Vevring is a former municipality in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. The municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1964, it encompassed the land surrounding the western part of the Førdefjorden on both the north and south shores of the fjord. It stretched from the Ålasundet strait in the east to the mouth of the fjord in the west and from the Steindalen valley in the north to the mountains south of the fjord; the municipality was 120 square kilometres in 1964. The administrative centre of the municipality was the village of Indrevevring, where the Vevring Church is located; the village of Kvammen, across the fjord from Indrevevring was the main village on the south side of the fjord. The municipality was named after the old Vevring farm; the farm was named after a stream. The name of the stream comes from the Old Norse word vafra which means to "go here and there", which describes the path of the stream; the parish of Vevring was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. On 1 January 1964, the municipality was dissolved and split between three surrounding municipalities.
The Steindal valley in the north was incorporated into the new municipality of Flora. The rest of Vevring, with 439 inhabitants, became a part of Naustdal Municipality. Sogn og Fjordane travel guide from Wikivoyage Map of Vevring municipality from 1919
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae. Cod is used as part of the common name for a number of other fish species, some species suggested to belong to genus Gadus are not called cod; the two most common species of cod are the Atlantic cod, which lives in the colder waters and deeper sea regions throughout the North Atlantic, the Pacific cod, found in both eastern and western regions of the northern Pacific. Gadus morhua was named by Linnaeus in 1758. Cod is popular as a food with a mild flavour and a dense, white flesh. Cod livers are processed to make cod liver oil, an important source of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acids. Young Atlantic cod or haddock prepared in strips for cooking is called scrod. In the United Kingdom, Atlantic cod is one of the most common ingredients in fish and chips, along with haddock and plaice. At various times in the past, taxonomists included many species in the genus Gadus. Most of these are now either classified in other genera, or have been recognized as forms of one of three species.
All these species have a number of common names, most of them ending with the word "cod", whereas other species, as related, have other common names. However, many other, unrelated species have common names ending with cod; the usage changes with different localities and at different times. Three species in the genus Gadus are called cod: Cod forms part of the common name of many other fish no longer classified in the genus Gadus. Many are members of the family Gadidae; the tadpole cod family has now been placed in Gadidae. Gadiformes include: Some fish have common names derived from "cod", such as codling, codlet or tomcod; some fish known as cod are unrelated to Gadus. Part of this name confusion is market-driven. Shrunken Atlantic cod stocks have led to the marketing of cod replacements using culinary names of the form "x cod", according to culinary rather than phyletic similarity; the common names for the following species have become well established. PerciformesFish of the order Perciformes that are called "cod" include: Blue cod Parapercis colias Eastern freshwater cod Maccullochella ikei Mary River cod Maccullochella peelii mariensis Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii Potato cod Epinephelus tukula Sleepy cod Oxyeleotris lineolatus Trout cod Maccullochella macquariensis The notothen family, including: Antarctic cod Dissostichus mawsoni Black cod Notothenia microlepidota Maori cod Paranotothenia magellanicaRock cod, reef cod, coral codAlmost all coral cod, reef cod or rock cod are in order Perciformes.
Most are better known as groupers, belong to the family Serranidae. Others belong to the Nototheniidiae. Two exceptions are the Australasian red rock cod, which belongs to a different order, the fish known as the rock cod and as soft cod in New Zealand, Lotella rhacina, which as noted above is related to the true cod. ScorpaeniformesFrom the order Scorpaeniformes: Ling cod Ophiodon elongatus Red rock cod Scorpaena papillosa Rock cod SebastesOphidiiformesThe tadpole cod family and the Eucla cod family, were classified in the order Ophidiiformes, but are now grouped with the Gadiformes; some fish that do not have "cod" in their names are sometimes sold as cod. Haddock and whiting belong to the Gadidae, as cod. Haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus Whiting Merlangius merlangus Cods of the genus Gadus have three rounded dorsal and two anal fins; the pelvic fins are small, with the first ray extended, are set under the gill cover, in front of the pectoral fins. The upper jaw extends over the lower jaw; the eyes are medium-sized the same as the length of the chin barbel.
Cod have a distinct white lateral line running from the gill slit above the pectoral fin, to the base of the caudal or tail fin. The back tends to be a greenish to sandy brown, shows extensive mottling towards the lighter sides and white belly. Dark brown colouration of the back and sides is not uncommon for individuals that have resided in rocky inshore regions; the Atlantic cod can change colour at certain water depths. It has two distinct colour phases: reddish brown, its average weight is 5 -- 12 kilograms. Pacific cod are darker in colour. Atlantic cod live in deeper sea regions throughout the North Atlantic. Pacific cod is found in both western regions of the Pacific. Atlantic cod divide into several stocks, including the Arcto-Norwegian, North Sea, Iceland, East Greenland, West Greenland and Labrador stocks. There seems to be little interchange between the stocks, although migrations to their individual breeding grounds may involve distances of 200 miles or more. Atlantic cod occupy varied habitat, favouring rough ground inshore, are demersal in de
Western Norway is the region along the Atlantic coast of southern Norway. It consists of the counties Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Møre og Romsdal; the region has a population of 1.3 million people. The largest city is Bergen and the second-largest is Stavanger; the regions of Agder, Vest-Telemark, Hallingdal and northern parts of Gudbrandsdal have been included in Western Norway. Western Norway, as well as other parts of historical regions of Norway, shares a common history with Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Iceland and to a lesser extent the Netherlands and Britain. For example, the Icelandic horse is a close relative of the Fjord horse and both the Faroese and Icelandic languages are based on the Old West Norse. In early Norse times, people from Western Norway became settlers at the Western Isles in the Northern Atlantic, so that Orkney, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. During the Viking age settlements were made at the Hebrides and Ireland proper. In early modern time, Western Norway has had much emigration to the United States, to a lesser extent to the United Kingdom.
This applies to the US states of Minnesota and South Dakota, Wisconsin and the Canadian province of Manitoba. The Icelandic and Faroese people, many people in the British Isles, are descendants of Norsemen and Vikings who emigrated from Western Norway during the Viking Age. On the other hand, thousands of Western Norwegians are descendants of Dutch and German traders who arrived in the 16th and the 17th centuries in Bergen. Western Norway has the lowest unemployment rates, lowest crime rates, smallest public sector, fewest people on welfare and the most innovative economy in the country, it is regarded as Norway's most functional region. Vestlandet is the name chosen for a future administrative region consisting of two of the four counties, viz. Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane; the two counties will be re-merged after having been split in 1763. Norway's history begins on the west coast in Rogaland. Excavations and rock art tells us that it was in Rogaland that the first humans settled in Norway, when the ice retreated after the last ice age ca. 10,000 years ago.
There are many artifacts from the Stone Age in Rogaland. The preliminary oldest traces of humans are found in a settlement on Galta, Rennesøy, near the ferry terminal Mortavika and Vista on Randaberg. In the beginning there has been sure short visits by people from the south who hunted along the coast, it is thought that people came from Doggerland, the North Sea land area between Denmark and England, which disappeared when the ice retreated and sea levels rose. The people who lived there must now find a new land; some retreated south again, while a few passed the Norwegian Trench in its hunt for deer and the new country. The region includes most of the scope of the old Gulating, founded around the year 900; the Gulating Act divided the country into the Western counties, which consisted of the former småkongedømmene that existed in the area before the unification of the 800's and was converted to jarle judge. These were Sunnmørafylke, Firda County, Sygna County, Hordafylke and Egdafylke. Before the millennium, iron was introduced and used in agriculture, there was a shortage of land to cultivate.
In the same period, the kings’ power increased, large tax claims caused many to seek freedom and fortune abroad. Many emigrated, looting became an alternative source of income. Effective boats and weapons made, but the images of Vikings as bloodthirsty plunderers are not always representative. The Vikings were involved in a wealthy merchant trade, not only in Europe but including the Byzantine Empire and the Baghdad Caliphate. Vikings are introduced with the Viking attack on Lindisfarne in 793, when they made their mark in European history; the era ends with the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066. Vikings' seaworthiness and wanderlust resulted in new areas being developed. Norwegian settlers moved into the North Sea westward to Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Shetland, Isle of Mann and the Hebrides. Settlements were established in the southeast corner of Ireland including in Dublin and Wexford. Norwegians settled along the northwest area of England, principally in the area of modern-day Cumbria; the Norwegian Vikings discovered Vinland, present-day America, long before Christopher Columbus.
Christianity became the dominant religion in Norway in the 11th century, but the religion was known among Norwegians in the 7th century. While Eastern Norway was introduced to Christianity by missionaries and monks from Germany and Friesland, Western Norway was introduced to the religion by English, Irish people and Vikings who had converted to Christianity. Norse paganism existed in some areas in Western Norway until they were replaced by Christianity in the 13th century; the coastal areas were the first to introduce the new faith, the inland areas. Churches were planted everywhere; the main source of information about the settlement period in Iceland is the Book of Settlements, written in the 12th century, which gives a detailed account of the first settlers. According to this book, Western Norwegian sailors accidentally discovered the country. A few voyages of exploration were made soon after that and the settlement started. Ingólfur Arnarson was said to be the first settler, he was
Michael Sars was a Norwegian theologian and biologist. Sars was born in Norway, he studied natural history and theology at Royal Frederick University from 1823 and completed a cand.theol. Degree in 1828. For several years he taught at a number of different schools, firstly in Christiania and in Bergen. In 1831 he was appointed vicar to Kinn on the Norwegian north-west coast. In 1854 he was named professor of zoology at the University of Oslo where he remained for the rest of his life, he died in 1869. He was married to Maren Welhaven, sister of the epic poet Johann Sebastian Welhaven in 1831, had 7 daughters and 7 sons. Sars issued his first publication in 1829 – Bidrag til Søedyrenes Naturhistorie, he issued two large-scale volumes under the title Fauna Littoralis Norvegiae. In all these publications, Sars described new taxa, a routine activity of scientists of the period, but he described life-histories and reproductive cycles and feeding, behaviour and geographical dispersal; the British zoologist Edward Forbes had issued a series of articles on biogeography, claiming that no animal life existed at depths greater than 300 fathoms.
Sars and his colleagues wrote a series of reports issued in various Norwegian journals, where they documented the presence of a number of taxa in Norwegian fjords at depths of up to 450 fathoms. As a result of one of his dredging expeditions, Sars described the first living stalked crinoid to be described, Rhizocrinus lofotensis; this find spurred academic interest in the deep sea and prompted the Challenger expedition and other similar ventures around the globe. He was the first to describe the sessile stage of Scyphozoa, to document the development of molluscs from free-swimming larvae. Michael Sars was one of the last great descriptive zoologists who catalogued organisms more or less successfully in all major animal groups. Sars described fossils from various fossil beds in Norway and appears to have been keenly interested in all sorts of other issues. Sars was asked by the Parliament of Norway to investigate the biology of Norwegian fisheries, such as the herring and cod fisheries, he had started these investigations by the time of his death, but most of them were completed and published posthumously by his son, Georg Ossian Sars.
He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1855. The World Register of Marine Species lists 260 marine species named by Michael Sars; some biographical information and a partial list of species he described
Sogn og Fjordane
Sogn og Fjordane is a county in western Norway, bordering Møre og Romsdal, Oppland and Hordaland. The county administration is in the village of Hermansverk in Leikanger municipality; the largest town in the county is Førde. Although Sogn og Fjordane has some industry, predominantly hydroelectricity and aluminium, it is predominantly an agricultural area. Sogn og Fjordane is home to the Urnes Stave Church and the Nærøyfjord, which are both listed by UNESCO as world heritage sites; the Western Norway University of Applied Sciences has campuses in Førde. The name Sogn og Fjordane was created in 1919; the first element is the name of the region of Sogn, located in the southern part of the county. The last element is the plural definite form of fjord, which refers to the two regions in the county called Nordfjord and Sunnfjord in the northern and central parts of the county. Prior to 1919, the name of the county was Nordre Bergenhus amt which meant " northern Bergenhus amt"; the coat of arms of Sogn og Fjordane was granted on 23 September 1983.
The arms show the geographical layout of the county: three large blue fjords protruding into the white colored land. The three fjords represent the three regions of the county: Nordfjord and Sogn. Nearly all villages and towns are situated along one of these fjords and the name of the county is based on the fjords; the county is conventionally divided into three traditional districts. These are Sogn and Nordfjord. Sogn surrounds Sognefjorden from Solund on the offshore island of Sula in the North Sea to the village of Skjolden in Luster along Lustrafjorden, a branch of the Sognefjord; the total length is 204 kilometres. The middle district of Sunnfjord has two main fjords: Førdefjorden and Dalsfjorden; the northern district surrounds Nordfjorden. Sogn og Fjordane is the only county in Norway in which all municipalities have declared Nynorsk to be their official written form of the Norwegian language; the county consists of the two historic counties: Firdafylke and Sygnafylke. These both were formed in the Middle Ages under the Gulating government.
They were merged with Hordafylke and Sunnmørafylke to form the Bergenhus len in the late Middle Ages. The Bergenhus len was one of four len in Norway, it was administered from the Bergenhus Fortress in the city of Bergen. On 19 February 1662, a royal decree changed the name to Bergenhus amt; the Sunnmøre region was moved to Romsdalen amt in 1689. In 1763, the amt was divided in half creating: Nordre Bergenhus and Søndre Bergenhus. On 1 January 1919, Nordre Bergenhus amt was renamed Sogn og Fjordane fylke during a period of time when many location names in Norway were changed. A county is the chief local administrative area in Norway; the country is divided into 19 counties. A county is an election area, with popular votes taking place every 4 years; the Sogn og Fjordane County Municipality is the government. It is a group of 39 members. Heading the Fylkesting is the county mayor. Since 2011, the Sogn og Fjordane County Municipality has been led by Åshild Kjelsnes, the county mayor, she replaced Nils R. Sandal, county mayor from 2003 until 2011.
The county has a County Governor, the representative of the King and Government of Norway. Anne Karin Hamre has been the County Governor of Sogn og Fjordane since 2011. Oddvar Flæte was county governor from 1994 until 2011; the municipalities of Sogn og Fjordane are divided among three district courts: Sogn and Nordhordland. Sogn og Fjordane is part of the Gulating Court of Appeal district based in Bergen. Sogn District Court: Aurland, Leikanger, Luster, Lærdal, Vik, Årdal Fjordane District Court: Askvoll, Eid, Flora, Førde, Gloppen, Hyllestad, Høyanger, Jølster, Selje, Stryn, Vågsøy Nordhordland District Court: Gulen All of the municipalities of Sogn og Fjordane except Gulen and Solund are part of the Sogn og Fjordane police district. Gulen and Solund are part of the Hordaland police district. In 1837, the counties were divided into local administrative units, each with their own governments; the number and borders of these municipalities have changed over time, at present there are 26 municipalities in Sogn og Fjordane.
The municipalities were the same as the old Church of Norway parishes. It is a rural area with a scattered population. Sogn og Fjordane includes the largest glacier in mainland Norway, Jostedalsbreen, in the Breheimen mountain range, the deepest lake, Hornindalsvatnet. There are many famous waterfalls located in the area. Ramnefjellsfossen is the tallest in Norway and third tallest in the world and Vettisfossen is one of Norway's highest waterfalls with a vertical drop of 275 metres. Both are located in the Jotunheim mountains. Cruise ships visit Sogn og Fjordane all summer because of the unique vistas of high mountains and deep blue fjords; the famous Nærøyfjord is located in the south of the county. This is a UNESCO listed fjord area. There are several archipelagos
Frøya, Sogn og Fjordane
Frøya is an island in the western part of Bremanger Municipality in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. The 15-square-kilometre island is located just to the southwest of the big island of Bremangerlandet and its highest point is Fanneskarvarden at an elevation of 378 metres. All the residents of the island live on the southeastern shore; the island contains the main village of Kalvåg as well as the minor settlements of Liset, Nesje, Frøyalandet. Frøya is located on the northern side of the Frøysjøen strait, part of the seaway between the towns of Florø and Måløy; the island is connected to the nearby island of Bremangerlandet by a series of small bridges, Bremangerlandet is connected to the mainland via an undersea tunnel and a bridge. The population of the island of Frøya is about 560; the main industries on the island are fish processing. Frøya Church is located on the southeastern side of the island. Although Frøya is the name of the Norse goddess Frøya or Freya, the Old Norse form of the name was Frøy or Frey.
Therefore the name of the island has the same root as the name of the Norse god Freyr, brother of Freyja. The names were titles: "lord"/"master" or "lady"/"mistress"; the oldest meaning of the common word was " in front.