Royal Canadian Navy
The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces; as of 2017, Canada's navy operates 12 frigates, 4 patrol submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels and 8 unarmed patrol/training vessels, as well as several auxiliary vessels. The Royal Canadian Navy consists of 8,500 Regular Force and 5,100 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 5,300 civilians. Vice-Admiral Ron Lloyd is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and Chief of the Naval Staff. Founded in 1910 as the Naval Service of Canada and given royal sanction on 29 August 1911, the Royal Canadian Navy was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Army to form the unified Canadian Armed Forces in 1968, after which it was known as "Maritime Command" until 2011. In 2011, its historical title of "Royal Canadian Navy" was restored. Over the course of its history, the RCN has served in the First and Second World Wars, the Korean War, the Persian Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan and numerous United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations.
Established following the introduction of the Naval Service Act by Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the Naval Service of Canada was intended as a distinct naval force for Canada, should the need arise, could be placed under British control. The bill received royal assent on 4 May 1910. Equipped with two former Royal Navy vessels, HMCS Niobe and HMCS Rainbow, King George V granted permission for the service to be known as the Royal Canadian Navy on 29 August 1911. During the first years of the First World War, the RCN's six-vessel naval force patrolled both the North American west and east coasts to deter the German naval threat, with a seventh ship, HMCS Shearwater joining the force in 1915. Just before the end of the war in 1918, the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service was established with the purpose of carrying out anti-submarine operations. After the war, the Royal Canadian Navy took over certain responsibilities of the Department of Transport's Marine Service, started to build its fleet, with the first warships designed for the RCN being commissioned in 1932.
At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Navy had 145 officers and 1,674 men. During the Second World War, the Royal Canadian Navy expanded ultimately gaining responsibility for the entire Northwest Atlantic theatre of war. By the end of the war, the RCN had become the fifth-largest navy in the world after the United States Navy, the Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Soviet Navy, with over 900 vessels and 375 combat ships. During the Battle of the Atlantic, the RCN sank 31 U-boats and sank or captured 42 enemy surface vessels, while completing 25,343 merchant crossings; the Navy lost 1,797 sailors in the war. In 1940–41, the Royal Canadian Navy Reserves scheme for training yacht club members developed the first central registry system. From 1950 to 1955, during the Korean War, Canadian destroyers maintained a presence off the Korean peninsula, engaging in shore bombardments and maritime interdiction. During the Cold War, the Navy developed an anti-submarine capability to counter the growing Soviet naval threat.
In the 1960s, the Royal Canadian Navy retired most of its Second World War vessels, further developed its anti-submarine warfare capabilities by acquiring the Sikorsky CH-124 Sea King, pioneered the use of large maritime helicopters on small surface vessels. At that time, Canada was operating an aircraft carrier, HMCS Bonaventure, flying the McDonnell F2H Banshee fighter jet until 1962, as well as various other anti-submarine aircraft. From 1964 through 1968, under the Liberal government of Lester B. Pearson, the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army were amalgamated to form the unified Canadian Forces; this process was overseen by then–Defence Minister Paul Hellyer. The controversial merger resulted in the abolition of the Royal Canadian Navy as a separate legal entity. All personnel and aircraft became part of Maritime Command, an element of the Canadian Armed Forces; the traditional naval uniform was eliminated and all naval personnel were required to wear the new Canadian Armed Forces rifle green uniform, adopted by former Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army personnel.
Ship-borne aircraft continued to be under the command of MARCOM, while shore-based patrol aircraft of the former Royal Canadian Air Force were transferred to MARCOM. In 1975 Air Command was formed and all maritime aircraft were transferred to Air Command's Maritime Air Group; the unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968 was the first time that a nation with a modern military combined its separate naval and air elements into a single service. The 1970s saw the addition of four Iroquois-class destroyers, which were updated to air defence destroyers, in the late 1980s and 1990s the construction of twelve Halifax-class frigates and the purchase of the Victoria-class submarines. In 1990, Canada deployed three warships to support Operation Friction. In the decade, ships were deployed to patrol the Adriatic Sea during the Yugoslav Wars and the Kosovo War. More Maritime Command provided vessels to serve as a part of Operation Apollo and to combat piracy off the coast of Somalia. Following the Official Languages Act enshrinement in 1969, MARCOM instituted the French Language Unit, which constituted a francophone unit with the navy.
The first was HMCS Ottawa. In the 1980s and 1990s, women were accepted into the fleet, with the submarine service the last to allow them, beginning in 2001; some of the c
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
Butterflying is a way of preparing meat, fish, or poultry for cooking by cutting it in two, but leaving the two parts connected. "Butterfly" comes from the resemblance of the cut to the wings of a butterfly. In butchery, butterflying transforms a compact piece of meat into a thinner, larger one; the meat is laid out on a cutting board and cut in half parallel to the board all the way to the other, leaving a small "hinge", used to fold the meat out like a book. This technique is used as an alternative to, or in conjunction with, pounding out the meat with a meat mallet to make it thinner. For leg of lamb, it is followed by boning. Common uses of this technique include creating thin cutlets from chicken breasts for dishes such as chicken piccata, or rendering lamb leg roasts suitable for making roulades, it can be a first step to dicing chicken or slicing it into strips. Because the butterflying technique results in a thinner piece of meat or poultry, it allows for quicker cooking times and more cooking.
Poultry is butterflied. Spatchcocking is butterflying and removing the backbone and the sternum. Removing the sternum allows the bird to be flattened more fully; this is popular for roasting. Butterflying makes poultry easier to pan-broil. A butterfly fillet of fish is a double fillet, with the backbone and other bones removed by splitting the fish down the back or the belly. Butterflying shrimp or lobster tail involves cutting the hard top side, without cutting all the way down to the other, softer side. Accordion cut Food Network picture demo on butterflying a chicken How to spatchcock a chicken, cookthink.com
Herring are forage fish belonging to the family Clupeidae. Herring move in large schools around fishing banks and near the coast; the most abundant and commercially important species belong to the genus Clupea, found in shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, including the Baltic Sea, as well as off the west coast of South America. Three species of Clupea are recognised, provide about 90% of all herrings captured in fisheries. Most abundant of all is the Atlantic herring. Fishes called herring are found in the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal. Herring played a pivotal role in the history of marine fisheries in Europe, early in the 20th century, their study was fundamental to the evolution of fisheries science; these oily fish have a long history as an important food fish, are salted, smoked, or pickled. A number of different species, most belonging to the family Clupeidae, are referred to as herrings; the origins of the term "herring" is somewhat unclear, though it may derive from the Old High German heri meaning a "host, multitude", in reference to the large schools they form.
The type genus of the herring family Clupeidae is Clupea. Clupea contains three species: the Atlantic herring found in the north Atlantic, the Pacific herring found in the north Pacific, the Araucanian herring found off the coast of Chile. Subspecific divisions have been suggested for both the Atlantic and Pacific herrings, but their biological basis remains unclear. In addition, a number of related species, all in the Clupeidae, are referred to as herrings; the table below includes those members of the family Clupeidae referred to by FishBase as herrings which have been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. A number of other species are called herrings, which may be related to clupeids or just share some characteristics of herrings. Just which of these species are called herrings can vary with locality, so what might be called a herring in one locality might be called something else in another locality; some examples: The species of Clupea belong to the larger family Clupeidae, which comprises some 200 species that share similar features.
These silvery-coloured fish have a single dorsal fin, soft, without spines. They have a protruding lower jaw, their size varies between subspecies: the Baltic herring is small, 14 to 18 cm. At least one stock of Atlantic herring spawns in every month of the year; each spawns at place. Greenland populations spawn in 0–5 m of water, while North Sea herrings spawn at down to 200 m in autumn. Eggs are laid on the sea bed, on rock, gravel, sand or beds of algae. Females may deposit from 20,000 to 40,000 eggs, according to age and size, averaging about 30,000. In sexually mature herring, the genital organs grow before spawning, reaching about one-fifth of its total weight; the eggs sink to the bottom, where they stick in layers or clumps to gravel, seaweed, or stones, by means of their mucous coating, or to any other objects on which they chance to settle. If the egg layers are too thick they suffer from oxygen depletion and die, entangled in a maze of mucus, they need substantial water microturbulence provided by wave action or coastal currents.
Survival is highest in crevices and behind solid structures, because predators feast on exposed eggs. The individual eggs are 1 to 1.4 mm in diameter, depending on the size of the parent fish and on the local race. Incubation time is about 40 days at 3 °C, 15 days at 7 °C, or 11 days at 10 °C. Eggs die at temperatures above 19 °C; the larvae are 5 to 6 mm long at hatching, with a small yolk sac, absorbed by the time the larvae reach 10 mm. Only the eyes are well pigmented; the rest of the body is nearly transparent invisible under water and in natural lighting conditions. The dorsal fin forms at 15 to 17 mm, the anal fin at about 30 mm —the ventral fins are visible and the tail becomes well forked at 30 to 35 mm — at about 40 mm, the larva begins to look like a herring; the larvae are slender and can be distinguished from all other young fish of their range by the location of the vent, which lies close to the base of the tail, but distinguishing clupeoids one from another in their early stages requires critical examination telling herring from sprats.
At one year, they are about 10 cm long, they first spawn at three years. Herrings consume copepods, arrow worms, pelagic amphipods and krill in the pelagic zone. Conversely, they are a central prey forage fish for higher trophic levels; the reasons for this success is still enigmatic. Herring feed on phytoplankton, as they mature, they start to consume larger organisms, they feed on zooplankton, tiny animals found in oceanic surface waters, small fish and fish larvae. Copepods and other tiny crustaceans are the most common zooplankton eaten by herring. During daylight, herring stay in the safety of deep water, feeding at the surface only at night when the chance of being seen by predators is less, they swim along with their mouths open, fi
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family include trout, char and whitefish. Salmon are native to tributaries of the North Pacific Ocean. Many species of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are intensively farmed in many parts of the world. Salmon are anadromous: they hatch in fresh water, migrate to the ocean return to fresh water to reproduce. However, populations of several species are restricted to fresh water through their lives. Folklore has it. Tracking studies have shown this to be true. A portion of a returning salmon run may spawn in different freshwater systems. Homing behavior has been shown to depend on olfactory memory. Salmon date back to the Neogene; the term "salmon" comes from the Latin salmo, which in turn might have originated from salire, meaning "to leap". The nine commercially important species of salmon occur in two genera.
The genus Salmo contains the Atlantic salmon, found in the north Atlantic, as well as many species named trout. The genus Oncorhynchus contains eight species which occur only in the North Pacific; as a group, these are known as Pacific salmon. Chinook salmon have been introduced in New Patagonia. Coho, freshwater sockeye, Atlantic salmon have been established in Patagonia, as well. † Both the Salmo and Oncorhynchus genera contain a number of species referred to as trout. Within Salmo, additional minor taxa have been called salmon in English, i.e. the Adriatic salmon and Black Sea salmon. The steelhead anadromous form of the rainbow trout migrates to sea, but it is not termed "salmon". A number of other species have common names which refer to them as being salmon. Of those listed below, the Danube salmon or huchen is a large freshwater salmonid related to the salmon above, but others are marine fishes of the unrelated Perciformes order: Eosalmo driftwoodensis, the oldest known salmon in the fossil record, helps scientists figure how the different species of salmon diverged from a common ancestor.
The British Columbia salmon fossil provides evidence that the divergence between Pacific and Atlantic salmon had not yet occurred 40 million years ago. Both the fossil record and analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggest the divergence occurred by 10 to 20 million years ago; this independent evidence from DNA analysis and the fossil record rejects the glacial theory of salmon divergence. Atlantic salmon reproduce in northern rivers on both coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. Landlocked salmon live in a number of lakes in eastern North America and in Northern Europe, for instance in lakes Sebago, Ladoga, Saimaa, Vänern, Winnipesaukee, they are not a different species from the Atlantic salmon, but have independently evolved a non-migratory life cycle, which they maintain when they could access the ocean. Chinook salmon are known in the United States as king salmon or blackmouth salmon, as spring salmon in British Columbia. Chinook are the largest of all Pacific salmon exceeding 14 kg; the name tyee is used in British Columbia to refer to Chinook over 30 pounds, in the Columbia River watershed large Chinook were once referred to as June hogs.
Chinook salmon are known to range as far north as the Mackenzie River and Kugluktuk in the central Canadian arctic, as far south as the Central California coast. Chum salmon are known as dog, keta, or calico salmon in some parts of the US; this species has the widest geographic range of the Pacific species: south to the Sacramento River in California in the eastern Pacific and the island of Kyūshū in the Sea of Japan in the western Pacific. Coho salmon are known in the US as silver salmon; this species is found throughout the coastal waters of Alaska and British Columbia and as far south as Central California. It is now known to occur, albeit infrequently, in the Mackenzie River. Masu salmon or cherry salmon are found only in the western Pacific Ocean in Japan and Russia. A land-locked subspecies known as the Taiwanese salmon or Formosan salmon is found in central Taiwan's Chi Chia Wan Stream. Pink salmon, known as humpies in southeast and southwest Alaska, are found from northern California and Korea, throughout the northern Pacific, from the Mackenzie River in Canada to the Lena River in Siberia in shorter coastal streams.
It is the smallest of the Pacific species, with an average weight of 1.6 to 1.8 kg. Sockeye salmon are known in the US as red salmon; this lake-rearing species is found south as far as the Klamath River in California in the eastern Pacific and northern Hokkaidō island in Japan in the western Pacific and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west. Although most adult Pacific salmon feed on small fish and squid, sockeye feed on plankton they filter through gill rakers. Kokanee salmon are the land-locked form of sockeye salmon. Danube salmon, or huchen, are the largest permanent freshwater salmonid species. Salmon eggs are laid in freshwater streams at high latitudes; the eggs hatch into alevin or sac fry
Bloaters are a type of whole cold-smoked herring. Bloaters are "salted and smoked without gutting, giving a characteristic gamey flavour" and are associated with Great Yarmouth, England. Popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the food is now described as rare. Bloaters are sometimes called Yarmouth bloater, or, jokingly, as a Yarmouth capon, two-eyed steak, or Billingsgate pheasant. Bloaters are distinct from kippers in that bloaters are cured whole herring, while kippers are split smoked herring. Additionally, while the bloater is associated with England, kippers are associated with Scotland and the Isle of Man. Bloaters are "salted less and smoked for a shorter time" while kippers are "lightly salted and smoked overnight". According to George Orwell in The Road to Wigan Pier, "The Emperor Charles V is said to have erected a statue to the inventor of bloaters." They are given the name "bloated" in preparation. Buckling List of smoked foods
A red herring is something that misleads or distracts from a relevant or important question. It may be either a logical fallacy or a literary device that leads readers or audiences toward a false conclusion. A red herring may be used intentionally, as in mystery fiction or as part of rhetorical strategies, or may be used in argumentation inadvertently; the term was popularized in 1807 by English polemicist William Cobbett, who told a story of having used a kipper to divert hounds from chasing a hare. As an informal fallacy, the red herring falls into a broad class of relevance fallacies. Unlike the straw man, premised on a distortion of the other party's position, the red herring is a plausible, though irrelevant, diversionary tactic. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a red herring may be unintentional; the expression is used to assert that an argument is not relevant to the issue being discussed. For example, "I think. I recommend you support this because we are in a budget crisis, we do not want our salaries affected."
The second sentence, though used to support the first sentence, does not address that topic. In fiction and non-fiction a red herring may be intentionally used by the writer to plant a false clue that leads readers or audiences towards a false conclusion. For example, the character of Bishop Aringarosa in Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code is presented for most of the novel as if he is at the centre of the church's conspiracies, but is revealed to have been innocently duped by the true antagonist of the story; the character's name is a loose Italian translation of "red herring". A red herring is used in legal studies and exam problems to mislead and distract students from reaching a correct conclusion about a legal issue as a device that tests students' comprehension of underlying law and their ability to properly discern material factual circumstances. In a literal sense, there is no such fish as a "red herring"; this process makes the fish pungent smelling and, with strong enough brine, turns its flesh reddish.
In its literal sense as a cured kipper, the term can be dated to the mid-13th century, in the poem The Treatise by Walter of Bibbesworth: "He eteþ no ffyssh But heryng red."Prior to 2008, the figurative sense of "red herring" was thought to originate from a supposed technique of training young scent hounds. There are variations of the story, but according to one version, the pungent red herring would be dragged along a trail until a puppy learned to follow the scent; when the dog was being trained to follow the faint odour of a fox or a badger, the trainer would drag a red herring perpendicular to the animal's trail to confuse the dog. The dog learned to follow the original scent rather than the stronger scent. A variation of this story is given, without mention of its use in training, in The Macmillan Book of Proverbs and Famous Phrases, with the earliest use cited being from W. F. Butler's Life of Napier, published in 1849. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable gives the full phrase as "Drawing a red herring across the path", an idiom meaning "to divert attention from the main question by some side issue".
Another variation of the dog story is given by Robert Hendrickson who says escaping convicts used the pungent fish to throw off hounds in pursuit. According to a pair of articles by Professor Gerald Cohen and Robert Scott Ross published in Comments on Etymology, supported by etymologist Michael Quinion and accepted by the Oxford English Dictionary, the idiom did not originate from a hunting practice. Ross researched the origin of the story and found the earliest reference to using herrings for training animals was in a tract on horsemanship published in 1697 by Gerland Langbaine. Langbaine recommended a method of training horses by dragging the carcass of a cat or fox so that the horse would be accustomed to following the chaos of a hunting party, he says if a dead animal is not available, a red herring would do as a substitute. This recommendation was misunderstood by Nicholas Cox, published in the notes of another book around the same time, who said it should be used to train hounds. Either way, the herring was not used to distract the hounds or horses from a trail, rather to guide them along it.
The earliest reference to using herring for distracting hounds is an article published on 14 February 1807 by radical journalist William Cobbett in his polemical periodical Political Register. According to Cohen and Ross, accepted by the OED, this is the origin of the figurative meaning of red herring. In the piece, William Cobbett critiques the English press, which had mistakenly reported Napoleon's defeat. Cobbett recounted that he had once used a red herring to deflect hounds in pursuit of a hare, adding "It was a mere transitory effect of the political red-herring. Quinion concludes: "This story, extended repetition of it in 1833, was enough to get the figurative sense of red herring into the minds of his readers also with the false idea that it came from some real practice of huntsmen." Although Cobbett popularized the figurative usage, he was