical, Toshiba Lighting and Technology, Toshiba America Information Systems and Toshiba Carrier Corporation. Toshiba is responsible for a number of Japanese firsts, including radar, the TAC digital computer, transistor television and microwave oven, color video phone, Japanese word processor, MRI system, laptop personal computer, NAND EEPROM, DVD, the Libretto sub-notebook personal computer and HD DVD. In 1977, Toshiba acquired the Brazilian company Semp, subsequently forming Semp Toshiba through the combination of the two companies' South American operations. In 1987, Tocibai Machine, a subsidiary of Toshiba, was accused of illegally selling CNC milling machines used to produce quiet submarine propellers to the Soviet Union in violation of the CoCom agreement, an international embargo on certain countries to COMECON countries.
The Toshiba-Kongsberg scandal involved a subsidiary of Toshiba and the Norwegian company Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk. The incident strained relations between the United States and Japan, resulted in the arrest and prosecution of two senior executives, as well as the imposition of sanctions on the company by both countries. Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania said "What Toshiba and Kongsberg did was ransom the security of the United States for $517 million." In 2001, Toshiba signed a contract with Orion Electric, one of the world's largest OEM consumer video electronic makers and suppliers, to manufacture and supply finished consumer TV and video products for Toshiba to meet the increasing demand for the North American market. The contract ended in 2008. In December 2004, Toshiba announced it would discontinue manufacturing traditional in-house cathode-ray tube televisions. In 2006, Toshiba terminated production of in-house plasma TVs. To ensure its future competitiveness in the flat-panel digital television and display market, Toshiba has made a considerable investment in a new kind of display technology called SED.
Before World War II, Toshiba was a member of the Mitsui Group zaibatsu. Today Toshiba is a member of the Mitsui keiretsu, still has preferential arrangements with Mitsui Bank and the other members of the keiretsu. Membership in a keiretsu has traditionally meant loyalty, both corporate and private, to other members of the keiretsu or allied keiretsu; this loyalty can extend as far as the beer which in Toshiba's case is Asahi. In July 2005, BNFL confirmed it planned to sell Westinghouse Electric Company estimated to be worth $1.8 billion. The bid attracted interest from several companies including Toshiba, General Electric and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and when the Financial Times reported on 23 January 2006 that Toshiba had won the bid, it valued the company's offer at $5 billion; the sale of Westinghouse by the Government of the United Kingdom surp
Fountain Valley, California
Fountain Valley is a suburban city in Orange County, California. The population was 55,313 at the 2010 census. A classic commuter town, Fountain Valley is an upper middle-class residential area; the area encompassing Fountain Valley was inhabited by the Tongva people. European settlement of the area began when Manuel Nieto was granted the land for Rancho Los Nietos, which encompassed over 300,000 acres, including present-day Fountain Valley. Control of the land was subsequently transferred to Mexico upon independence from Spain, to the United States as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; the city was incorporated before which it was known as Talbert. The name of Fountain Valley refers to the high water table in the area at the time the name was chosen, the many corresponding artesian wells in the area. Early settlers constructed drainage canals to make the land usable for agriculture, which remained the dominant use of land until the 1960s, when construction of large housing tracts accelerated.
The first mayor of Fountain Valley was James Kanno, who with this appointment became one of the first Japanese-American mayors of a mainland United States city. After the Fall of Saigon in 1975, there was a large influx of Vietnamese refugees settling in Fountain Valley in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, forming a large percentage of Asian Americans in the city; the city is located southwest and northeast of the San Diego Freeway, which diagonally bisects the city, is surrounded by Huntington Beach on the south and west and Garden Grove on the north, Santa Ana on the northeast, Costa Mesa on the southeast. Its eastern border is the Santa Ana River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.4 km2 0.14% of, water. Fountain Valley is home to Mile Square Regional Park, a 640 acres park containing two lakes, three 18-hole golf courses, playing fields, picnic shelters, a 20-acre urban-nature area planted with California native plants, a 55-acre recreation center with tennis courts, basketball courts, racquetball courts, a gymnasium, the Kingston Boys & Girls Club.
A major redevelopment of the recreation center and city-administered sports fields was completed in early 2009. Fire protection and emergency medical services are provided by two stations of the Fountain Valley Fire Department. Law enforcement is provided by the Fountain Valley Police Department. Ambulance service is provided by Care Ambulance Service; the Orange County Sanitation District's administrative offices and primary plant is located in Fountain Valley next to the Santa Ana River. The agency is the third-largest sanitation district in the western United States. Fountain Valley is home to the offices of the Municipal Water District of Orange County, a member of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and of the Orange County Water District; the Orange County Water District manages the groundwater basin in central and northern Orange County and operates the Groundwater Replenishment System, the world's largest water purification plant for groundwater recharge. Fountain Valley has two accredited major medical centers: the Fountain Valley Regional Hospital with 400 beds available, Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center with 230 beds, a medical clinic, an outpatient medical building.
The city has 18 churches, one Reform synagogue, a mosque and a public library. Fountain Valley has its own newspaper, the Fountain Valley View, operated by the Orange County Register; as a suburban city, most of Fountain Valley's residents commute to work in other urban centers. However, in recent years, the city has seen an increase in commercial jobs in the city, with the growth of a commercial center near the Santa Ana River known as the "Southpark" district. Although the economy of the area was once based on agriculture, the remaining production consists of several fields of strawberries or other small crops, which are being replaced by new office development. Efforts to bolster economic activity are evidenced by the city enacting policies to benefit small businesses, going so far as to paint a mural on the facade of a large water treatment building facing the freeway that depicts two shopping bags headlined by the words, "Shop in Fountain Valley."Fountain Valley is home to the national headquarters of Hyundai Motor America and D-Link Corporation, the global headquarters of memory chip manufacturer Kingston Technology, the corporate headquarters of Surefire, LLC, maker of military and commercial flashlights.
The Southpark commercial area is home to offices for companies such as D-Link, Starbucks and the Orange County Register. There are a limited number of light industrial companies in this area. In addition, Fountain Valley is the location for Noritz, a tankless water heater manufacturer, the main west coast offices of Ceridian, a professional employer organization; the increasing commercial growth can be evidenced by the frequent rush-hour traffic bottlenecks on the San Diego Freeway through Fountain Valley. According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Fountain Valley holds an annual Summerfest in June in Mile Square Regional Park; this event has a car show, rides and booths. There are three high schools, three middle schools, nine elementary schools, one K-12 school, two K-8 schools. However, some students who live in the city of Fountain Valley attend schools in other cities. Fountain Valley is home to Coastline Community College