Lincoln Village, Milwaukee
Lincoln Village is a south side neighborhood within the City of Milwaukee. Using current street names, the Lincoln Village neighborhood is bounded by W Becher Street on the north to the Kinnickinnic River on the south, by South 5th Street on the east to South 20th Street on the west. Lincoln Village is home to over 16,000 residents; this population is 55% Latino, 30% European American, 10% African American, 5% of other ethnicities. The median household income as of 2007 was $28,145; as of 2007, homeownership was attained by 54% of Lincoln Village households. The neighborhood was founded by Milwaukee's Polish community in the late 19th Century; the growing number of Polish immigrants coming to Milwaukee in the late 19th and early 20th centuries created a great demand for new home construction. In 1880, there were 30,000 Polish living in Milwaukee making it the second largest ethnic population in the City. According to the 2000 US Census, there were 57,485 Polish residents of Milwaukee, making it the third largest Polish population in the United States.
Some of the original Polish population of Lincoln Village has remained and mixed with the continuing waves of new immigrant populations to arrive in Milwaukee. Lincoln Village is one of the most culturally and economically diverse communities in Wisconsin; the newest residents of Lincoln Village have immigrated predominately from the Jalisco and Michoacán States of Mexico. With other, less predominant groups immigrating from South America; the cultural similarities and cultural diversity of Lincoln Village have contributed to the stability of the neighborhood. Both the long-standing Polish and more recent Spanish-speaking households are religious-oriented, hard working, civically engaged, have demonstrated an entrepreneurial spirit; the neighborhood's main commercial street, West Lincoln Avenue, is the home of two historic landmarks - the Basilica of St. Josaphat and Forest Home Cemetery which were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973 and 1980, respectively; the commercial district is the only designated Wisconsin Main Street in Milwaukee, is a member of the local Main Street Milwaukee program.
These programs, operated by the Lincoln Village Business Association, serve to fill commercial vacancies in Lincoln Village as well as promote historic preservation and to maintain the aesthetic quality of the neighborhood. Today, the main street in Lincoln Village is full of specialty Mexican and Polish shops, one of the oldest florist businesses in Milwaukee, the largest bicycle shop in Milwaukee and the independent Milwaukee Bicycle Company brand, a recording studio, dining establishments with cuisine from Serbia, El Salvador, Mexico. Much of the neighborhood's housing and commercial building stock have been preserved in their original condition; because of this, Lincoln Village is the densest neighborhood in the State of Wisconsin and the streets have a strong European feel. The predominant residential building type in the neighborhood is the Polish flat, an early 20th Century form of housing that resembled a small cape style home raised 1/2 story to incorporate a new living space on the ground floor.
The small size of the Polish flat and the small parcel sizes of the time resulted in a high density of building construction within the neighborhoods. Along the neighborhood's main street, West Lincoln Avenue, the predominant building type is mixed-use with a strong emphasis of Polish gables and attention to fine architectural detail; the magnificent dome of St. Josaphat Basilica rises as a crown jewel of Milwaukee's south side; the parish was formed by Father Wilhelm Grutza in 1888 and named after Josaphat Kuntsevych, an Eastern European bishop and martyr. As Polish immigrants continued to arrive on the south side of Milwaukee, the need for a larger church grew. Architect Erhard Brielmaier was consulted and in 1896 plans were completed for the Basilica design that Lincoln Village has today; when Father Grutza traveled to Chicago to buy brick for these plans, he learned that the Chicago Federal Building was to be razed. Seizing the opportunity, he purchased the entire building, including stones and six granite Corinthian columns for re-use at his church.
St. Josaphat's is modeled after St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, it is Neo-Renaissance in style, with a cross-shaped floor plan. The Basilica is 212 feet by 128 feet. Two 100 foot towers frame a columned portico on the north; the massive copper-sheathed dome rises 250 feet from the ground level. The interior of the Basilica is extensively decorated with murals and gilded plaster work; the stained glass windows, imported from Innsbruck, Austria portray Polish as well as traditional Biblical themes. There are five altars of marble and onyx, an ornate hand-carved marble pulpit, marble stations of the cross. St. Josaphat's was elevated to the status of Minor Basilica in 1929, an honor awarded only to the grandest, most beautiful, significant structures. St. Josaphat's continues to be a parish church with a Polish congregation; this outstanding commercial building is situated on land once belonging to the Coleman family's Hazelwood Estate at 610 W. Lincoln Ave. Father Wilhelm Grutza, pastor of St. Josaphat's, purchased a parcel from Ellen Coleman in 1899, directly across the street from the Basilica in its final stages of construction.
Like the Basilica, this building was designed by Erhard Brielmaier and it is said that the commercial building utilized leftover materials from the Basilica's construction. The large pediment and prominent bays were designed in a robust Baroque fashion to complement the Basilica across the street; the earliest known tenants in the
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
Benton Harbor, Michigan
Benton Harbor is a city in Berrien County in the U. S. state of Michigan, located southwest of Kalamazoo, northwest of South Bend, Indiana. In 2010, the population was 10,038 according to the census, it is the smaller, by population, of the two principal cities in the Niles–Benton Harbor Metropolitan Statistical Area, an area with 156,813 people. Benton Harbor and the city of St. Joseph are separated by the St. Joseph River and are known locally as the "Twin Cities". Fairplain and Benton Heights are unincorporated areas adjacent to Benton Harbor. Benton Harbor was founded by Henry C. Morton, Sterne Brunson and Charles Hull, who all now have or have had schools named after them. Benton Harbor was swampland bordered by the Paw Paw River, through which a canal was built, hence the "harbor" in the city's name. In 1860, the village was laid out by Brunson, Morton and others, given the name of Brunson Harbor. Brunson and Hull donated land and solicited subscriptions for construction of the canal, completed in 1862.
It had long been recognized that a canal would be crucial to the town's development, both to drain the marsh and to provide a berthing area for ships. The canal 25 feet in width but expanded to 50 feet in 1868, led to the town's becoming a shipping and manufacturing center for the area. In 1866, the name of the settlement was changed to Benton Harbor in honor of Thomas Hart Benton, a Missouri Senator who helped Michigan achieve statehood. In 1836, Benton Harbor was organized in 1891 was incorporated as a city; the House of David religious group once ran a local amusement park. Two major riots occurred in 1966 and 2003. Several other riots have occurred in the intervening period. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.68 square miles, of which 4.43 square miles is land and 0.25 square miles is water. Benton Harbor has a humid continental climate that has warm summers for the type and less cold winters than many climates of the classification. Due to lake-effect snow there is high snowfall relative to precipitation in winter, but far lower than some locations that are farther north in the state.
Summer high temperatures range from 77 to 83 °F from June to August, but the apparent heat is moderated by mild nights. The demographics of Benton Harbor contrast with those across the river in St. Joseph; as of the census of 2010, there were 10,038 people, 3,548 households, 2,335 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,265.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,329 housing units at an average density of 977.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 7.0% White, 89.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.8% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. There were 3,548 households of which 44.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 17.0% were married couples living together, 43.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.2% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.41. The median age in the city was 28.3 years. 35.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.5% male and 53.5% female. At the 2000 census, there were 11,182 people, 3,767 households and 2,557 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,545.7 per square mile. There were 4,492 housing units at an average density of 1,022.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.40% African American, 5.48% White, 0.15% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 1.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.58% of the population. There were 3,767 households of which 42.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 20.8% were married couples living together, 42.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.53. Age distribution was 39.6% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 16.5% from 45 to 64, 8.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 72.7 males. The median household income was $17,471, the median family income was $19,250. Males had a median income of $27,154 versus $20,105 for females; the per capita income for the city was the lowest in Michigan. About 39.6% of families and 42.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 52.5% of those under age 18 and 29.7% of those age 65 or over. The Michigan Treasury Department in 2009 sent a team to look into the city's finances; the team's report was a long list of mismanagement to the point that budgets were "effectively meaningless as a financial management tool." The city was $10 million under-funded in increasing budget deficits.
In April 2010, Democratic Governor Jennifer Granholm appointed Joseph Harris as Emergency Financial Manager. City staff has been reduced by 30 to 70. Harris was given expanded powers under a new law signed in March 2011 by Republican Governor Ric
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Manistee is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 6,226 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Manistee County. The name "Manistee" is from an Ojibwe word first applied to the principal river of the county; the derivation is not certain, but it may be from ministigweyaa, "river with islands at its mouth". Other sources claim that it was an Ojibwe term meaning "spirit of the woods". Manistee Township is politically separate; the city is located at the mouth of the Manistee River on Lake Michigan. In 1751, a Jesuit Mission was established in Manistee. Missionaries visited Manistee in the early 19th century, a Jesuit mission house is known to have been located on the NW shore of Manistee Lake in 1826. In 1832, a group of traders from Massachusetts built a log house up the Manistee River. However, they were soon driven off by the Odawa nation; the first white settlement and sawmill was built there in 1841. In 1830 the village of Manistee was one of about 15 Odawa villages along the shore of Lake Michigan.
Much of the Manistee River Valley, including Manistee itself, was designated as an Odawa Reservation from 1836-1848. The first permanent Euro-American settlement was made on April 16, 1841, when John Stronach and his son, Adam Stronach, arrived at the mouth of the Manistee River in a schooner loaded with fifteen men and equipment, established a saw mill. In 1846, the town was named "Manistee". After a series of new counties were organized, by 1855 Manistee was part of a large Manistee county that included modern-day Manistee and Missaukee counties. On October 8, 1871, the town was destroyed by fire. Manistee was incorporated as a city in 1882. In 2000, Manistee made national headlines after a local jury convicted a woman for expressing to her mother her wish that immigrants would learn English. Allegations appeared of improper procedure and irregularities in the court records. Two years and after the defendant spent four nights in jail, the conviction was overturned by the state Court of Appeals.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.47 square miles, of which 3.29 square miles is land and 1.18 square miles is water. At the mouth of the Manistee River is the Manistee Pierhead lights that were built in 1873, replaced in 1927. Manistee is considered to be part of Northern Michigan; as of the census of 2010, there were 6,226 people, 2,816 households, 1,614 families residing in the city. The population as of 2013 is 6117; the population density was 1,892.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,599 housing units at an average density of 1,093.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.5% White, 0.5% African American, 3.8% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 2,816 households of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.1% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.7% were non-families.
36.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age in the city was 43.6 years. 21.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,586 people, 2,912 households, 1,729 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,023.7 per square mile. There were 3,426 housing units at an average density of 1,052.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.90% White, 0.33% African American, 1.38% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.96% from other races, 1.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.20% of the population. There were 2,912 households out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.6% were non-families.
35.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 24.0% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 19.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,351, the median income for a family was $41,816. Males had a median income of $35,347 versus $20,102 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,810. About 6.9% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. In its heyday, Manistee was home to a booming logging industry. Silas C. Overpack was a famous resident in the part o
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings. The simplest such chemicals are naphthalene, having two aromatic rings, the three-ring compounds anthracene and phenanthrene. PAHs are uncharged, non-polar molecules found in tar deposits, they are produced by the thermal decomposition of organic matter. PAHs are abundant in the universe, have been found to have formed as early as the first couple of billion years after the Big Bang, in association with formation of new stars and exoplanets; some studies suggest. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are discussed as possible starting materials for abiotic syntheses of materials required by the earliest forms of life. By definition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have multiple cycles, precluding benzene from being considered a PAH. Naphthalene is considered the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon by the US EPA and US CDC for policy contexts. Other authors consider PAHs to start with the tricyclic species anthracene.
PAHs are not considered to contain heteroatoms or carry substituents. PAHs with five or six-membered rings are most common; those composed only of six-membered rings are called alternant PAHs. The following are examples of PAHs that vary in the number and arrangement of their rings: Principal PAH Compounds PAHs are nonpolar and lipophilic. Larger PAHs are insoluble in water, although some smaller PAHs are soluble and known contaminants in drinking water; the larger members are poorly soluble in organic solvents and in lipids. They are colorless; the aromaticity varies for PAHs. According to Clar's rule, the resonance structure of a PAH that has the largest number of disjoint aromatic pi sextets—i.e. Benzene-like moieties—is the most important for the characterization of the properties of that PAH. Benzene-substructure resonance analysis for Clar's rule For example, in phenanthrene one Clar structure has two sextets—the first and third rings—while the other resonance structure has just one central sextet.
In contrast, in anthracene the resonance structures have one sextet each, which can be at any of the three rings, the aromaticity spreads out more evenly across the whole molecule. This difference in number of sextets is reflected in the differing ultraviolet–visible spectra of these two isomers, as higher Clar pi-sextets are associated with larger HOMO-LUMO gaps. Three Clar structures with two sextets each are present in the four-ring chrysene structure: one having sextets in the first and third rings, one in the second and fourth rings, one in the first and fourth rings. Superposition of these structures reveals that the aromaticity in the outer rings is greater compared to the inner rings. Polycyclic aromatic compounds characteristically reduce to the radical anions; the redox potential correlates with the size of the PAH. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are found in natural sources such as creosote, they can result from the incomplete combustion of organic matter. PAHs can be produced geologically when organic sediments are chemically transformed into fossil fuels such as oil and coal.
PAHs are considered ubiquitous in the environment and can be formed from either natural or manmade combustion sources. The dominant sources of PAHs in the environment are thus from human activity: wood-burning and combustion of other biofuels such as dung or crop residues contribute more than half of annual global PAH emissions due to biofuel use in India and China; as of 2004, industrial processes and the extraction and use of fossil fuels made up more than one quarter of global PAH emissions, dominating outputs in industrial countries such as the United States. Wildfires are another notable source. Higher outdoor air and water concentrations of PAHs have been measured in Asia and Latin America than in Europe, the U. S. and Canada. PAHs are found as complex mixtures. Lower-temperature combustion, such as tobacco smoking or wood-burning, tends to generate low molecular weight PAHs, whereas high-temperature industrial processes generate PAHs with higher molecular weights. Most PAHs are insoluble in water, which limits their mobility in the environment, although PAHs sorb to fine-grained organic-rich sediments.
Aqueous solubility of PAHs decreases logarithmically as molecular mass increases. Two-ringed PAHs, to a lesser extent three-ringed PAHs, dissolve in water, making them more available for biological uptake and degradation. Further, two- to four-ringed PAHs volatilize sufficiently to appear in the atmosphere predominantly in gaseous form, although the physical state of four-ring PAHs can depend on temperature. In contrast, compounds with five or more rings have low solubility in water and low volatility. In solid state, these compounds are less accessible for biological uptake or degradation, increasing their persistence in the environment. Spiral galaxy NGC 5529 has been
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co