In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings within this discipline are debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life – mating, parenthood, siblingship etc." Human society is unique, he argues, in that we are "working with the same raw material as exists in the animal world, but can conceptualize and categorize it to serve social ends." These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic and religious groups. Kinship can refer both to the patterns of social relationships themselves, or it can refer to the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more human cultures. Over its history, anthropology has developed a number of related concepts and terms in the study of kinship, such as descent, descent group, affinity/affine, consanguinity/cognate and fictive kinship.
Further within these two broad usages of the term, there are different theoretical approaches. Broadly, kinship patterns may be considered to include people related by both descent – i.e. social relations during development – and by marriage. Human kinship relations through marriage are called "affinity" in contrast to the relationships that arise in one's group of origin, which may be called one's descent group. In some cultures, kinship relationships may be considered to extend out to people an individual has economic or political relationships with, or other forms of social connections. Within a culture, some descent groups may be considered to lead back to gods or animal ancestors; this may be conceived of on a less literal basis. Kinship can refer to a principle by which individuals or groups of individuals are organized into social groups, roles and genealogy by means of kinship terminologies. Family relations can be represented abstractly by degrees of relationship. A relationship may reflect an absolute.
Degrees of relationship are not identical to legal succession. Many codes of ethics consider the bond of kinship as creating obligations between the related persons stronger than those between strangers, as in Confucian filial piety. In a more general sense, kinship may refer to a similarity or affinity between entities on the basis of some or all of their characteristics that are under focus; this may be due to a shared ontological origin, a shared historical or cultural connection, or some other perceived shared features that connect the two entities. For example, a person studying the ontological roots of human languages might ask whether there is kinship between the English word seven and the German word sieben, it can be used in a more diffuse sense as in, for example, the news headline "Madonna feels kinship with vilified Wallis Simpson", to imply a felt similarity or empathy between two or more entities. In biology, "kinship" refers to the degree of genetic relatedness or coefficient of relationship between individual members of a species.
It may be used in this specific sense when applied to human relationships, in which case its meaning is closer to consanguinity or genealogy. Family is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence/shared consumption. In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children; as the basic unit for raising children, Anthropologists most classify family organization as matrifocal. However, producing children is not the only function of the family. Different societies classify kinship relations differently and therefore use different systems of kinship terminology – for example some languages distinguish between affinal and consanguine uncles, whereas others have only one word to refer to both a father and his brothers. Kinship terminologies include the terms of address used in different languages or communities for different relatives and the terms of reference used to identify the relationship of these relatives to ego or to each other. Kin terminologies can be either classificatory.
When a descriptive terminology is used, a term refers to only one specific type of relationship, while a classificatory terminology groups many different types of relationships under one term. For example, the word brother in English-speaking societies indicates a son of one's same parent. In many other classificatory kinship terminologies, in contrast, a person's male first cousin may be referred to as brothers; the major patterns of kinship systems that are known which Lewis Henry Morgan identified through kinship terminology in his 1871 work Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family are: Iroquois kinship Crow kinship (an expansion of b
The Syng inkstand is a silver inkstand used during the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the United States Constitution in 1787. It is one of four objects still existing that were present during the Constitutional Convention, along with Independence Hall itself, the Liberty Bell, the chair that George Washington sat in as the Constitutional Convention's presiding officer; the inkstand was made by Philip Syng in 1752 for the provincial assembly of Pennsylvania. It is both a work of art and an important historical artifact, as it was used by such prominent Founding Fathers of the United States as Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, James Madison, the other signers of the founding documents. Desktop inkstands hold other tools that require ink. Ornate versions include a pen holder, an inkpot, a candle to melt sealing wax, a pot similar to a salt or pepper shaker used to pour pounce to aid in the sizing of parchment or vellum.
The Syng inkstand is decorated in late Rococo style and includes a pounce pot, quill holder, inkpot. Syng immigrated to America from Ireland in 1713, he was a renowned silversmith who created fine works in silver and gold for the wealthy families of Philadelphia. He was an associate of Benjamin Franklin and a prominent member of the Philadelphia community who assisted in founding the Library Company of Philadelphia, the American Philosophical Society, the Union Fire Company, the University of Pennsylvania; the Syng inkstand became the property of the State of Pennsylvania and was moved to the state capital in Harrisburg soon after the Constitutional Convention ended. It was returned to the City of Philadelphia in 1876, on the centennial of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, where it became famous, it was displayed in Independence Hall on a desk in front of George Washington's chair. Cracks appeared in the plaster ceiling of Independence Hall in 1922 and stoked fears that the building would collapse, the inkstand was considered such an important artifact that it was removed at the same time that the first floor was cleared of visitors.
The National Park Service acquired the inkstand when it took over maintenance of Independence Hall from the City of Philadelphia. It is now on display in a special case in Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, along with copies of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Declaration of Independence, an 1819 painting by John Trumbull featuring the Syng inkstand
St Clement's Church, Ipswich is a redundant church located in Star Lane, Suffolk. The church is one of twelve medieval churches in Ipswich, six of, declared redundant by the 1970s. In the twenty-first century it was taken over by Ipswich Historic Churches Trust; the oldest parts of the church are 14th century, with additions from the fifteenth century, with substantial additions in the Tudor period to the tower and to the Chancel in 1860 under the guidance of Frederick Barnes. For 500 years its congregation consisted of the families of shipwrights, sailors and merchants. Indeed wool merchants funded the sixteenth century building of the tower. Thomas Eldred, an English merchant and mariner Thomas Cobbold, an English brewer Thomas Slade, an English naval architect buried in the churchyard, 1771