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Kinsley S. Bingham

Kinsley Scott Bingham was a U. S. Representative, a U. S. Senator, the 11th Governor of the State of Michigan. Bingham was born to the farmer family of Calvin and Betsy Bingham in Camillus, New York in Onondaga County, he studied law in Syracuse. In 1833, while still in New York, Bingham married Margaret Warden, who had moved with her brother Robert Warden and family from Scotland. Bingham moved with his wife, in 1833 to Green Oak Township, Michigan where he was admitted to the bar and began a private practice. In 1834, his only child with Margaret, Kinsley W. Bingham, was born and his wife died four days later, he engaged in agricultural pursuits and held a number of local offices including justice of the peace and first judge of the probate court of Livingston County. Bingham became a member of the Michigan State House of Representatives in 1837, was reelected four times and served as speaker of the house in 1838–1839, 1842. In 1839, Bingham married Mary Warden, the younger sister of his first wife, in 1840 their only child was born, James W. Bingham.

In 1846, he was elected as a Democratic Representative from Michigan's 3rd congressional district to the 30th and 31st Congresses, serving from March 4, 1847, to March 4, 1851. He was chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of State in the 31st Congress, he was instrumental in securing approval for building the Beaver Island Head Lighthouse on the south end of Beaver Island in Lake Michigan. He was opposed to the expansion of slavery and was one of minority of Democrats who supported the Wilmot Proviso. Bingham resumed agricultural pursuits, he affiliated himself with the Free Soil Party and was a Republican. In 1854, Bingham was elected as the first Republican Governor of Michigan and was re-elected in 1856, he was known as the farmer-Governor of Michigan and was instrumental in establishing the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan and other educational institutions such as the State Reform School. During his four years in office, a personal liberty law was sanctioned, legislation that regulated the lumber industry was authorized, several new counties and villages were established.

He was a delegate from Michigan to the Republican National Convention in 1856 that nominated John C. Fremont for U. S. President, who lost to Democrat James Buchanan. Bingham was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate in 1858 and served in the 36th and 37th Congresses from March 4, 1859, until his death on October 5, 1861, he was chairman of the Committee on Enrolled Bills in the 37th Congress. He campaigned for the election of U. S. President Abraham Lincoln in 1860, he died in Green Oak while in office and was interred at a private family graveyard in Livingston County. He was reinterred at Old Village Cemetery of Michigan. There are three townships named for him in Michigan: Bingham Township, Clinton County, Michigan Bingham Township, Huron County, Michigan Bingham Township, Leelanau County, Michigan A painting of Bingham now hangs in the Michigan State Capitol. List of United States Congress members who died in office McDaid, William. "Kinsley S. Bingham and the Republican Ideology of Slavery, 1847–1855."

Michigan Historical Review 16: 43–73 "The rise and fall of the Democratic party." Speech of Hon. Kinsley S. Bingham, of Michigan. Delivered in the United States Senate, May 24, 1860. Palmer, Ken. "150 years a governor comes home". Lansing State Journal. Retrieved November 14, 2016. United States Congress. "Kinsley S. Bingham". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Political Graveyard Memorial Library National Governors Association

Cromwellian conquest of Ireland

The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland refers to the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Cromwell invaded Ireland with his New Model Army on behalf of England's Rump Parliament in August 1649. Following the Irish Rebellion of 1641, most of Ireland came under the control of the Irish Catholic Confederation. In early 1649, the Confederates allied with the English Royalists, defeated by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War. By May 1652, Cromwell's Parliamentarian army had defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country—bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. However, guerrilla warfare continued for a further year. Cromwell passed a series of Penal Laws against Roman Catholics and confiscated large amounts of their land; the Parliamentarian reconquest of Ireland was brutal, Cromwell is still a hated figure in Ireland. The extent to which Cromwell, in direct command for the first year of the campaign, was responsible for the atrocities is debated to this day.

Some historians argue that the actions of Cromwell were within the then-accepted rules of war, or were exaggerated or distorted by propagandists. The impact of the war on the Irish population was unquestionably severe, although there is no consensus as to the magnitude of the loss of life; the war resulted in famine, worsened by an outbreak of bubonic plague. Estimates of the drop in the Irish population resulting from the Parliamentarian campaign range from 15 to 83 percent; the Parliamentarians transported about 50,000 people as indentured labourers. Some estimates cover population losses over the course of the Conquest Period only, while others cover the period of the Conquest to 1653 and the period of the Cromwellian Settlement from August 1652 to 1659 together; the English Rump Parliament, victorious in the English Civil War, having executed King Charles in January 1649, had several reasons for sending the New Model Army to Ireland in 1649. The first and most pressing reason was an alliance signed in 1649 between the Irish Confederate Catholics, Charles II, the English Royalists.

This allowed for Royalist troops to be sent to Ireland and put the Irish Confederate Catholic troops under the command of Royalist officers led by James Butler, Earl of Ormonde. Their aim was to restore the monarchy there; this was a threat. Secondly, Parliament had a longstanding commitment to re-conquer Ireland dating back to the Irish Rebellion of 1641. If the Irish Confederates had not allied themselves with the Royalists, it is that the English Parliament would have tried to invade the country to crush Catholic power there, they had sent Parliamentary forces to Ireland throughout the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. They viewed Ireland as part of the territory governed by right by the Kingdom of England and only temporarily out of its control since the Rebellion of 1641. Many Parliamentarians wished to punish the Irish for atrocities against English Protestant settlers during the 1641 Uprising. Furthermore, some Irish towns had acted as bases from which privateers had attacked English shipping throughout the 1640s.

In addition, the English Parliament had a financial imperative to invade Ireland to confiscate land there in order to repay its creditors. The Parliament had raised loans of £10 million under the Adventurers Act to subdue Ireland since 1642, on the basis that its creditors would be repaid with land confiscated from Irish Catholic rebels. To repay these loans, it would be necessary to confiscate such land; the Parliamentarians had internal political reasons to send forces to Ireland. Army mutinies at Banbury and Bishopsgate in April and May 1649 were unsettling the New Model Army, the soldiers' demands would increase if they were left idle. For some Parliamentarians, the war in Ireland was a religious war. Cromwell and much of his army were Puritans who considered all Roman Catholics to be heretics, so for them the conquest was a crusade; the Irish Confederates had been supplied with arms and money by the Papacy and had welcomed the papal legate Pierfrancesco Scarampi and the Papal Nuncio Giovanni Battista Rinuccini in 1643–49.

By the end of the period, known as Confederate Ireland, in 1649 the only remaining Parliamentarian outpost in Ireland was in Dublin, under the command of Colonel Michael Jones. A combined Royalist and Confederate force under the Marquess of Ormonde gathered at Rathmines, south of Dublin, to take the city and deprive the Parliamentarians of a port in which they could land. Jones, launched a surprise attack on the Royalists while they were deploying on 2 August, putting them to flight. Jones claimed to have killed around 4,000 Royalist or Confederate soldiers and taken 2,517 prisoners. Oliver Cromwell called the battle "an astonishing mercy, so great and seasonable that we are like them that dreamed", as it meant that he had a secure port at which he could land his army in Ireland, that he retained the capital city. With Admiral Robert Blake blockading the remaining Royalist fleet under Prince Rupert of the Rhine in Kinsale, Cromwell landed on 15 August with thirty-five ships filled with troops and equipment.

Henry Ireton landed two days with a further seventy-seven ships. Ormonde's troops retreated from around Dublin in disarray, they were badly demoralised by their un

Dharti (2011 film)

Dharti is a 2011 Indian Punjabi political suspense thriller film directed by Navaniat Singh with story and dialogues by Manoj Jha. Dharti was produced by Darshan Singh Grewal, J. S. Kataria and Jimmy Sheirgill, stars Jimmy Sheirgill, Surveen Chawla, Rannvijay Singh, Japji Khera, Prem Chopra, Rahul Dev, Binnu Dhillon and Shavinder Mahal, it was released on 21 April on 22 April 2011 globally. The film was to be made in Hindi but, on much insistence of Shergill, the producers and the directors agreed to make it in Punjabi; the story opens with a headline on a news channel with the breaking news that the CM of Punjab, Gurdial Singh, has been hospitalized with a major heart attack. Using this reason, other political parties are trying to bring down the present government of P. S. D.. For this, Baljit Singh Wadala president of P. S. D. is holding a rally to meet the people. He assures them that soon conditions will return to normal and that their party is always ready to serve people of Punjab. Soon after this he goes to hospital to meet CM who asks him to occupy the vacant seat of Chief Minister which he refuses.

Outside the hospital, journalists question another member of the party, Baldev Singh, regarding the party's next decision. He says that whatever the decision taken by the party will be for the welfare of the people of Punjab. Comes Nachhattar Singh, one of the most popular politicians of the party with Babbar, another member and right-hand of Nachhattar followed by the introduction of Vikramjit Singh Wadala: son of Baljit Singh Wadala and a party member. Comes Squadron Leader J Singh, Jasdeep Singh Wadala a short-tempered ace Air Force pilot whose love interest is Baani daughter of his Senior. Baljit Singh announces; this person would be the next CM candidate for the next elections. Comes Heera Singh, a student union leader, a close friend of Nachhattar Singh, his love interest is Suhani. Nachhattar Singh expects that he will be the Deputy CM. Jasdeep Singh is ordered to go to Punjab for the promotion of the Air Force university, it is revealed that Jasdeep is not in good terms with his father, Baljit Singh Wadala, as Jasdeep had to leave the house to join the Air Force.

He swore not step in the house when his father, ready to establish him as a powerful candidate of P. S. D. as he wanted him to join politics. The father-son relationship is bitter; the media creates tension for who would be the Deputy CM. Vikramjit Singh Wadala is announced as the Deputy CM against the expectation of Nachhattar. Nachhattar leaves the party on being suggested for doing the same by a businessman. Nachhatar was in thirst of power and said whoever would come between him and CM's seat would meet death. Heera Singh feels. Brothers Jasdeep and Vikramjit meet after a long time. After a few days, on the birthday of Jasdeep, Vikram greets him, gives him a gift, asks him to forget everything and to apologise to their father. Jasdeep asks him to have a party at night with him. During the night Jasdeep picks up Vikram from a spot and Vikramjit accompanied him without security cover. Jasdeep asks him. Jasdeep learns that only Vikram's wife Prabhjot and Baldev know that Vikram is out and that their father does not know that Jasdeep is here.

Jasdeep agrees to apologise to his father for sake of his brother. A car crashes into Vikram, killed in this accident. After Vikram's death, the father-son rivalry deepens. Jasdeep meets Nachhattar to convince him to rejoin the party and not leave his father in such a condition, he would be made Deputy CM. Nacchhatar rejoins party and apologises to Baljit Singh. Next Jasdeep learns from Heera that Nacchhatar got Vikram killed in the car accident. Jasdeep apologises his father, his father forgives him. Jasdeep tells Baldev about Nacchhatar's killing of Vikram. Baldev said that he is with Jasdeep and will take care of everything, that intelligence would solve the matter, that the perpetrator would be caught soon. Babbar tells same thing to Jasdeep that Nachhattar got Vikram killed and that he is organising a rally in memory of Vikram. Jasdeep tells this to Baldev who asks him to go to the rally with Nachhattar and to look into the matter. Jasdeep and Nachhattar go to the rally in the same car. At the rally Babbar gets a call and he hurriedly runs toward Nachhattar to protect him from a shot.

A stampede occurs and all politicians are taken to cars by security. This time Jasdeep does not accompany Nachhatar; the media becomes active. Nachhatar becomes the breaking news on every news channel. At the same time, a bomb blast occurs and Nachhatar is killed. Jasdeep goes to meet Babbar, hospitalised due to injury where he learns that Babbar'lied' him about Nachhatar's involvement in Vikram's accident, and that Batra forced him to tell this to him. Jasdeep rushes to meet Batra. Jasdeep asks Batra who got Nachhatar killed: Batra said that he is the same person who got Vikram killed and that the person is from his own home. Jasdeep shares everything with his father, who tells him that in politics it never is what it seems so he should be careful. Jasdeep takes Baldev with him to an empty ground and narrates the story as a tale of a'king'; the truth comes out that it was Baldev behind all incidents, i.e. he was the mastermind behind this story. It was all revenge for not getting the power of Deputy CM since he had been loyal to this party for 20 years.

Followed by arguments, Jasdeep dra

Sacred caves of the Basotho

For thousands of years, a pilgrimage has been made by the Basotho people to a network of sacred caves to communicate with the spiritual world. The caves contain dinosaur footprints and ancient rock paintings; the caves are located between the eastern parts of Lesotho. These sacred caves are described as'the key to religion' in Southern Africa. Caves have been known throughout human existence and culture as isolated spaces perfect for meditation and reflection; the Basotho people traditionally regard caves as a dwelling place for ancestors. The caves are visited by thousands of people to perform spiritual rituals; the Fertility Caves lie outside Clarens in the Free State at the foot of the Maluti Mountains in Lesotho. The Matouleng Cave Heritage site is 18 km away from Clarens; the caves lie below the second largest stone overhang in the Southern Hemisphere. Peripheral to the Matouleng cave is a small cluster of caves, the Badimong caves, as well as other areas regarded as sacred; the caves have no specific spiritual authority, therefore, a combination of two belief systems co-exist in the caves namely Christianity and African traditions.

While many sacred caves exist, the most popular remain the Badimong caves. The caves are used for a variety of purposes: a source of drinking water, source for virgin water, an area to perform religious rituals, an area for cremations and burials, art galleries, discarding ritual utensils and mining of the red clay for ceremonies; the Basotho and other African traditions find water to be an element, ancestrally significant therefore, the streams and pools in the caves play an important role in the ceremonies that occur in the sacred caves. Mount Mautse in the Eastern Free State has been regarded as the'Holy Mountains' since the 1970s, it is believed. These caves are regarded as the'universities for practicing traditional rituals', why many traditional healers are found here. Many traditional healers, who live in the Holy Mountains, believe that they have been sent by their ancestors to heal people. Many of these traditional healers leave their modern careers after being'called' by the ancestors until they have fulfilled their healing duties.

Traditional healers receive their'calling' from ancestors through visions and dreams and are unable to deny the calling. A rejection of the calling could lead to sickness or death. A sangoma once claimed to have healed a 17-year-old boy from the HIV/AIDS in these caves; the traditional healers use water from the herbs from the mountains. People and animals live together in harmony in these caves; the Motouleng caves, meaning'place of beating drums', are located in the mountains of the eastern Free State and Lesotho, between Clarens and Fouriesberg. The large cave was created in a limestone mountain by a rock fall. A small river and pools lie below the cave. There is a fountain at the entrance of Motouleng called'Sediba sa Bophelo', meaning'The Fountain of Life' where people drop coins for good fortune; the cave is a 2 km hike from the nearest farm, located 15 km out of Clarens. Locals go as they please while visitors are required to attend guided tours to ensure respect for the ancestors. Women are required to cover themselves up out of respect.

Badimong caves, meaning ` place of ancestors', is a complex valley with isolated areas. The area lies between Fouriesburg; these areas are believed to be possessed by powerful spirits. Close to these caves is a prominent sacred medicinal clay site called'Nkokomoni', meaning'the swelling place'. Both the Motouleng and Bodimong cave sites are regarded as they contain many forms of symbolism for both the Basotho traditions as well as Christian individuals. People who perform rituals in these caves include herbalists and traditional healers who all aim to treat disease and reduce misfortune, they perform rituals to protect families, homesteads and property. Rituals performed in these sacred locations are regarded as important for the holistic well being of an individual; the caves function to mark the rite of passage for specific occasions including births, marriage and funerals. The caves are used to recognize harvesting times and commemorate unifying events as well as catastrophic events such as war and famine.

These rituals are important as they help define the social makeup of the Basotho communities as they turn'boys to men' and'girls to women'. The areas are open for all people to see, some rituals are done in isolation and privacy as the Basotho community believes they require respect; some of these rituals are profound, therefore people who do not understand the rituals or who are unable to show respect are not permitted to view as their actions or behaviours could anger the ancestors. A documentary on the essence of healing powers was produced in the fertility caves. San rock paintings are found in the walls of the sacred caves; these paintings show. The artwork in the caves is described as having a'spiritual dimension' as the art displays trance experiences, unrealistic appearing animals, other strange figures; the trances were achieved through rhythmic clapping in the caves. The trance is described as a'feeling of transformation into the spiritual realm' where the people have the ability to fight evil spirits with the protection of animal power.

Ancient paintings are still visible, however they are continuously being eroded by natural elements and cattle. Newer symbols written in English are found in the caves. Many of these tell the stories of how HIV/AI


AQtime is a performance profiler and memory/resource debugging toolset developed by SmartBear Software. It is integrated into Microsoft Visual Studio, Visual Studio Test Projects and Embarcadero RAD Studio that allows analyzing the application without leaving the development environment. AQtime is used for multiple optimization tasks to improve memory usage, it includes a set of profilers for analysis of different application aspects. It does sophisticated application performance analysis of function execution time down to the individual source code lines, it tracks performance issues and memory leaks. It analyzes function call order, it monitors code coverage, Windows API compliance and includes other profilers for analyzing more application properties. Support for Windows and. NET compilers. Support for profiling 32- and 64-bit applications. Profiling Java and Silverlight Applications. Profiling scripts. Integration into Microsoft Visual Studio and Embarcadero RAD Studio IDEs. Software Development Jolt Awards presented by Software Development magazine: 2006 Delphi Informant Readers Choice Awards as the Best in the Debugging Tool category: 2004, 2003 asp.netPRO Readers' Choice Awards: 2005 The Best in the.

NET Profiler category. NET Developer's Journal's Readers' Choice Awards: 2004 Software optimization Performance analysis List of performance analysis tools Debugger Memory debugger AQtime page AQtime forum AQtime on Softpedia

Macrotritopus defilippi

Macrotritopus defilippi known as the Lilliput longarm octopus or the Atlantic longarm octopus, is a small species of octopus, a marine cephalopod mollusc of the order Octopoda. This species occurs in the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean, its typical habitat is shallow sandy areas. Its yellowish-brown colouration enables it to blend into its surroundings making it well-camouflaged when stationary. In the Caribbean it has been found that when it moves around, it does so in such a way as to resemble the swimming behaviour of the plate fish, a bottom-dwelling flounder which inhabits the same waters. Macrotritopus defilippi is a small octopus with long arms and a mantle length of up to 90 mm; as is the case in most octopuses, the skin is variable in colour. It is either plain or speckled and matches the colour of its surroundings, the sandy plains on which it lives. Where the substrate includes gravel among the sand, the mottled pattern is larger, there can be small papillae on the skin, some light and dark barring on the arms.

In some circumstances a white leucophore has been observed on the mantle tip. Like other octopuses, this species is able to vary its appearance to match its surroundings; this octopus can bury itself in the substrate without leaving any visual trace of its position. Macrotritopus defilippi has been reported from the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the northern Indian Ocean and the coast of Somalia. Macrotritopus defilippi is well camouflaged on a sandy seabed, but it is a predator and needs to move around in order to feed; when it does this, its camouflage breaks down. Humann and DeLoach reported that Macrotritopus defilippi sometimes swam backwards in a normal octopus-style but that on other occasions, it moved forwards in a flattened position with its arms streaming beside it, making it superficially resemble a flatfish; the octopus swims close to the contours of the sand surface hugging ripples in the sand, so that no shadows are formed. Living on the same sandy plains in the Caribbean as this octopus is a small, bottom-dwelling flounder, the plate fish.

The colour of this fish is variable and resembles the substrate, which makes it well-camouflaged when stationary but more visible when it moves about, at which time it engages in characteristic short bursts of swimming activity. Hanlon, Watson, & Barbosa studied Macrotritopus defilippi in the wild in the Caribbean, consider it to be a mimic of the flounder when it swims. There are similarities in both the speed and duration of bouts of swimming, the style of movement and the posture adopted by the two; the plate fish swims for about 6 seconds and the octopus for 2 seconds and both rest for 2 or 3 seconds before swimming again. Both keep close to the rippled sand contours of the seabed and the octopus keeps its eyes on the upper side of its body, which increases its resemblance to the lefteye flounder. In her study of Abdopus aculeatus, Huffard hypothesized that an octopus benefited from its mimicry of a fish by the fact that potential predators did not attack what they thought was a bony flatfish, too large for their gape whereas a soft-bodied octopus would be more to be attacked.

In the Pacific Ocean there are two species of octopus, Thaumoctopus mimicus and an unnamed species, which are known to mimic flounders when swimming, but Macrotritopus defilippi is the first such species known from the Atlantic Ocean. At one time, unidentified Macrotritopus larvae characterized by having long third arms were known from the Caribbean Sea but the adult form was unknown. Only when a female was raised to maturity in the laboratory was it discovered that they were the larvae of Macrotritopus defilippi; these larvae float with their arms extended and if disturbed, dart off by jet propulsion, sometimes reaching the seabed and seeking a hole in which to hide. They may be pelagic by night and benthic by day, but seem to become less nocturnal as they get older. Photos of Macrotritopus defilippi on Sealife Collection