The Yodo Domain was a Japanese domain of the Edo period, the only domain located in Yamashiro Province. Its castle was located within Kyoto; the strategic location of the castle figured in the 1582 Battle of Yamazaki. During the 1868 Battle of Toba–Fushimi, the master of Yodo changed his allegiance from the Shogunate to Imperial forces, going as far as closing his gate and refusing protection to the retreating army of the shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu. Matsudaira clan SadatsunaNagai clan Naomasa NaoyukiIshikawa clan Noriyuki Yoshitaka FusayoshiMatsudaira clan Mitsuhiro MitsuchikaMatsudaira clan NorisatoInaba clan Masatomo Masatō Masatsune Masachika Masayoshi Masahiro Masanobu Masanari Masaharu Masamori Masayoshi Masakuni Yodo on "Edo 300 HTML"
Sonnō jōi was a Japanese and Chinese political philosophy and a social movement derived from Neo-Confucianism. It is a yojijukugo phrase. During the Warring States period of China, Chancellor Guan Zhong of Qi initiated a policy known as Zunwang Rangyi, in reference to the Zhou kings. Adopting and adhering to it, Duke Huan of Qi assembled the Chinese feudal lords to strike down the threat of barbarians from China. For it, Confucius himself praised Guan Zhong for the preservation of Chinese civilization through the example of the contrast in the hairstyles and clothing styles between them and barbaric peoples. Through the Analects of Confucius, the Chinese expression came to be transmitted to Japan as sonnō jōi; the origin of the philosophy as used in Japan can be traced to works by 17th century Confucian scholars Yamazaki Ansai and Yamaga Sokō, who wrote on the sanctity of the Imperial House of Japan and its superiority to the ruling houses of other nations. These ideas were expanded by Kokugaku scholar Motoori Norinaga, seen in Takenouchi Shikibu's theory of absolute loyalty to the Emperor of Japan, that implied that less loyalty should be given to the ruling Tokugawa shogunate.
Mitogaku scholar Aizawa Seishisai introduced the term sonnō jōi into modern Japanese in his work Shinron in 1825, where sonnō was regarded as the reverence expressed by the Tokugawa Shogunate to the emperor and jōi was the proscription of Christianity. With the increasing number of incursions of foreign ships into Japanese waters in the late 18th and early 19th century, the sakoku policy came into question; the jōi "expel the barbarians" portion of sonnō jōi, changed into a reaction against the Convention of Kanagawa of 1854, which opened Japan to foreign trade. Under military threat from Commodore Matthew C. Perry's so-called "black ships", the treaty was signed under duress and was vehemently opposed in samurai quarters; the fact that the Tokugawa Shogunate was powerless against the foreigners despite the will expressed by the Imperial court was taken as evidence by Yoshida Shōin and other anti-Tokugawa leaders that the sonnō portion of the philosophy was not working, that the Shogunate must be replaced by a government more able to show its loyalty to the Emperor by enforcing the Emperor’s will.
The philosophy was thus adopted as a battle cry of the rebellious regions of Chōshū Domain and Satsuma Province. The Imperial court in Kyoto sympathized with the movement. Emperor Kōmei agreed with such sentiments, – breaking with centuries of imperial tradition – began to take an active role in matters of state: as opportunities arose, he fulminated against the treaties and attempted to interfere in the shogunal succession, his efforts culminated in March 1863 with his "Order to Expel Barbarians". Although the Shogunate had no intention of enforcing the order, it inspired attacks against the Shogunate itself and against foreigners in Japan, the most famous incident being the killing of the English trader Charles Lennox Richardson. Other attacks included the shelling of foreign shipping in Shimonoseki. Rōnins rallied to the cause, assassinating Shogunate officials and Westerners; this turned out to be the zenith of the sonnō jōi movement, since the European powers responded by demanding heavy war reparations, followed by the British bombardment of Kagoshima when these were not forthcoming.
While this incident showed that Japan was no match for Western military powers, it served to further weaken the Shogunate, permitting the rebel provinces to ally and overthrow it, bringing about the Meiji Restoration. The slogan itself was never a government or rebel policy. After the symbolic restoration of Emperor Meiji, the sonnō jōi slogan was replaced with fukoku kyōhei, or "enrich the nation, strengthen the armies", the rallying call of the Meiji period and the seed of its actions during World War II; this phrase is featured and examined in James Clavell's Gai-Jin: A Novel of Japan Akamatsu, Paul.. Meiji 1868: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Japan. New York: Harper & Row. Beasley, William G.. The Meiji Restoration. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Craig, Albert M.. Chōshū in the Meiji Restoration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Jansen, Marius B. and Gilbert Rozman, eds.. Japan in Transition: from Tokugawa to Meiji. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691054599; the Making of Modern Japan.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674003347; the Last Shogun: The Life of Tokugawa Yoshinobu. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 1-56836-246-3
Order to expel barbarians
The Order to expel barbarians was an edict issued by the Japanese Emperor Kōmei in 1863 against the Westernization of Japan following the opening of the country by Commodore Perry in 1854. The edict was based on widespread anti-foreign and legitimist sentiment, called the "Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians"|sonnō jōi}} movement. Emperor Kōmei agreed with such sentiments, – breaking with centuries of imperial tradition – began to take an active role in matters of state: as opportunities arose, he fulminated against the treaties and attempted to interfere in the shogunal succession, his efforts culminated on March 11, 1863 with his "Order to expel barbarians." A deadline for the expulsion was set two months to May 11. The Shogunate had no intention of enforcing the order, the Edict inspired attacks against the Shogunate itself as well as against foreigners in Japan; the most famous incident was the firing on foreign shipping in the Shimonoseki Strait off Chōshū Province as soon as the deadline was reached.
Masterless samurai rallied to the cause, assassinating Shogunate Westerners. The killing of the English trader Charles Lennox Richardson is sometimes considered as a result of this policy; the Tokugawa government was required to pay an indemnity of a hundred thousand British pounds for Richardson's death. But this turned out to be the zenith of the sonnō jōi movement, since the Western powers responded to Japanese attacks on western shipping with the Bombardment of Shimonoseki. Heavy reparations had earlier been demanded from Satsuma for the murder of Charles Lennox Richardson - the Namamugi Incident; when these were not forthcoming, a squadron of Royal Naval vessels went to the Satsuma port of Kagoshima to coerce the daimyō into paying. Instead, he opened fire on the ships from his shore batteries, the squadron retaliated; this was referred to, inaccurately, as the Bombardment of Kagoshima. These incidents showed that Japan was no match for Western military might, that brutal confrontation could not be the solution.
These events, however served to further weaken the shogunate, which appeared too powerless and compromising in its relations with Western powers. The rebel provinces allied and overthrew the shogunate in the Boshin War and the subsequent Meiji Restoration. Bakumatsu Xenelasia Saigō Takamori and Ōkubo Toshimichi ISBN 4-309-76041-4 Order to expel barbarians
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Kyoto Imperial Palace
The Kyoto Imperial Palace is the former ruling palace of the Emperor of Japan. The Emperors have since resided at the Tokyo Imperial Palace after the Meiji Restoration in 1869, the preservation of the Kyoto Imperial Palace was ordered in 1877. Today, the grounds are open to the public, the Imperial Household Agency hosts public tours of the buildings several times a day; the Kyoto Imperial Palace is the latest of the imperial palaces built at or near its site in the northeastern part of the old capital of Heian-kyō after the abandonment of the larger original Heian Palace, located to the west of the current palace during the Heian period. The Palace lost much of its function at the time of the Meiji Restoration, when the capital functions were moved to Tokyo in 1869. However, Emperor Taishō and Shōwa still had their enthronement ceremonies at the palace; the Palace is situated in the Kyōto-gyoen, a large rectangular enclosure 1,300 metres north to south and 700 metres east to west which contains the Sentō Imperial Palace gardens.
The estate dates from the early Edo period when the residence of high court nobles were grouped close together with the palace and the area walled. When the capital was moved to Tokyo, the residences of the court nobles were demolished and most of Kyōto Gyoen is now a park open to the public; the Imperial Palace has been located in this area since the final abandonment of the Daidairi in late 12th century. However, it was much earlier that the de facto residence of the Emperors was not in the Inner Palace of the original Heian period palace, but in one of the temporary residences in this part of the city and provided to the Emperor by powerful noble families; the present palace is a direct successor—after iterations of rebuilding—to one of these sato-dairi palaces, the Tsuchimikado Dono of the Fujiwara clan. The palace, like many of the oldest and most important buildings in Japan, was destroyed by fire and rebuilt many times over the course of its history, it has been destroyed and rebuilt eight times, six of them during the 250-year-long peace of the Edo period.
The version standing was completed in 1855, with an attempt at reproducing the Heian period architecture and style of the original dairi of the Heian Palace. The grounds include a number of buildings, along with the imperial residence; the neighboring building to the north is the sentō, or residence of the retired Emperor, beyond that, across Imadegawa Street, sits Doshisha University. The Imperial Household Agency maintains the building and the grounds and runs public tours; the main buildings are, among other halls, the Shishinden, Seiryōden, Ogakumonjo, a number of residences for the Empress, high-ranking aristocrats and government officials. Dignitaries with special permission for official visits used to enter the palace through the Okurumayose entrance; the Shodaibunoma building was used as a waiting room for dignitaries on their official visits to the palace. They were ushered into three different anterooms according to their ranks; the Shinmikurumayose structure was built as a new carriage entrance on the occasion of the enthronement ceremony of Emperor Taisho in 1915.
For state ceremonies, the dignitaries would enter through the Kenreimon, which has a cypress-wood roof, is supported by four unpainted wooden pillars. This gate would have been used on the rare occasions of the Emperor welcoming a foreign diplomat or dignitary, as well as for many other important state ceremonies. Passing through the Kenreimon, the inner gate Jomeimon would appear, painted in vermilion and roofed in tile; this leads to the Shishin-den, the Hall for State Ceremonies. The Gekkamon is a smaller gate on the west side of the main courtyard. Another gate in the outer courtyard is the Kenshunmon, which has a similar architectural style to the Kenreimon. Located next to the Kenshunmon is a square; the Shunkōden was constructed to house the sacred mirror on the occasion of the enthronement ceremony of Emperor Taisho in 1915. The roof is modern in that it is made out of not wooden shingles; the Shishinden is the most important ceremonial building within the palace grounds. The enthronement ceremonies of Emperor Taisho and Emperor Showa took place here.
The hall is 33 by 23 metres in size, features a traditional architectural style, with a gabled and hipped roof. On either side of its main stairway were planted trees which would become famous and sacred, a cherry on the eastern, left side, a tachibana orange tree on the right to the west; the garden of white gravel played an important role in the ceremony. The center of the Shishin-den is surrounded by a hisashi, a long, thin hallway which surrounded the main wing of an aristocrat's home, in traditional Heian architecture. Within this is a wide open space, crossed by boarded-over sections, leading to the central throne room; the Takamikura is the Imperial throne. It has been used on the occasion of the enthronement ceremonies commencing in 707 in the reign of Empress Genmei; the present throne was modeled on the original design, constructed in 1913, two years before the enthronement of Emperor Taishō. The actual throne is a chair in black lacquer, placed under an octagonal canopy resting on a three-tiered dais painted with black lacquer with balustrades of vermilion.
On both sides of the throne are two little tables, where two of the three Imperial regalia (the s
The Ōgaki Domain was a Japanese domain during the Edo period, located in Mino Province. The Ōgaki area had been a important point of transit from Mino Province to Ōmi Province. In the Edo period, the domain changed hands several times before it was given to the Toda clan, who held it until the Meiji Restoration; the Ōgaki Domain took part in the Boshin War, first on the side of the Shogunate, as one of the components of the imperial army, at the forefront of the offensive against Aizu and the northern domains. In the Meiji period, the Toda family of Ōgaki received the rank of viscount in the new kazoku nobility. Ishikawa clan Ishikawa Yasumichi Ishikawa Ienari Ishikawa TadafusaMatsudaira clan Matsudaira Tadayoshi Matsudaira NorinagaAbe clan Abe Nagamori Abe NobukatsuMatsudaira clan Matsudaira SadatsunaToda clan Toda Ujikane Toda Ujinobu Toda Ujiaki Toda Ujisada Toda Ujinaga Toda Ujihide Toda Ujinori Toda Ujikane Toda Ujimasa Toda Ujiakira Toda Ujitaka Toda Ujihide The Ōgaki domain is the setting for Yamamoto Shūgorō's novel Hanamushiro.
Yamamoto Shūgorō. The Flower Mat. Translated by Mihoko Inoue and Eileen B. Hennessy
Marquess Nakayama Tadayasu was a Japanese nobleman and courtier of the Edo period and one of the Kazoku of the post-1867 Empire of Japan. He was the father of Nakayama Yoshiko, mother of the Emperor Meiji, born and brought up in Nakayama's household, he had the rare honour of being awarded the Order of the Chrysanthemum. The second son of Nakayama Tadayori, a member of the Kuge, or court nobility, in 1821, at the age of eleven, Nakayama was named as Provisional Major-General of the Imperial Guard of the Left. Nakayama married Matsura Aiko, a daughter of Matsura Kiyoshi, ninth daimyō of Hirado and a famous swordsman. Nakayama received a series of court appointments in the service of the Emperor Ninkō and his successor Kōmei. In 1844 he became a Provisional Middle Councillor, in 1847 a Provisional Grand Councillor, the next year a Senior Second-rank Councillor. From 1849 he was several times the Emperor secretary. In 1851 one of Nakayama's daughters, joined the court as a Provisional Lady-in-Waiting, the next year she gave birth to the Emperor's son.
Nakayama was entrusted with the upbringing of his grandson, the future Emperor Meiji, many years with that of his great-grandson Yoshihito, another future emperor. In the case of Mutsuhito, Nakayama was officially his guardian. Yoshihito was moved to Nakayama's house on 7 December 1879, when three months old, he was a sickly infant, Nakayama spent many days and nights with him. In 1858, Nakayama was a leader of courtiers protesting against the Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Japan and the United States, which opened the ports of Kanagawa, Nagasaki and Hakodate to foreign trade and to settlement by Americans. In December 1862, Nakayama was appointed as the Emperor's Special Consultant for National Affairs, but in 1864 he was sent away from court as a consequence of his involvement in the Kinmon Incident, an attempt to control the Emperor. However, this banishment was ended in January 1867 when Kōmei died unexpectedly and Nakayama's grandson, a boy aged only fourteen, came to the imperial throne.
On 3 January 1868, when Iwakura Tomomi arranged the seizure of the Kyoto Imperial Palace and initiated the Meiji Restoration, which resulted in the creation of the post-Shōgun Empire of Japan, Nakayama was among the courtiers who supported this action. According to Peter Kornicki, "Nakayama's cooperation with Iwakura had been essential to the success of the coup d'etat". Nakayama and Iwakura both became influential courtier-politicians in the Meiji period. Appointed a member of the Order of the Rising Sun, first class, in 1880, Nakayama was created a Marquess in 1884, when the Emperor created a new hierarchical peerage on European lines; this gave him a seat in the House of Peers, the upper house of the Imperial Diet. On 14 May 1888, a month before his death, he received the supreme accolade of being awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum during his lifetime, a bestowed honour. Fifth rank, junior grade Fifth rank, senior grade Senior fifth rank, junior grade Fourth rank, junior grade Fourth rank, senior grade Senior fourth rank, junior grade Senior fourth rank, senior grade Third rank Senior third rank Second rank Senior second rank First rank Marquess Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum