Russian Census (2010)
The Russian Census of 2010 is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Preparations for the census began in 2007 and it took place between October 14 and October 25; the census was scheduled for October 2010, before being rescheduled for late 2013, citing financial reasons, although it was speculated that political motives were influential in the decision. However, in late 2009, Prime Minister Putin announced that the Government of Russia allocated 10.5 billion rubles in order to conduct the census as scheduled. Results showed the population to stand at 142.9 million. Since the previous 2002 census, population had decreased by 2.3 million. According to the 2010 census, urban population is 105.3 million, rural population is 37.5 million. The urbanisation rate is 73.7%. The median age is 38 years; the ethnic composition is dominated by Russians. Demographics of Russia Russian Census 2010 final results Results of 2010 All-Russia population census Official website of the 2010 Census
Mga is an urban locality in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia. Population: 10,212 ; the name is certainly derived from the identically named Mga River on which it lies. The settlement was founded in the beginning of the 20th century to serve the railway station, it was a part of Saint Petersburgsky Uyezd of Saint Petersburg Governorate. In 1914, Saint Peterburgsky Uyezd was renamed Petrogradsky Uyezd. On February 14, 1923 Shlisselburgsky Uyezd was merged into Petrogradsky Uyezd. In January, 1924 the uyezd was renamed Leningradsky. Saint Petersburg Governorate was twice renamed, to Petrograd Governorate and subsequently to Leningrad Governorate. On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Mginsky District, with the administrative center in Mga, was established; the governorates were abolished, the district was a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished as well, the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On September 20, 1930, the administrative center of the district was transferred to the selo of Putilovo, the district renamed Putilovsky.
On September 20, 1931 the district center was moved back to Mga, the district was renamed back Mginsky. On June 5, 1937 Mga was granted urban-type settlement status. During World War II, Mga was a vital communications node, it was one of the points in which the Soviet Army broke the Siege of Leningrad. The region comprising forests, was the scene of brutal fighting during the war years and was a resistance point to the German blockade and occupation; as a result, bullets, parts of weapons and heavy ammunition and other military equipment used both by Axis and Soviet forces during the war are found in sizable amounts in the forests of the region. Inhabitants have found armed bombs and grenades from the war years. On December 9, 1960 Mginsky District was abolished and split between Volkhovsky and Tosnensky Districts. Mga was transferred to Tosnensky District. On April 1, 1977 Kirovsky District with the administrative center in Kirovsk in the limits of former Mginsky District, was established by splitting off Volkhovsky and Tosnensky Districts.
Mga is dependent on the enterprises serving the railway. Mga is an important railway node. There is a train service from St. Petersburg that passes through Mga leaving from the Moskovsky and Ladozhsky train stations in the eastward direction; this train serves many other settlements in this region, is used for travel to summer houses by many St. Petersburg residents during the warmer seasons. Other railways connect Mga with Volkhov, Kirishi and Kirovsk. All of them are served by suburban trains; the A120 road, which encircles Saint Petersburg, passes Mga and provides access to M18 highway, which connects Saint Petersburg and Murmansk, to M10 highway, which connects Saint Petersburg and Moscow. Local roads connect Mga with Tosno and Pavlovo. Mga contains two cultural heritage monuments classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. Both monuments commemorate the events of World War II. Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред.
Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г.. Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г.. Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон
Leningrad Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It was established on August 1, 1927, although it was not until 1946 that the oblast's borders had been settled in their present position; the oblast was named after the city of Leningrad. Unlike the city, the oblast retains the name of Leningrad; the oblast overlaps the historic region of Ingria and is bordered by Finland in the northwest and Estonia in the west, as well as five federal subjects of Russia: the Republic of Karelia in the northeast, Vologda Oblast in the east, Novgorod Oblast in the south, Pskov Oblast in the southwest, the federal city of Saint Petersburg in the west. The first governor of Leningrad Oblast was Vadim Gustov; the current governor, since 2012, is Aleksandr Drozdenko. The oblast has an area of 84,500 square kilometers and a population of 1,716,868; the most populous town of the oblast is Gatchina, with 88,659 inhabitants. Leningrad Oblast is industrialized. Leningrad Oblast is located around the Gulf of Finland and south of two great lakes of the European Part of Russia, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega.
Its northeastern part, between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, occupies the Karelian Isthmus. Some islands in the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga belong to the oblast. Much of the area of the oblast belongs to the drainage basin of the Neva, the only outflow of Lake Ladoga. Whereas the Neva, which flows to the Gulf of Finland is short, its drainage basin is enormously big and includes Lake Onega and Lake Ilmen as well; the Svir and the Volkhov flow from Lake Onega and Lake Ilmen to lake Ladoga. Other major tributaries of Lake Ladoga include the Syas. Rivers in the western part of the oblast flow to the Gulf of Finland. Minor areas in the east of the oblast belong to the river basin of the Chagodoshcha, a tributary of the Mologa, of the Suda, both in the basin of the Volga. Thus, the divide between the basins of the Baltic and Caspian Seas crosses the oblast; the Karelian Isthmus is a rocky terrain. The biggest lakes on the Karelian Isthmus are Lake Vuoksa, Lake Sukhodolskoye, Lake Otradnoye.
The rest of the area of the oblast is flat. The exception is a chain of hills in the east of the oblast. Most of the area is covered by swamps. Leningrad Oblast contains two nature protected areas at the federal level, the Nizhnesvirsky Nature Reserve and Mshinskoye Boloto Zakaznik, both created to protect forest and swamp landscapes of northwestern Russia; the most taxonomically diverse vascular plant families are Asteraceae, Cyperaceae and Rosaceae. By far the most diverse genus is Carex; the diversity in genera Hieracium, Alchemilla, Potamogeton, Veronica, Juncus, Potentilla, Festuca, Poa, Campanula, Lathyrus, Geranium is considerable. The territory has no endemic plant taxa. Vascular plant species of Leningrad Oblast listed in the red data book of Russia are Botrychium simplex, Cephalanthera rubra, Cypripedium calceolus, Epipogium aphyllum, Lobelia dortmanna, Myrica gale, Ophrys insectifera, Orchis militaris, Pulsatilla pratensis, Pulsatilla vernalis; the territory of present-day Leningrad Oblast was populated shortly after the end of the Weichselian glaciation and now hosts numerous archaeological remnants.
The Volga trade route and trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks crossed the territory. Staraya Ladoga, the first capital of legendary Rurik, founded in the 8th-9th century, is situated in the east of the oblast, on the Volkhov River. In the 12th-15th century, the territory was divided between the Kingdom of Sweden and Novgorod Republic and populated by various Baltic Finns people such as Karelians and Votes, Vepsians, as well as Ilmen Slavs of Novgorod. During the Russo-Swedish Wars of the 15th-17th centuries, the border moved back and forth over the land; the central part of the territory is known as the historical region of Ingria and in the 17th century, after most of the present-day territory of Leningrad Oblast was captured by Sweden with the Treaty of Stolbovo of 1617, became subject to substantial Finnish Lutheran population influx from Finnish Karelia and Savonia. Having faced the religious pressure from Lutheran pastors and Swedish authorities, local Orthodox population of Russian and Finnic ancestry massively fled from Ingria to neighbour Russian provinces, so Ingrian Finns soon became the dominant ethnic group.
During the Great Northern War the territory of what is now Leningrad Oblast was returned from Sweden by Russia under Peter the Great, who founded Saint Petersburg amidst the land in 1703, which soon became the capital of the Russian Empire. In 1708, most of the territory was organized into Ingermanland Governorate under Governor General Alexander Menshikov, it was renamed Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1710 (the borders of that governorate, differed significantly from those of the present-day oblast and included much of the areas of
Sergei Mironovich Kirov was a close, personal friend to Joseph Stalin, a prominent early Bolshevik leader in the Soviet Union. Kirov rose through the Communist Party ranks to become head of the party organisation in Leningrad. On 1 December 1934, Kirov was killed by a gunman at his offices in the Smolny Institute. There is a widespread belief that Joseph Stalin and elements of the NKVD were behind Kirov's assassination, but evidence for this claim remains lacking. Kirov's death was used as a pretext for Stalin's escalation of repression against dissident elements of the Party, disarming of the Party, culminating in the Great Purge of the late 1930s in which many of the Old Bolsheviks were arrested, expelled from the party, executed. Complicity in Kirov's assassination was a common charge to which the accused confessed in the show trials of the period; the cities of Kirov, Kirovohrad and Kirovabad, as well as a few Kirovsks, were renamed in Kirov's honour after his assassination. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Kirovabad returned to their original names: Vanadzor and Ganja, respectively.
In order to comply with decommunisation laws, Kirovohrad was renamed in July 2016 by the Ukrainian parliament to Kropyvnytskyi. Sergey Kirov was born Sergei Mironovich Kostrikov into a poor family in Urzhum as one of seven children born to Miron Ivanovich Kostrikov and Yekaterina Kuzminichna Kostrikova. Miron, an alcoholic, abandoned the family around 1890. In 1893, Yekaterina died of tuberculosis; the children's paternal grandmother, Melania Avdeyevna Kostrikova, raised Sergey and his sisters for a brief time, but she could not afford to take care of them all on her small pension of 3 rubles per month. Through her connections, she succeeded in having Sergey placed in an orphanage, but he saw his sisters and grandmother regularly. In 1901, a group of wealthy benefactors provided a scholarship for him to attend an industrial school at Kazan. After gaining his degree in engineering he moved to Tomsk in Siberia. Kirov became a Marxist and joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1904.
Kirov took part in the 1905 Russian Revolution and was arrested and released. He joined with the Bolsheviks soon after being released from prison. In 1906, Kirov was arrested once again, but this time jailed for over three years, charged with printing illegal literature. Soon after his release, he again took part in revolutionary activity. Once again being arrested for printing illegal literature, after a year of custody, Kostrikov moved to the Caucasus, where he stayed until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. By this time, Sergei Kostrikov had changed his name to Kirov in order to make his name easier to remember, a practice common among Russian revolutionaries of the time. Kostrikov began using the pen name "Kir", first publishing under the pseudonym "Kirov" on 26 April 1912. One account states that he chose the name "Kir", after a Christian martyr in third-century Egypt from an Orthodox calendar of saints' days, russifying it by adding an "-ov" ending. A second story is. Kirov became commander of the Bolshevik military administration in Astrakhan.
Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, he fought in the Russian Civil War until 1920. Simon Sebag Montefiore writes: "During the Civil War, Kirov was one of the swashbuckling commissars in the North Caucasus beside Ordzhonikidze and Mikoyan. In Astrakhan he enforced Bolshevik power in March 1919 with liberal bloodletting; when a bourgeois was caught hiding his own furniture, Kirov ordered him shot." In 1921, he became manager of the Azerbaijan party organisation. Kirov was a loyal supporter of Joseph Stalin, in 1926 he was rewarded with the command of the Leningrad party organisation. Kirov was a close, personal friend of Stalin, a strong supporter of industrialisation and forced collectivisation. At the 16th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party in 1930 he stated: "The General Party line is to conduct the course of our country industrialisation. Based on the industrialisation, we conduct the transformation of our agriculture. Namely we centralise and collectivise."At the 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party, in 1934, Kirov delivered the speech called "The Speech of Comrade Stalin Is the Program of Our Party", which refers to Stalin's speech delivered at the Congress earlier.
Kirov praised Stalin for everything. Moreover, he named and ridiculed Nikolai Bukharin, Alexei Rykov and Mikhail Tomsky. Bukharin and Rykov were tried in the show trial called The Trial of the Twenty-One. Tomsky committed suicide expecting the arrest; the Leningrad office of the NKVD – headed by Kirov's close friend, Filipp Medved – looked after Kirov's security. Stalin ordered the NKVD Commissar, Genrikh Yagoda, to replace Medved with Grigory Yeremeyevich Yevdokimov, a close associate of Stalin. However, Kirov had the order countermanded. According to Alexander Orlov, Stalin ordered Yagoda to arrange the assassination. Yagoda ordered Vania Zaporozhets, to undertake the job. Zaporozhets returned to Leningrad in search of an assassin. Leonid Nikolayev was well-known to the NKVD, which had arrested him for various petty offences in rece
Murmansk is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia. It sits on both slopes and banks of a modest ria or fjord, Kola Bay, an estuarine inlet of the Barents Sea, its bulk is on the east bank of the inlet. It is in the north of the rounded Kola Peninsula; the city is 108 kilometres from 182 kilometres from the Finnish border. The city is named for an archaic term in Russian for Norway. Benefitting from the North Atlantic Current, Murmansk resembles cities of its size across western Russia, with highway and railway access to the rest of Europe, the northernmost trolleybus system on Earth, its northern latitude of 68°58'N makes Murmansk 2° north of the Arctic Circle at 66°33'N. Its connectivity contrasts to the isolation of Arctic ports like the Siberian Dikson on the shores of the Kara Sea and Iqaluit, Nunavut in Canada on Baffin Island's Frobisher Bay off the Labrador Sea. Despite long, snowy winters, Murmansk's climate is moderated by the ice-free waters around it.
Although there was a building boom in the early twentieth century's arms races, Murmansk's population has been in a slow reversal since the Cold War. It remains by far the largest city north of the Arctic Circle and is a major port on the Arctic Ocean. Murmansk was the last city founded in the Russian Empire. In 1915, World War I needs led to the construction of the railroad from Petrozavodsk to an ice-free location on the Murman Coast in the Russian Arctic, to which Russia's allies shipped military supplies; the terminus became known as the Murman station and soon boasted a port, a naval base, an adjacent settlement with a population that grew in size and soon surpassed the nearby towns of Alexandrovsk and Kola. On June 29, 1916, Russian Transport Minister Alexander Trepov petitioned to grant urban status to the railway settlement. On July 6, 1916, the petition was approved and the town was named Romanov-on-Murman, after the imperial Russian dynasty of Romanovs. On September 21, 1916, the official ceremony was performed, the date is now considered the official date of the city's foundation.
After the February Revolution of 1917, on April 3, 1917, the town was given its present name. In the winter of 1917 the British North Russia Squadron under Rear Admiral Thomas Kemp was established at Murmansk. From 1918 to 1920, during the Russian Civil War, the town was occupied by the Western powers, allied in World War I, by the White Army forces. On February 13, 1926, local self-government was organized in Murmansk for the first time, during a plenary session of the Murmansk City Soviet, which elected a Presidium. Before this, the city was governed by the authorities of Alexandrovsky Uyezd and of Murmansk Governorate. On August 1, 1927, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee issued two resolutions: "On the Establishment of Leningrad Oblast" and "On the Borders and Composition of the Okrugs of Leningrad Oblast", which transformed Murmansk Governorate into Murmansk Okrug within Leningrad Oblast and made Murmansk the administrative center of Murmansk Okrug. In 1934, the Murmansk Okrug Executive Committee developed a redistricting proposal, which included a plan to enlarge the city by merging the surrounding territories in the north and west into Murmansk.
While this plan was not confirmed by the Leningrad Oblast Executive Committee, in 1935–1937 several rural localities of Kolsky and Polyarny Districts were merged into Murmansk anyway. According to the Presidium of the Leningrad Oblast Executive Committee resolution of February 26, 1935, the administrative center of Polyarny District was moved from Polyarnoye to Sayda-Guba. However, the provisions of the resolution were not implemented, due to military construction in Polyarnoye, the administrative center was instead moved to Murmansk in the beginning of 1935. In addition to being the administrative center of Murmansk Okrug, Murmansk continued to serve as the administrative center of Polyarny District until September 11, 1938. On February 10, 1938, when the VTsIK adopted a Resolution changing the administrative-territorial structure of Murmansk Okrug, the city of Murmansk became a separate administrative division of the okrug, equal in status to that of the districts; this status was retained when Murmansk Okrug was transformed into Murmansk Oblast on May 28, 1938.
During World War II, Murmansk was a link to the Western world for the Soviet Union with large quantities of goods important to the respective military efforts traded with the Allies: seeing military equipment, manufactured goods and raw materials brought into the Soviet Union. The supplies were brought to the city in the Arctic convoys. German forces in Finnish territory launched an offensive against the city in 1941 as part of Operation Silver Fox. Murmansk suffered extensive destruction, the magnitude of, rivaled only by the destruction of Leningrad and Stalingrad. However, fierce Soviet resistance and harsh local weather conditions with the bad terrain prevented the Germans from capturing the city and cutting off the vital Karelian railway line and the ice-free harbor. For the rest of the war, Murmansk served as a transit point for weapons and other supplies entering the Soviet Union from other Allied nations; this unyielding, stoic resistance was commemorated at the 40th anniversary of the victory over the Germans in the formal designation of Murmansk as a Hero
Volkhovsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the central eastern part of the oblast and borders with Lodeynopolsky District in the northeast, Tikhvinsky District in the southeast, Kirishsky District in the south, with Kirovsky District in the west. In the north, it is washed by Lake Ladoga; the area of the district is 5,124.4 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the town of Volkhov. Population: 48,000 ; the whole area of the district belongs to the drainage basin of Lake Ladoga. The main river in the western part of the district is the Volkhov, the center of the district belongs to the river basin of the Syas. Both the Volkhov and the Syas are major tributaries of Lake Ladoga; the Volkhov is dammed by the Volkhov Hydroelectric Station, which became the first large-scale hydroelectric plant built in the Soviet Union. The northern part of the district belongs to the basin of a left tributary of the Svir.
The lower course of the Svir forms the border between Volkhovsky District. Staraya Ladoga a selo located in the district, was mentioned in 862, as one of five original Russian towns. According to the Primary Chronicle, Rurik established his residence in Ladoga before moving to Novgorod, thus Staraya Ladoga is sometimes considered as the first historical capital of Russia; the Volkhov River served as a part of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. After the capital was moved to Novgorod, the area remained a part of Novgorod Lands, subsequently of the Novgorod Republic. After the fall of the republic, it was, together will all Novgorod Lands, annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow; the area was included into Obozerskaya Pyatina, one of the pyatinas which Novgorod Lands were divided into. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate as Ladozhsky Uyezd with the center in Staraya Ladoga. In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off, the uyezd was transformed into Novoladozhsky Uyezd, the administrative center was moved to Novaya Ladoga.
In 1776, the area was transferred to Novgorod Viceroyalty, in 1781, it was moved back into Saint Petersburg Governorate. On December 9, 1922 the administrative center of the uyezd was moved to the selo of Gostinopolye, renamed Volkhov and was granted town status; the uyezd was renamed Volkhovsky. In 1924 the changes were rolled back, the administrative center moved to Novaya Ladoga, Volkhov was demoted to a selo; the name of the uyezd remained Volkhovsky. Saint Petersburg Governorate was twice renamed, to Petrograd Governorate and subsequently to Leningrad Governorate. On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Volkhovsky District, with the administrative center in the urban-type settlement of Zvanka, was established; the governorates were abolished, the district was a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of former Volkhovsky Uyezd. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished as well, the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On December 27, 1933 the urban-type settlement of Zvanka was granted town status and renamed Volkhovstroy.
On September 19, 1939 Volkhovstroy was made a town of oblast significance, on April 11, 1940, it was renamed Volkhov. Between October and December 1941, during World War II, parts of the district were occupied by German troops. In 2010, the administrative division of Leningrad Oblast was harmonized with the municipal division, Volkhov was made the town of district significance. On March 20, 1946, Novoladozhsky District with the administrative center located in Novaya Ladoga was split off Volkhovsky District. On February 1, 1963 Novoladozhsky District was merged into Volkhovsky District. On August 1, 1927, Mginsky District, with the administrative center in the settlement of Mga, was established, it was a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of former Leningradsky Uyezds. On September 20, 1930, the administrative center of the district was transferred to the selo of Putilovo, the district renamed Putilovsky. On September 20, 1931 the district center was moved back to Mga, the district was renamed back Mginsky.
Between September 1941 and January 1944, during World War II, parts of the district were occupied by German troops. On December 9, 1960 Mginsky District was abolished and split between Volkhovsky and Tosnensky Districts. On April 1, 1977 Kirovsky District in the limits of former Mginsky District, was established by splitting off Volkhovsky and Tosnensky Districts. On August 1, 1927, Pashsky District, with the administrative center in the village of Pashsky Perevoz, was established, it was a part of Lodeynoye Pole Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of former Lodeynopolsky Uyezds. On December 14, 1955 Pashsky District was merged into Novoladozhsky District. Big industrial enterprises in the district include the Volkhov Hydroelectric Station and an aluminum plant in Volkhov, a pulp-and-paper mill in Syasstroy. There are enterprises of timber and food industries. Agriculture in the district specializes on cattle breeding, with meat and milk production, on fish farming. Volkhov is an important railway hub.
One railway line connects in with Saint Petersburg, Volkhovstroy I is the terminal station of s