A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states, cognitive and social processes and behavior by observing and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments. To become a psychologist, a person completes a graduate university degree in psychology, but in most jurisdictions, members of other behavioral professions can evaluate, diagnose and study mental processes. Psychologists can be seen as practicing within two general categories of psychology: applied psychology which includes "practitioners" or "professionals", research-orientated psychology which includes "scientists", or "scholars"; the training models endorsed by the American Psychological Association require that applied psychologists be trained as both researchers and practitioners, that they possess advanced degrees. Psychologists have one of two degrees; the PhD prepares a psychologist to conduct scientific research for a career in academia. Both PsyD and PhD programs can prepare students to be licensed psychologists, training in these types of programs prepares graduates to take state licensing exams.
Within the two main categories are many further types of psychologists as reflected by the 56 professional classifications recognized by the APA, including clinical and educational psychologists. Such professionals work with persons in a variety of therapeutic contexts. People think of the discipline as involving only such clinical or counseling psychologists. While counseling and psychotherapy are common activities for psychologists, these applied fields are just two branches in the larger domain of psychology. There are other classifications such as industrial and community psychologists, whose professionals apply psychological research and techniques to "real-world" problems of business, social benefit organizations and academia. Clinical and counseling psychologists can offer a range of professional services, including: Providing psychological treatment Administering and interpreting psychological assessment and testing Conducting psychological research Teaching Developing prevention programs Consulting Program administration Providing expert testimony In practice and counseling psychologists might work with individuals, families, or groups in a variety of settings, including private practices, mental health organizations, schools and non-profit agencies.
Most clinical and counseling who engage in research and teaching do so within a college or university setting. Clinical and counseling psychologists may choose to specialize in a particular field. Common areas of specialization, some of which can earn board certification, include: Specific disorders Neuropsychological disorders Child and adolescent psychology Family and relationship counseling Health psychology Sport psychology Forensic psychology Industrial and organizational psychology Educational psychologyClinical and counseling psychologists receive training in a number of psychological therapies, including behavioral, humanistic, existential and systemic approaches, as well as in-depth training in psychological testing, to some extent, neuropsychological testing. Although clinical and counseling psychologists and psychiatrists share the same fundamental aim—the alleviation of mental distress—their training and methodologies are different; the most significant difference is that psychiatrists are licensed physicians, and, as such, psychiatrists are apt to use the medical model to assess mental health problems and to employ psychotropic medications as a method of addressing mental health problems.
Psychologists do not prescribe medication, although in some jurisdictions they do have prescription privileges. In five US states, psychologists with post-doctoral clinical psychopharmacology training have been granted prescriptive authority for mental health disorders. Clinical and counseling psychologists receive extensive training in psychological test administration, scoring and reporting, while psychiatrists are not trained in psychological testing; such tests help to inform treatment planning. For example, in a medical center, a patient with a complicated clinical presentation, being seen by a psychiatrist might be referred to a clinical psychologist for psychological testing to help the psychiatrist determine the diagnosis and treatment. In addition, psychologists spend several years in graduate school being trained to conduct behavioral research. While this training is available for physicians via dual MD/Ph. D. programs, it is not included in standard medical education, although psychiatrists may develop research skills during their residency or a psychiatry fellowship.
Psychologists from Psy. D. Programs tend to have more training and experience in clinical practice than those from Ph. D. programs. Psychiatrists, as licensed physicians, have been trained more intensively in other areas, such as internal medicine and neurology, may bring this knowledge to bear in identifying and treating medical or neurological conditions that present with psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, or
Homosexual behavior in animals
Homosexual behavior in animals is sexual behavior among non-human species, interpreted as homosexual or bisexual. This may include same-sex sexual activity, affection, pair bonding, parenting among same-sex animal pairs. Research indicates that various forms of this are found in every major geographic region and every major animal group; the sexual behavior of non-human animals takes many different forms within the same species, though homosexual behavior is best known from social species. Scientists perceive homosexual behavior in animals to different degrees; the motivations for and implications of these behaviors have yet to be understood, since most species have yet to be studied. According to Bruce Bagemihl, the animal kingdom engages in homosexual behavior "with much greater sexual diversity – including homosexual and nonreproductive sex – than the scientific community and society at large have been willing to accept." Bagemihl adds, that this is "necessarily an account of human interpretations of these phenomena".
Simon LeVay introduced caveat that "lthough homosexual behavior is common in the animal world, it seems to be uncommon that individual animals have a long-lasting predisposition to engage in such behavior to the exclusion of heterosexual activities. Thus, a homosexual orientation, if one can speak of such thing in animals, seems to be a rarity." One species in which exclusive homosexual orientation occurs, however, is that of domesticated sheep. "About 10% of rams, refuse to mate with ewes but do mate with other rams."According to Bagemihl, same-sex behavior has been documented in over 450 species of animals worldwide. The term homosexual was coined by Karl-Maria Kertbeny in 1868 to describe same-sex sexual attraction and sexual behavior in humans, its use in animal studies has been controversial for two main reasons: animal sexuality and motivating factors have been and remain poorly understood, the term has strong cultural implications in western society that are irrelevant for species other than humans.
Thus homosexual behavior has been given a number of terms over the years. According to Bruce Bagemihl, when describing animals, the term homosexual is preferred over gay and other terms in use, as these are seen as more bound to human homosexuality. Bailey et al. says: "Homosexual: in animals, this has been used to refer to same-sex behavior, not sexual in character, same-sex courtship or copulatory behavior occurring over a short period of time or long-term pair bonds between same-sex partners that might involve any combination of courting, copulating and affectional behaviors. In humans, the term is used to describe individual sexual behaviors as well as long-term relationships, but in some usages connotes a gay or lesbian social identity. Scientific writing would benefit from reserving this anthropomorphic term for humans and not using it to describe behavior in other animals, because of its rooted context in human society". Animal preference and motivation is always inferred from behavior.
In wild animals, researchers will as a rule not be able to map the entire life of an individual, must infer from frequency of single observations of behavior. The correct usage of the term homosexual is that an animal exhibits homosexual behavior or same-sex sexual behavior. In most instances, it is presumed that the homosexual behavior is but part of the animal's overall sexual behavioral repertoire, making the animal "bisexual" rather than "homosexual" as the terms are understood in humans, but cases of homosexual preference and exclusive homosexual pairs are known. The observation of homosexual behavior in animals can be seen as both an argument for and against the acceptance of homosexuality in humans, has been used against the claim that it is a peccatum contra naturam. For instance, homosexuality in animals was cited by the American Psychiatric Association and other groups in their amici curiae brief to the United States Supreme Court in Lawrence v. Texas, which struck down the sodomy laws of 14 states.
A majority of the research available concerning homosexual behavior in animals lacks specification between animals that exhibit same-sex tendencies and those that participate in heterosexual and homosexual mating activities interchangeably. This lack of distinction has led to differing opinions and conflicting interpretations of collected data amongst scientists and researchers. For instance, Bruce Bagemihl, author of the book Biological Exuberence: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity, emphasizes that there are no anatomical or endocrinological differences between homosexual and heterosexual animal pairs. However, if the definition of "homosexual behavior" is made to include animals that participate in both same-sex and opposite-sex mating activities, hormonal differences have been documented among key sex hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol, when compared to those who participate in heterosexual mating. Many of the animals used in laboratory-based studies of homosexuality do not appear to spontaneously exhibit these tendencies in the wild.
Such behavior is elicited and exaggerated by the researcher during experimentation through
Indiana University Bloomington
Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana. It is the flagship institution of the Indiana University system and, with over 40,000 students, its largest university. Indiana University is a "Public Ivy" university and ranks in the top 100 national universities in the U. S. and among the top 50 public universities. It is a member of the Association of American Universities and has numerous schools and programs, including the Jacobs School of Music, the School of Informatics and Engineering, the O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Kelley School of Business, the School of Public Health, the School of Nursing, the School of Optometry, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Media School, the Hamilton Lugar School of Global and International Studies; as of Fall 2017, 43,710 students attend Indiana University. While 55.1% of the student body was from Indiana, students from all 50 states, Washington, D. C. Puerto Rico and 165 countries were enrolled.
As of 2018, the average ACT score is a 28 and an SAT score of 1276. The university is home to an extensive student life program, with more than 750 student organizations on campus and with around 17 percent of undergraduates joining the Greek system. Indiana athletic teams are known as the Indiana Hoosiers; the university is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Indiana's faculty and alumni include nine Nobel laureates, 17 Rhodes Scholars, 17 Marshall Scholars, five MacArthur Fellows. In addition and alumni have won six Academy Awards, 49 Grammy Awards, 32 Emmy Awards, 20 Pulitzer Prizes, four Tony Awards, 104 Olympic medals. Notable Indiana alumni include James Watson, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Indiana's state government in Corydon established Indiana University on January 20, 1820, as the "State Seminary." Construction began in 1822 at what is now called Seminary Square Park near the intersection of Second Street and College Avenue. The first professor was Baynard Rush Hall, a Presbyterian minister who taught all of the classes in 1825–27.
In the first year, he taught twelve students and was paid $250. Hall was a classicist who focused on Greek and Latin and believed that the study of classical philosophy and languages formed the basis of the best education; the first class graduated in 1830. From 1820 to 1889 a legal-political battle was fought between IU and Vincennes University as to, the legitimate state university. In 1829, Andrew Wylie became the first president, serving until his death in 1851; the school's name was changed to "Indiana College" in 1829, to "Indiana University" in 1839. Wylie and David Maxwell, president of the board of trustees, were devout Presbyterians, they spoke of the nonsectarian status of the school but hired fellow Presbyterians. Presidents and professors were expected to set a moral example for their charges. After six ministers in a row, the first non-clergyman to become president was the young biology professor David Starr Jordan, in 1885. Jordan followed Baptist theologian Lemuel Moss, who resigned after a scandal broke regarding his involvement with a female professor.
Jordan improved the university's finances and public image, doubled its enrollment, instituted an elective system along the lines of his alma mater, Cornell University. Jordan became president of Stanford University in June 1891. Growth of the college was slow. In 1851, IU had seven professors. IU admitted its first woman student, Sarah Parke Morrison, in 1867, making IU the fourth public university to admit women on an equal basis with men. Morrison went on to become the first female professor at IU in 1873. Mathematician Joseph Swain was IU's first Hoosier-born president, 1893 to 1902, he established Kirkwood Hall in 1894. He began construction for Science Hall in 1901. During his presidency, student enrollment increased from 524 to 1,285. In 1883, IU awarded its first Ph. D. and played its first intercollegiate sport, prefiguring the school's future status as a major research institution and a power in collegiate athletics. But another incident that year was of more immediate concern: the original campus in Seminary Square burned to the ground.
The college was rebuilt between 1884 and 1908 at the far eastern edge of Bloomington. One challenge was that Bloomington's limited water supply was inadequate for its population of 12,000 and could not handle university expansion; the University commissioned a study. In 1902, IU enrolled 1203 undergraduates. There were 82 graduate students including ten from out-of-state; the curriculum emphasized the classics, as befitted a gentleman, stood in contrast to the service-oriented curriculum at Purdue, which presented itself as of direct benefit to farmers and businessmen. The first extension office of IU was opened in Indianapolis in 1916. In 1920/1921 the School of Music and the School of Commerce and Finance (what becam
Alfred Charles Kinsey was an American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, sexologist who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex and Reproduction. He is best known for writing Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female known as the Kinsey Reports, as well as the Kinsey scale. Kinsey's research on human sexuality, foundational to the field of sexology, provoked controversy in the 1940s and 1950s, his work has influenced cultural values in the United States, as well as internationally. Alfred Kinsey was born on June 23, 1894, in Hoboken, New Jersey, the son of Sarah Ann and Alfred Seguine Kinsey, he was the eldest of three children. His mother received little formal education. Kinsey's parents were poor for most of his childhood unable to afford proper medical care; this may have led to a young Kinsey receiving inadequate treatment for a variety of diseases including rickets, rheumatic fever, typhoid fever.
His health records indicate that Kinsey received suboptimal exposure to sunlight and lived in unsanitary conditions for at least part of his childhood. Rickets led to a curvature of the spine, which resulted in a slight stoop that prevented Kinsey from being drafted in 1917 for World War I. Kinsey's parents were devout Christians, his father was known as one of the most devout members of the local Methodist church. Most of Kinsey's social interactions were with other members of the church as a silent observer, while his parents discussed religion. Kinsey's father imposed strict rules on the household, including mandating Sunday as a day of prayer and little else. At age 10, Kinsey moved with his family to New Jersey. At a young age, he showed great interest in nature and camping, he worked and camped with the local YMCA throughout his early years, enjoyed these activities to such an extent that he intended to work for the YMCA after completing his education. Kinsey's senior undergraduate thesis for psychology, a dissertation on the group dynamics of young boys, echoed this interest.
He joined the Boy Scouts. His parents supported this because the Boy Scouts was an organization, based on the principles of Christianity. Kinsey worked his way up through the Scouting ranks to earn Eagle Scout in 1913, making him one of the earliest Eagle Scouts. Despite earlier disease having weakened his heart, Kinsey followed an intense sequence of difficult hikes and camping expeditions throughout his early life. In high school, Kinsey was a hard-working student. While attending Columbia High School, he devoted his energy to academic work and playing the piano. At one time, Kinsey had hoped to become a concert pianist, but decided to concentrate on his scientific pursuits instead. Kinsey's ability to spend immense amounts of time focused on study was a trait that would serve him well in college and during his professional career, he seems not to have formed strong social relationships during high school, but earned respect for his academic ability. While there, Kinsey became interested in biology and zoology.
Kinsey was to claim that his high school biology teacher, Natalie Roeth, was the most important influence on his decision to become a scientist. Kinsey approached his father with plans to study botany at college, his father demanded. At Stevens, he took courses related to English and engineering, but was unable to satisfy his interest in biology. Kinsey was not successful there, decided engineering was not a field he was good at. At the end of two years at Stevens, Kinsey gathered the courage to confront his father about his interest in biology and his intent to continue studying at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, where he majored in biology. In the fall of 1914, Kinsey entered Bowdoin College, where he studied entomology under Manton Copeland, was admitted to the Zeta Psi fraternity, in whose house he lived for much of his time at college. In 1916 Kinsey was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa society and graduated magna cum laude, with degrees in biology and psychology. Alfred Seguine Kinsey did not attend his son's graduation ceremony from Bowdoin as another sign of disapproval of his son's choice of career and studies.
Kinsey continued his graduate studies at Harvard University's Bussey Institute, which had one of the most regarded biology programs in the United States. It was there that Kinsey studied applied biology under William Morton Wheeler, a scientist who made outstanding contributions to entomology. Under Wheeler, Kinsey worked completely autonomously, which suited both men quite well. Kinsey did his doctoral thesis on gall wasps, zealously collecting samples of the species, he traveled and took 26 detailed measurements of hundreds of thousands of gall wasps. In 1919, Kinsey was awarded a Sc. D. degree by Harvard University. In 1920 he published several papers under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, introducing the gall wasp to the scientific community and describing its phylogeny. Of the more than 18 million insects in the museum's collection, some 5 million are gall wasps collected by Kinsey. Kinsey wrote a used high-school textbook, An Introduction to Biology, published in October 1926.
The book endorsed evolution an
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition on something based on a cultural sense that it is excessively repulsive or too sacred for ordinary people. Such prohibitions are present in all societies. On a comparative basis taboos, for example related to food items, seem to make no sense at all as what may be declared unfit for one group by custom or religion may be acceptable to another. Whether scientifically correct or not, taboos are meant to protect the human individual, but there are numerous other reasons for their existence. An ecological or medical background is apparent in many, including some that are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. Taboos can help use a resource more efficiently, but when applied to only a subsection of the community they can serve to suppress a subsection of the community. A taboo acknowledged by a particular group or tribe as part of their ways, aids in the cohesion of the group, helps that particular group to stand out and maintain its identity in the face of others and therefore creates a feeling of "belonging".
The meaning of the word "taboo" has been somewhat expanded in the social sciences to strong prohibitions relating to any area of human activity or custom, sacred or forbidden based on moral judgment, religious beliefs, or cultural norms. "Breaking a taboo" is considered objectionable by society in general, not a subset of a culture. The term "taboo" comes from the Tongan tapu or Fijian tabu, related among others to the Maori tapu and Hawaiian kapu, its English use dates to 1777 when the British explorer James Cook visited Tonga, referred to the Tongans' use of the term "taboo" for "any thing is forbidden to be eaten, or made use of". He wrote: Not one of them would sit down, or eat a bit of any thing.... On expressing my surprise at this, they were all taboo; the term was translated to him as "consecrated, forbidden, unclean or cursed." Tabu itself has been derived from alleged Tongan morphemes ta and bu, but this may be a folk etymology, tapu is treated as a unitary, non-compound word inherited from Proto-Polynesian *tapu, in turn inherited from Proto-Oceanic *tabu, with the reconstructed meaning "sacred, forbidden."
In its current use on Tonga, the word tapu means "sacred" or "holy" in the sense of being restricted or protected by custom or law. On the main island, the word is appended to the end of "Tonga" as Tongatapu, here meaning "Sacred South" rather than "Forbidden South". Sigmund Freud speculated that incest and patricide were the only two universal taboos and formed the basis of civilization. However, although cannibalism, in-group murder, incest are taboo in the majority of societies, exceptions can be found, such as marriages between brothers and sisters in Roman Egypt. Modern Western societies, however, do not condone such relationships; these familial sexual activities are criminalised if all parties are consenting adults. Through an analysis of the language surrounding these laws, it can be seen how the policy makers, society as a whole, find these acts to be immoral. Common taboos involve restrictions or ritual regulation of hunting. In Madagascar, a strong code of taboos, known as fady change and are formed from new experiences.
Each region, village or tribe may have its own fady. The word "taboo" gained popularity at times, with some scholars looking for ways to apply it where other English words had been applied. For example, J. M. Powis Smith, in his book The American Bible, used "taboo" in relation to Israel's Tabernacle and ceremonial laws, including Exodus 30:36, Exodus 29:37. Albert Schweitzer wrote a chapter about taboos of the people of Gabon; as an example, it was considered a misfortune for twins to be born, they would be subject to many rules not incumbent on other people. Communist and materialist theorists have argued that taboos can be used to reveal the histories of societies when other records are lacking. Marvin Harris endeavored to explain taboos as a consequence of ecologic and economic conditions; some argue that contemporary Western multicultural societies have taboos against tribalisms and prejudices. Changing social customs and standards create new taboos, such as bans on slavery. Incest itself has been pulled both ways, with some seeking to normalize consensual adult relationships regardless of the degree of kinship and others expanding the degrees of prohibited contact Although the term taboo implies negative connotations, it is sometimes associated with enticing propositions in proverbs such as forbidden fruit is the sweetest.
In medicine, professionals who practice in ethical and moral grey areas, or fields subject to social stigma such as late termination of pregnancy, may refrain from public d
John Wilder Tukey was an American mathematician best known for development of the FFT algorithm and box plot. The Tukey range test, the Tukey lambda distribution, the Tukey test of additivity, the Teichmüller–Tukey lemma all bear his name, he is credited with coining the term'bit'. Tukey was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts, in 1915, obtained a B. A. in 1936 and M. Sc. in 1937, in chemistry, from Brown University, before moving to Princeton University where he received a Ph. D. in mathematics. During World War II, Tukey worked at the Fire Control Research Office and collaborated with Samuel Wilks and William Cochran. After the war, he returned to Princeton, dividing his time between the university and AT&T Bell Laboratories, he became a full professor at 35 and founding chairman of the Princeton statistics department in 1965. Among many contributions to civil society, Tukey served on a committee of the American Statistical Association that produced a report challenging the conclusions of the Kinsey Report, Statistical Problems of the Kinsey Report on Sexual Behavior in the Human Male.
He was awarded the National Medal of Science by President Nixon in 1973. He was awarded the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1982 "For his contributions to the spectral analysis of random processes and the fast Fourier transform algorithm." Tukey retired in 1985. He died in New Brunswick, New Jersey, on July 26, 2000. Early in his career Tukey worked on developing statistical methods for computers at Bell Labs where he invented the term "bit", his statistical interests were many and varied. He is remembered for his development with James Cooley of the Cooley–Tukey FFT algorithm. In 1970, he contributed to what is today known as the jackknife estimation—also termed Quenouille–Tukey jackknife, he introduced the box plot in his 1977 book, "Exploratory Data Analysis." Tukey's range test, the Tukey lambda distribution, Tukey's test of additivity, Tukey's lemma, the Tukey window all bear his name. He is the creator of several little-known methods such as the trimean and median-median line, an easier alternative to linear regression.
In 1974, he developed, with the concept of the projection pursuit. He contributed to statistical practice and articulated the important distinction between exploratory data analysis and confirmatory data analysis, believing that much statistical methodology placed too great an emphasis on the latter. Though he believed in the utility of separating the two types of analysis, he pointed out that sometimes in natural science, this was problematic and termed such situations uncomfortable science. A. D. Gordon offered the following summary of Tukey's principles for statistical practice:... the usefulness and limitation of mathematical statistics. Tukey coined many statistical terms that have become part of common usage, but the two most famous coinages attributed to him were related to computer science. While working with John von Neumann on early computer designs, Tukey introduced the word "bit" as a contraction of "binary digit"; the term "bit" was first used in an article by Claude Shannon in 1948.
In 2000, Fred Shapiro, a librarian at the Yale Law School, published a letter revealing that Tukey's 1958 paper "The Teaching of Concrete Mathematics" contained the earliest known usage of the term "software" found in a search of JSTOR's electronic archives, predating the OED's citation by two years. This led many to credit Tukey with coining the term in obituaries published that same year, although Tukey never claimed credit for any such coinage. In 1995, Paul Niquette claimed he had coined the term in October 1953, although he could not find any documents supporting his claim; the earliest known publication of the term "software" in an engineering context was in August 1953 by Richard R. Carhart, in a Rand Corporation Research Memorandum. List of pioneers in computer science Andrews, David F. Robust estimates of location: survey and advances. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08113-7. OCLC 369963. Basford, Kaye E. Graphical analysis of multiresponse data. Chapman & Hall/CRC. ISBN 978-0-8493-0384-5.
OCLC 154674707. Blackman, R B; the measurement of power spectra from the point of view of communications engineering. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-60507-4. Cochran, William G. Statistical problems of the Kinsey report on sexual behavior in the human male. Journal of the American Statistical Association. Hoaglin, David C. Understanding Robust and Exploratory Data Analysis. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-09777-8. OCLC 8495063. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Hoaglin, David C. Exploring Data Tables and Shapes. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-09776-1. OCLC 11550398. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Hoagl
Abraham Harold Maslow was an American psychologist, best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization. Maslow was a psychology professor at Alliant International University, Brandeis University, Brooklyn College, New School for Social Research, Columbia University, he stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a "bag of symptoms." A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Maslow as the tenth most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Born in 1908 and raised in Brooklyn, New York, Maslow was the oldest of seven children, his parents were first generation Jewish immigrants from Kiev part of the Russian Empire, who fled from Czarist persecution in the early 20th century. They had decided to live in a multiethnic, working-class neighborhood, his parents were poor and not intellectually focused.
He had various encounters with anti-Semitic gangs who would throw rocks at him. Maslow and other young people with his background were struggling to overcome such acts of racism and ethnic prejudice in the attempt to establish an idealistic world based on widespread education and economic justice; the tension outside his home was felt within it, as he got along with his mother, developed a strong revulsion towards her. He is quoted as saying, "What I had reacted to was not only her physical appearance, but her values and world view, her stinginess, her total selfishness, her lack of love for anyone else in the world – her own husband and children – her narcissism, her Negro prejudice, her exploitation of everyone, her assumption that anyone was wrong who disagreed with her, her lack of friends, her sloppiness and dirtiness...". He grew up with few friends other than his cousin Will, as a result "... grew up in libraries and among books." It was here that he developed his love for learning. He went to one of the top high schools in Brooklyn.
Here, he served as the officer to many academic clubs, became editor of the Latin Magazine. He edited Principia, the school's Physics paper, for a year, he developed other strengths as well: As a young boy, Maslow believed physical strength to be the single most defining characteristic of a true male. Maslow attended the City College of New York after high school. In 1926 he began taking legal studies classes at night in addition to his undergraduate course load, he hated it and immediately dropped out. In 1927 he transferred to Cornell, but he left after just one semester due to poor grades and high costs, he graduated from City College and went to graduate school at the University of Wisconsin to study psychology. In 1928, he married his first cousin Bertha, still in high school at the time; the pair had met in Brooklyn years earlier. Maslow's psychology training at UW was decidedly experimental-behaviorist. At Wisconsin he pursued a line of research which included investigating primate dominance behavior and sexuality.
Maslow's early experience with behaviorism would leave him with a strong positivist mindset. Upon the recommendation of Professor Hulsey Cason, Maslow wrote his master's thesis on "learning and reproduction of verbal material". Maslow regarded the research as embarrassingly trivial, but he completed his thesis the summer of 1931 and was awarded his master's degree in psychology, he was so ashamed of the thesis that he removed it from the psychology library and tore out its catalog listing. However, Professor Carson admired the research enough to urge Maslow to submit it for publication. Maslow's thesis was published as two articles in 1934, he continued his research at Columbia University on similar themes. There he found another mentor in one of Sigmund Freud's early colleagues. From 1937 to 1951, Maslow was on the faculty of Brooklyn College, his family life and his experiences influenced his psychological ideas. After World War II, Maslow began to question the way psychologists had come to their conclusions, although he did not disagree, he had his own ideas on how to understand the human mind.
He called his new discipline humanistic psychology. Maslow was a 33-year-old father and had two children when the United States entered World War II in 1941, he was thus ineligible for the military. However, the horrors of war inspired a vision of peace in him leading to his groundbreaking psychological studies of self-actualizing; the studies began under the supervision of two mentors, anthropologist Ruth Benedict and Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer, whom he admired both professionally and personally. They accomplished a lot in both realms. Being such "wonderful human beings" as well, they inspired Maslow to take notes about them and their behavior; this would be the basis of his lifelong research and thinking about mental health and human potential. He extended the subject, borrowing ideas from other psychologists and adding new ones, such as the concepts of a hierarchy of needs, metamotivation, self-actualizing persons, peak experiences. Maslow was a professor at Brandeis University from 1951 to 1969.
He became a resident fellow of the Laughlin Institute in California. In 1967, Maslow knew his time was limited, he considered himself to be a psychological pioneer. He gave future psychologists a push