The Senior Bowl is a post-season college football all-star game played each January in Mobile, which showcases the best NFL Draft prospects of those players who have completed their college eligibility. First played in 1950 in Jacksonville, the game moved to Mobile's Ladd–Peebles Stadium the next year. Produced by the non-profit Mobile Arts & Sports Association, the game is a charitable fund-raiser benefiting various local and regional organizations with over US$5.9 million in donations over its history. In 2007, telecast of the game moved from ESPN to NFL Network. In 2013, Reese's took starting with the 2014 game. In January 2018, Reese's announced. Two teams, representing the North and the South, are coached by select coaching staff from two NFL teams. In recent years, the coaching staffs have come from teams who finished near the bottom of the league standings, but whose coaches were not subsequently terminated. Organizers stipulate a number of specific rules for the game, some of which are intended to reduce the chance of injury, others that simplify what the teams need to practice and prepare for.
The week-long practice that precedes the game is attended by key NFL personnel, who oversee the players as possible prospects for pro football. At one point the Senior Bowl was the first chance its participants had to receive pay for participation in an athletic event; this was one reason that participation was limited to seniors whose eligibility for further participation in collegiate football had expired, the game was their first exposure to the different professional rules. Players who wished to participate in collegiate spring sports had to avoid participation in the Senior Bowl; the significance of all of this has waned in recent years as there has been some lessening of the former strict separation of professional and amateur athletes. Athletes sometimes decline invitations to participate in the Senior Bowl, opting instead to prepare for the NFL scouting combine or their colleges' pro day. In 2013, two players with a year of college football eligibility remaining, but who had graduated, became the first "fourth-year juniors" to be granted clearance to play in the Senior Bowl.
The game has been played on a Saturday in January, with the exception of 1976, when it was held on a Sunday. The scheduling date within January has varied – the earliest playing has been January 3, while the latest playing has been January 30. Since 1967, it has been traditionally set for the week before the NFL's Super Bowl, it is scheduled as the final game of the college football season, but for a period during the 1980s and 1990s, it was the next-to-the-last game, followed a week by either the Hula Bowl or the Gridiron Classic, both of which are now defunct. From 2007 through 2011, in 2013, the Senior Bowl was again the next-to-the-last game, followed by the Texas vs; the Nation Game a week later. The single-season record for number of players sent to the Senior Bowl from one school is 10 by Alabama in 1987, followed by nine sent by Auburn in 1988 and Southern California in 2008. All-time series: South; this was confusing to some, as the game occurred well before players had been selected by teams in the NFL draft.
In 1994, the designations were reverted to the traditional North vs. South format; the first game played in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1950. All subsequent games have been played in Mobile, Alabama. Source: The following team was selected by fan voting before the 1999 game: Established in 1987, the Senior Bowl Hall of Fame seeks to pay tribute to the many outstanding former Senior Bowl players who have made lasting contributions to the game of football; the Senior Bowl Hall of Fame allows enshrinement to former coaches and other individuals whose efforts helped the Senior Bowl. 1988 – Joe Greene, Lee Roy Jordan, Steve Largent, Joe Namath, Walter Payton, Pat Sullivan, Jim Taylor, Travis Tidwell 1989 – Ed Jones, Ozzie Newsome, John Stallworth, Gene Upshaw, Jack Youngblood 1990 – Paul Brown, Tucker Frederickson, Jerry Kramer, Neil Lomax, Wellington Mara, Finley McRae, Jack Pardee, Rea Scheussler 1991 – Morten Andersen, James Brooks, Dave Butz, Weeb Ewbank, Doug Williams 1992 – Franco Harris, Mike Holovak, Sam Huff, Dan Marino, Don Shula, Pat Swilling 1993 – Cornelius Bennett, Bear Bryant, Ralph Jordan, Tom Landry, Marty Schottenheimer, Lynn Swann 1994 – Robert Brazile, Rickey Jackson, Mark Rypien, Jim Simpson 1995 – Bob Baumhower, Pat Dye, Bo Jackson, Gene Washington 1996 – James Lofton, Dick Steinberg, Kellen Winslow 1997 – Bob Hayes, Sterling Sharpe, Doak Walker 1998 – Jim McMahon, Ray Nitschke, Thurman Thomas 1999 – Tom Banks, Dale Carter, Paul Krause, Albert Lewis, Randall McDaniel, Art Monk, E. B.
Peebles, Jr. Derrick Thomas, Roger Wehrli 2000 – Hanford Dixon, Brett Favre, Chuck Howley 2001 – William Andrews, Ron Jaworski, Eddie Robinson 2002 – Todd Christensen, Bert Jones, Steve McNair 2003 – Terry Beasley, Jeremiah Castille, Ted Hendricks 2004 – Derrick Brooks, Christian Okoye, Richard Todd 2005 – Larry Allen, Al Del Greco, Ray Perkins 2006 – Curtis Martin, Tony Nathan, Michael Strahan 2007 – E. J. Junior, Jake Plummer, Hines Ward 2008 – Dean Kleinschmidt, Kevin Mawae, Brian Url
League Championship Series Most Valuable Player Award
The League Championship Series Most Valuable Player award is given in each of the two annual League Championship Series, for the American and National Leagues, to the player deemed to have the most impact on his team's performance. The award has been presented in the National League since 1977, in the American League since 1980. Dusty Baker won the inaugural award in 1977 with the Los Angeles Dodgers, Frank White won the first American League award in 1980 with the Kansas City Royals; the eight Hall of Famers to win LCS MVPs include Roberto Alomar, George Brett, Dennis Eckersley, Rickey Henderson, Kirby Puckett, Ozzie Smith, Willie Stargell, John Smoltz. Three players have won the award twice: Steve Garvey, Dave Stewart, Orel Hershiser. Incidentally, all three of these players won their two awards with two different teams. Seven players have gone on to win the World Series MVP Award in the same season in which they won the LCS MVP—all of them in the National League. Three players have won while playing for the losing team in the series: Fred Lynn played for the 1982 California Angels.
Two players have shared the award in the same year three times, all in the National League. Garvey and Albert Pujols hit four home runs in their winning series—Garvey in his first win. Adam Kennedy won the 2002 ALCS MVP for hitting 3 home runs in 5 games. David Ortiz had 11 runs batted in during the 2004 ALCS and Iván Rodríguez had 10 during the 2003 NLCS—the only two players to reach double-digit RBI in the series in the history of the award. From the pitcher's mound, Steve Avery threw 161⁄3 innings without giving up a run in the 1991 NLCS, John Smoltz amassed 19 strikeouts the following year. Liván Hernández won the 1997 NLCS MVP after winning his only start and earning a win out of the bullpen in relief. Daniel Murphy won the 2015 NLCS MVP after hitting home runs in six consecutive games, setting a major league record. Liván Hernández and his half-brother Orlando Hernández are the only family pair to have won the award; the only rookies to have won the award are Mike Boddicker, Liván Hernández, Michael Wacha.
General"Post-Season Awards & All-Star Game MVP Award Winners". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 5, 2009. Inline citations Lubbers, Jeff. "A New Way to Select Series MVPs". YardBarker.com. Baseball Daily Digest. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved 2011-10-30. Playoff and World Series Stats at Baseball-Reference
Kirk Gibson's 1988 World Series home run
Kirk Gibson's 1988 World Series home run occurred in Game 1 of the 1988 World Series, on October 15, 1988, at Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles. Gibson, pinch hitting for the Los Angeles Dodgers in the bottom of the ninth inning, with injuries to both legs, hit a two-run walk-off home run off the Oakland Athletics' Dennis Eckersley that won Game 1 for the Dodgers by a score of 5–4. After winning the National League West division, the Dodgers were considered the underdogs throughout the 1988 postseason, first to the New York Mets in the NLCS to the A's in the World Series. Gibson, not expected to play due to injuries in both legs sustained during the NLCS, was inserted as a pinch hitter with the Dodgers trailing 4–3 with two outs and the tying run at first base in the bottom of the ninth inning. Gibson's home run—his only plate appearance of the series—helped the Dodgers defeat the A's, 4 games to 1, securing their sixth World Series title; the play has since become legendary in the baseball world, is regarded as one of the greatest home runs of all time.
It was voted the "greatest moment in L. A. sports history" in a 1995 poll. Many of the images associated with the home run Gibson pumping his fist while circling the bases, are shown in classic highlight reels accompanied by Vin Scully or Jack Buck's call. Though not related to his World Series home run, Gibson would be named the 1988 NL MVP, he declined both invitations. The Dodgers signed outfielder Kirk Gibson as a free agent during the 1988 offseason. Gibson, who played the previous nine seasons with the Detroit Tigers became the Dodgers' de facto leader both on the field and off. On the field, Gibson led the team with 31 stolen bases; the Dodgers, who had only finished 4th in the National League West in 1987 with a 73–89 record, led the NL West division standings from late May until the end of the season winning the division title with a record of 94–67, seven games ahead of the second-place Cincinnati Reds. One reason why the Dodgers were considered underdogs throughout the postseason was that they did not finish the regular season ranked in the top five of any major offensive statistical category.
However, they were strengthened by an excellent starting rotation led by ace Orel Hershiser and backed up by Tim Belcher, John Tudor and Tim Leary. They had an outstanding bullpen that included Jay Howell, Jesse Orosco and Alejandro Peña, their opponent in the National League Championship Series was the New York Mets, who had compiled a more impressive 100–60 regular season record, had won 10 of their 11 regular-season meetings with the Dodgers. The NLCS was a close contest given the outcomes of the two teams' regular season meetings. Gibson's heroics in the series included an improbable catch on wet grass in Game 3 and decisive home runs in Games 4 and 5; the series went to a deciding Game 7, which the Dodgers won in stunning fashion on the back of Hershiser's 5 hit shutout to earn their first World Series trip since 1981. Gibson injured his left hamstring while stealing second base in Game 5 and his right knee while sliding into second base in Game 7. After defeating the Mets, the Dodgers faced the Oakland Athletics in the World Series.
Oakland had compiled a 104–58 regular season record, boasted a powerful lineup led by sluggers Jose Canseco and Mark McGwire, complemented by the likes of Dave Henderson, Dave Parker and Don Baylor. The A's, who boasted 20 game winner Dave Stewart and closer Dennis Eckersley who had saved 45 games during the regular season, had accounted for Boston in the ALCS, sweeping the Red Sox 4–0. Gibson injured both legs during the NLCS, therefore did not start Game 1. Los Angeles took an early lead on an improbable two-run home run by Mickey Hatcher in the first inning; the next inning, Canseco hit a grand slam to give Oakland a two-run lead. Oakland's lead was cut to one run when Mike Scioscia hit an RBI single in the sixth inning that scored Mike Marshall. Unknown to the fans and the media at the time, Gibson was watching the game on television while undergoing physical therapy in the Dodgers' clubhouse. At some point during the game, television cameras scanned the Dodgers dugout and commentator Vin Scully, working for NBC for the 1988 postseason, observed that Gibson was "nowhere to be found".
This spurred Gibson to tell Dodgers manager Tommy Lasorda. Gibson returned to the batting cage in the clubhouse to take practice swings. With a one-run lead, Oakland closer Dennis Eckersley, who led the AL with 45 saves during the regular season, was brought in to close out the game and seal the win for starter Dave Stewart. Eckersley got Scioscia to pop out to shortstop and struck out Jeff Hamilton. Left-handed pinch hitter Mike Davis followed. Not wanting the A's to realize that Gibson was available, Lasorda sent Dave Anderson to the on-deck circle during Davis' plate appearance. According to Lasorda, A's catcher Ron Hassey got Eckersley's attention and pointed at Anderson on-deck; the popular story is that Eckersley pitched around Davis because the A's thought that the light-hitting Anderson was the next batter. Hassey vehemently denied that the A's pitched to Davis because Anderson was on deck: "Why would we pitch around Davis when we have two outs? You don't pitch around a guy with two outs to face ano
Dennis Lee Eckersley, nicknamed "Eck", is an American former professional baseball pitcher. Between 1975 and 1998, he pitched in Major League Baseball for the Cleveland Indians, Boston Red Sox, Chicago Cubs, Oakland Athletics, St. Louis Cardinals. Eckersley had success as a starter, but gained his greatest fame as a closer, becoming the first of two pitchers in MLB history to have both a 20-win season and a 50-save season in a career, he is the pitcher who gave up a dramatic walk-off home run to the injured Kirk Gibson in Game 1 of the 1988 World Series. Eckersley was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility, he works with New England Sports Network as a part-time color commentator for Red Sox broadcasts, is a game analyst for Turner Sports for their Sunday MLB Games and MLB Post Season coverage on TBS. Eckersley grew up in Fremont, rooting for both the San Francisco Giants and the Oakland Athletics. Two of his boyhood heroes were the Giants' Willie Mays and Juan Marichal, he adopted Marichal's high leg kick pitching delivery.
He was a quarterback at Washington High School in Fremont, California until his senior year, when he gave up football to protect his throwing arm from injury. He won 29 games as a pitcher at Washington, throwing a 90 miles per a screwball; the Cleveland Indians selected Eckersley in the third round of the 1972 MLB draft. He made his MLB debut on April 12, 1975, he was the American League Rookie Pitcher of the Year in 1975, compiling a 13–7 win-loss record and 2.60 Earned run average. His unstyled, long hair and live fastball made him an instant and identifiable fan favorite. Eckersley pitched reliably over three seasons with the Indians. On May 30, 1977, Eckersley no-hit the California Angels 1-0 at Cleveland Stadium, he struck out 12 batters and only allowed two to reach base, Tony Solaita on a walk in the first inning and Bobby Bonds on a third strike, a wild pitch. He earned his first All-Star Game selection that year and finished the season with a 14-13 win-loss record; the Indians traded Eckersley and Fred Kendall to the Boston Red Sox for Rick Wise, Mike Paxton, Bo Díaz, Ted Cox on March 30, 1978.
Over the next two seasons, Eckersley won a career-high 20 games in 1978 and 17 games in 1979, with a 2.99 ERA in each year. However, during the remainder of his tenure with Boston, from 1980 to 1984, Eckersley pitched poorly, his fastball had lost some steam. He developed a great slider. On May 25, 1984, the Red Sox traded Eckersley with Mike Brumley to the Chicago Cubs for Bill Buckner, one of several mid-season deals that helped the Cubs to their first postseason appearance since 1945. Eckersley performed poorly in his sole start for the Cubs in their NL Championship Series with the San Diego Padres. Eckersley remained with the Cubs in 1985. Eckersley's performance deteriorated in 1986, when he posted a 6–11 record with a 4.57 ERA. After the season, he checked himself into a rehabilitation clinic to treat alcoholism. Eckersley noted in Pluto's book that he realized the problem he had after family members videotaped him while drunk and played the tape back for him the next day. During his Hall of Fame speech he recalled that time in his life, saying "I was spiraling out of control personally.
I knew. With the grace of God, I got sober and I saved my life." Eckersley was traded again on April 3, 1987 to the Oakland Athletics, where manager Tony La Russa intended to use him as a set-up pitcher or long reliever. Indeed, Eckersley started two games with the A's before an injury to then-closer Jay Howell opened the door for Eckersley to move into the closer's role, he saved 16 games in 1987 and established himself as a dominant closer in 1988 by recording a league-leading 45 saves. Eckersley recorded 4 saves against the Red Sox in the regular season, He dominated once more by recording saves in all four games as the A's swept the Red Sox in the 1988 ALCS. but he found himself on the wrong end of Kirk Gibson's 1988 World Series home run as the A's lost to the Dodgers in 5 games. In the 1989 World Series he secured the victory in Game Two, earned the save in the final game of the Series, as the A's swept the San Francisco Giants in four games. Eckersley was the most dominant closer in the game from 1988 to 1992, finishing first in the A.
L. in saves twice, second two other times, third once. He saved 220 games during the five years and never posted an ERA higher than 2.96. He gave up five earned runs in the entire 1990 season, resulting in a microscopic 0.61 ERA. Eckersley's control, which had always been above average when he was not otherwise pitching well, became his trademark. In his 1990 season, Eckersley became the first relief pitcher in baseball history to have more saves than baserunners allowed. In a statistical anomaly, he had the same WHIP and ERA: both were 0.614. He was the American League's Cy Young Award winner and the American League's Most Valuable Player in 1992, a season in which he posted 51 saves. Only two relievers had accomplished the double feat: Rollie Fingers in 1981 and Willie Hernández in 1984. Since Eckersley, one other reliever, Éric Gagné, has won Cy Young honors (Gagné won the National Leag
1990 Major League Baseball season
The 1990 Major League Baseball season saw the Cincinnati Reds upset the favored Oakland Athletics in the World Series, for their first title since 1976. Baseball Hall of Fame Joe Morgan Jim Palmer Most Valuable Player Rickey Henderson, Oakland Athletics Barry Bonds, Pittsburgh Pirates Cy Young Award Bob Welch, Oakland Athletics Doug Drabek, Pittsburgh Pirates Rookie of the Year Sandy Alomar, Jr. Cleveland Indians David Justice, Atlanta Braves Manager of the Year Award Jeff Torborg, Chicago White Sox Jim Leyland, Pittsburgh Pirates Gold Glove Award Mark McGwire Harold Reynolds Kelly Gruber Ozzie Guillén Gary Pettis Ellis Burks Ken Griffey Jr. Sandy Alomar Jr. Mike Boddicker World Series: Cincinnati Reds over Oakland Athletics. February – The 1990 Major League Baseball lockout begins, it lasts 32 days, as a result wipes out all of spring training and pushes Opening Day back a week to April 9. In addition, the 1990 season has to be extended by three days in order to accommodate the normal 162-game schedule.
April 14 – CBS begins broadcasting Major League Baseball games. April 15 - Sunday Night Baseball debuts on ESPN. April 20 – After retiring the first 26 Oakland Athletics batters, Brian Holman loses a perfect game when Ken Phelps hits a home run in an eventual 6–1 Seattle Mariners win. May 22 – Andre Dawson of the Chicago Cubs is intentionally walked by Cincinnati Reds' pitching five times, he is the first player to do so in Major League history. June 6 – The highest-profile managerial firing of 1990 season happens when the New York Yankees fire Bucky Dent before a game against their rivals at Fenway Park, where he hit his famous three-run home run in a one-game playoff game in 1978, making Fenway Park the scene of his greatest moment as a player and worst moment as manager. June 11 – Nolan Ryan pitches the sixth no-hitter of his career by defeating the Oakland Athletics in Oakland, 5–0. June 14 – It is announced that the National League will be expanding by two teams for the 1993 season. June 29 – For the first time in major league history, two no-hitters are thrown on the same day in both leagues.
Dave Stewart of the Oakland Athletics pitches a 5–0 no-hitter against his future team, the Toronto Blue Jays, at SkyDome. Hours Dodger pitcher Fernando Valenzuela no-hits the St. Louis Cardinals at Dodger Stadium, 6–0. July 1 – While no longer recognized as such, the New York Yankees' Andy Hawkins pitches a no-hitter at old Comiskey Park; however and errors lead to four unearned runs as the Chicago White Sox win 4–0. July 10 – Six American League pitchers combine for a two-hitter and a 2–0 victory over the National League in a rain-delayed All-Star Game at Wrigley Field in Chicago. Texas Rangers second baseman Julio Franco drives in both runs in the seventh inning and is named MVP. July 11 – The Chicago White Sox host Major League Baseball's first-ever Turn Back the Clock Day game against the Milwaukee Brewers; the White Sox wear modified versions of the uniforms worn in 1917, the year of their most recent World Series at the time. The promotion is aimed at celebrating Comiskey Park's final season.
Ballpark ushers and grounds crew wear uniforms from the time period and some use megaphones to announce lineups. Ticket prices for the contest were as low as $.50. The White Sox fall 12–9 to the Brewers in 13 innings. July 12 – Barry Bonds hits his 100th career home run. July 17 – The Minnesota Twins turn two triple plays in a single game against the Boston Red Sox, yet still lose the game 1–0 on an unearned run. July 31 – Nolan Ryan of the Texas Rangers earns his 300th career win, an 11–3 pounding of the Milwaukee Brewers. August 31 – Ken Griffey and his son Ken Griffey, Jr. start for the Seattle Mariners in a game against the Kansas City Royals. It marks the first time a father and son have played in the same Major League game. September 2 – After coming close on numerous occasions, Dave Stieb of the Toronto Blue Jays hurls his team's first no-hitter, blanking the Cleveland Indians 3–0 at Cleveland Stadium. September 3 – Reliever Bobby Thigpen sets a major league record with his 47th save in a 4–2 Chicago White Sox victory over the Kansas City Royals.
The previous record was set by Dave Righetti of the New York Yankees in 1986. September 14 – Ken Griffey and Ken Griffey, Jr. hit back-to-back home runs for the Seattle Mariners in a 7–5 loss to the California Angels. Pitcher Kirk McCaskill gives up the historic home runs. September 15 – Bobby Thigpen of the Chicago White Sox saves his fiftieth game, becoming the first pitcher to reach that mark; the White Sox defeat the Boston Red Sox 7–5. September 22 – Andre Dawson of the Chicago Cubs steals his 300th base in an 11–5 loss to the New York Mets, becoming only the second player in major league history with 300 home runs, 300 steals, 2,000 hits. Willie Mays is the first, though they will be joined by Barry Bonds. September 25 – The Oakland Athletics secure their third straight American League West championship with a 5–0 shutout of the Royals in Kansas City; the A's would finish with the best record in baseball at 103–59, the third consecutive year they have done so. September 29 – While waiting through a rain delay, the Cincinnati Reds watch the Los Angeles Dodgers lose to th
Michigan State University
Michigan State University is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan. MSU was founded in 1855 and served as a model for land-grant universities created under the Morrill Act of 1862; the university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country's first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, MSU is one of the largest universities in the United States and has 563,000 living alumni worldwide. U. S. News & World Report ranks many of its graduate programs among the best in the nation, including African history, criminology and organizational psychology, educational psychology and secondary education, osteopathic medicine, human medicine, nuclear physics, rehabilitation counseling, supply chain/logistics, veterinary medicine. MSU pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, communication sciences.
Michigan State is a member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of 62 leading research universities in North America. The university's campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, the country's largest residence hall system; the Michigan State Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, a total of six national championships. Spartans men's basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season, including in 2019 with a victory over Duke. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007; the Michigan Constitution of 1850 called for the creation of an "agricultural school," though it was not until February 12, 1855, that Michigan Governor Kinsley S. Bingham signed a bill establishing the United States' first agriculture college, the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan.
Classes began on May 13, 1857, with three buildings, five faculty members, 63 male students. The first president, Joseph R. Williams, designed a curriculum that required more scientific study than any undergraduate institution of the era, it balanced science, liberal arts, practical training. The curriculum excluded Latin and Greek studies since most applicants did not study any classical languages in their rural high schools. However, it did require three hours of daily manual labor, which kept costs down for both the students and the College. Despite Williams' innovations and his defense of education for the masses, the State Board of Education saw Williams' curriculum as elitist, they reduced the curriculum to a two-year vocational program. In 1860, Williams became acting lieutenant governor and helped pass the Reorganization Act of 1861; this gave the college the power to grant master's degrees. Under the act, a newly created body, known as the State Board of Agriculture, took over from the State Board of Education in running the institution.
The college changed its name to State Agricultural College, its first class graduated in the same year. As the Civil War had begun, there was no time for an elaborate graduation ceremony; the first alumni enlisted to the Union Army. Williams died, the following year, Abraham Lincoln signed the First Morrill Act of 1862 to support similar colleges, making the Michigan school a national model. Shortly thereafter, on March 18, 1863, the state designated the college its land-grant institution making Michigan State University one of the nation's first land-grant college; the college first admitted women in 1870, although at that time there were no female residence halls. The few women who enrolled boarded with faculty families or made the arduous stagecoach trek from Lansing. From the early days, female students took the same rigorous scientific agriculture courses as male students. In 1896, the faculty created a "Women Course" that melded a home economics curriculum with liberal arts and sciences.
That same year, the College turned the Abbot Hall male dorm into a women's dormitory. It was not until 1899 that the State Agricultural College admitted its first African American student, William O. Thompson. After graduation, he taught at. President Jonathan L. Snyder invited its president Booker T. Washington to be the Class of 1900 commencement speaker. A few years Myrtle Craig became the first woman African-American student to enroll at the College. Along with the Class of 1907, she received her degree from U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, commencement speaker for the Semi-Centennial celebration; the City of East Lansing was incorporated the same year, two years the college changed its name to Michigan Agricultural College. During the early 20th century, M. A. C. Expanded its curriculum well beyond agriculture. By 1925 it had expanded enough it changed its name to Michigan State College of Agriculture and Applied Science. In 1941, the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, John A. Hannah, became president of the College.
After World War II, he began the largest expansion in the institution's history, with the help of the 1945 G. I. Bill, which helped World War II veterans gain college educations. One of Hannah's strategies was to build a new dormitory building, enroll enough students to fill it, use the income to start construction on a new dormitory. Under his plan, enrollment increased fr
A color commentator or expert commentator is a sports commentator who assists the main commentator by filling in any time when play is not in progress. The phrase "color commentator" is used in American English; the color analyst and main commentator will exchange comments throughout the broadcast, when the main commentator is not describing the action. The color commentator provides expert analysis and background information, such as statistics and injury reports on the teams and athletes, anecdotes or light humor. Color commentators are former athletes or coaches of the sport being broadcast; the term color refers to insight provided by a secondary announcer. A sports color commentator customarily works alongside the play-by-play broadcaster. Commentary teams feature one professional commentator describing the passage of play, another a former player or coach, providing supplementary input as the game progresses; the color commentator will restrict his input to periods when the ball or puck is out of play or there is no significant action on the field and will defer to the main commentator whenever there is a shot on goal or other significant event, sometimes resulting in their being talked-over or cut short by the primary commentator.
Additionally, former players and managers appear as pundits, carrying out a similar role to the co-commentator during the pre-game show preceding a given contest and the post-game show following it. In American motorsports coverage, there may be as many as two color commentators in the booth for a given broadcast. A rules analyst a former official, may comment on rules enforcement and replays. In the past, American sports broadcasts employed three-man booths, with two color commentators, one, a former player or coach, the other with a journalism or entertainment background. WWE is a primary example of the three-man booth, with main commentator Michael Cole and two color commentators, Corey Graves and Renee Young, on the flagship show WWE Raw. In the United Kingdom, the role of "color commentator" is unknown. Cricket coverage on ESPNcricinfo uses similar terminology; the term is not used in Australia. Those giving the analysis alongside the main commentator are sometimes said to be giving additional or expert analysis, or "special comments", or may be referred to as "expert commentators".
For football broadcasts on Latin American sports television channels, this type of commentator is called a comentarista in both Spanish and Portuguese, in contrast with the narrador, locutor or relator who leads the transmission. There is no mention or translation to the term "color". In Denmark and Sweden the position is known as ekspertkommentator / expertkommentator, whereas the play-by-play announcer is called hovedkommentator / huvudkommentator or kommentator. In Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries, the position is known as a comentarista and comentador in contrast with the narrador who describes the action. In Finland kommentaattori is used for the second commentator, selostaja for the main one. In France, the term for a color commentator is consultant, as opposed to the commentateur sportif. In Italy, the color commentator is referred to as responsible for the commento tecnico whereas the play-by-play commentator is the main telecronista. In Italy, the color commentator is a person directly involved in the sport.
Recent Formula 1 races have no fewer than three commentators: the telecronista, a former pilot, an engineer, the last two sharing the commento tecnico. In Turkey, the term spiker is used for the play-by-play announcer whereas the color commentator is referred to as yorumcu. In some countries, the two-person commentating team is not used as much as elsewhere. In Germany, most broadcasts of sports matches traditionally feature a single play-by-play announcer who provides commentary, background information, statistics. If the broadcast is on TV, the announcer will not comment on visually obvious things. A two-person commentating team is used more for sports where understanding of events depends more on details and subtle visual cues that not everybody might get or might need extra information in order to reasonably understand – for example in auto racing or winter sport. In those cases, a current or former athlete or coach is used as co-commentator or Experte. Though not always the case, in professional wrestling, the color commentator is a "heel sympathizer" as opposed to the play-by-play announcer, more or less the "voice of the fans" as well as supporters of the "good guys".
Though both are supposed to show neutral stance while announcing, the color commentators are more blatant about their stance than the play-by-play announcers. Jesse "The Body" Ventura and Bobby "The Brain" Heenan pioneered the "heel sympathizer" for color commentary in wrestling. Jer