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Siegfried Lehman

Siegfried Lehmann was an Israeli educator and founder and director of the Ben Shemen Youth Village. Lehmann was born in Germany, in 1892 to an assimilated Jewish family. After finishing high school, he entered a medical school where he studied together with Albert Einstein. During World War I he served as a physician in the German Army. After the war he became a Socialist, he founded a Jewish orphanage in Berlin in 1916, opened a shelter for Jewish war orphans in Kaunas in 1919. In 1927, he immigrated to Mandate Palestine, now Israel, founded the Ben Shemen Youth Village, a large agricultural boarding school, situated adjacent to the moshav in Ben Shemen, he directed Ben Shemen Youth Village from 1927 to 1957 and received the 1957 Israel Prize in Education for it. In 1940, he was imprisoned by the British Mandate authorities because they found arms depots at the village, he died in 1958. In 1957, Lehmann was awarded the Israel Prize in education. List of Israel Prize recipients Lehman Chazon Umoreshet, Biography by Aya Lehman Schlair in Hebrew,2010

German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union

Three million German prisoners of war were captured by the Soviet Union during World War II, most of them during the great advances of the Red Army in the last year of the war. The POWs were employed as forced labor in post-war reconstruction. By 1950 all surviving POWs had been released, with the last prisoner returning from the USSR in 1956. According to Soviet records 381,067 German Wehrmacht POWs died in NKVD camps. German historian Rüdiger Overmans maintains that it seems plausible, while not provable, that one million died in Soviet custody, he believes that there were men who died as POWs amongst those listed as missing-in-action. In the first months of Operation Barbarossa, few Germans were captured by Soviet forces. After the Battle of Moscow and the retreat of the German forces the number of prisoners in the Soviet prisoner of war camps rose to 120,000 by early 1942; the German 6th Army surrendered in the Battle of Stalingrad, 91,000 of the survivors became prisoners of war raising the number to 170,000 in early 1943.

Weakened by disease and lack of medical care during the encirclement, many died of wounds, disease and maltreatment in the months following capture at Stalingrad: only 6,000 of them lived to be repatriated after the war. As the desperate economic situation in the Soviet Union eased in 1943, the mortality rate in the POW camps sank drastically. At the same time POWs became an important source of labor for the Soviet economy deprived of manpower. With the formation of the "National Committee for a Free Germany" and the "League of German Officers", pro-communist POWs got more privileges and better rations; as a result of Operation Bagration and the collapse on the southern part of the Eastern front, the number of German POWs nearly doubled in the second half of 1944. In the first months of 1945 the Red Army advanced on the Balkans. Again the number of POWs rose – to 2,000,000 in April 1945. A total of 2.8 million German Wehrmacht personnel were held as POWs by the Soviet Union at the end of the war, according to Soviet records.

A large number of German POWs had been released by the end of 1946, when the Soviet Union held fewer POWs than the United Kingdom and France between them. With the creation of a pro-Soviet German state in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany – the German Democratic Republic – in October 1949, all but 85,000 POWs had been released and repatriated. Most of those still held had been convicted as war criminals and many sentenced to long terms in forced labor camps – 25 years, it was not until 1956 that the last of these Kriegsverurteilte were repatriated, following the intervention of West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer in Moscow. According to Richard Overy, Russian sources state that 356,000 out of 2,388,000 POWs died in Soviet captivity. In his revised Russian language edition of Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses, Krivosheev put the number of German military POWs at 2,733,739 and dead at 381,067 However, Soviet era sources are disputed by historians in the West, who estimate 3.0 million German POWs were taken by the USSR and up to 1.0 million died in Soviet captivity.

Waitman Wade Beorn states that 35.8% of German POWs died in Soviet custody, supported by other academic works. According to Edward Peterson, the U. S. chose to hand over several hundred thousand German prisoners to the Soviet Union in May 1945 as a "gesture of friendship". Niall Ferguson maintains that "it is clear that many German units sought to surrender to the Americans in preference to other Allied forces, the Red Army". Heinz Nawratil maintains that U. S. forces refused to accept the surrender of German troops in Saxony and Bohemia, instead handed them over to the Soviet Union. According to a report in the New York Times thousands of prisoners were transferred to Soviet authorities from POW camps in the West, e.g. it is known that 6,000 German officers were sent from the West to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp which at the time was one of the NKVD special camp and from which it is known that they were transferred to POW camps. Soviet Ministry for the Interior documents released in 1990 listed 6,680 inmates in the NKVD special camps in Germany 1945–49 who were transferred to Soviet POW camps.

The West German government set up a Commission headed by Erich Maschke to investigate the fate of German POWs in the war. In its report of 1974 they found that 3,060,000 German military personnel were taken prisoner by the USSR and that 1,094,250 died in captivity. According to German historian Rüdiger Overmans ca. 3,000,000 POW were taken by the USSR. Based on his research, Overmans believes that the deaths of 363,000 POWs in Soviet captivity can be confirmed by the files of Deutsche Dienststelle, additionally maintains that "It seems plausible, while not provable, that 700,000 German military personnel listed as missing died in Soviet custody". Source of figures: Rüdiger Overmans, Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht. Deutsche Kriegsgefangene des Zweiten Weltkriege. Ullstein. 2000 Page 246 According to Russian historian Grigori F. Krivosheev, Soviet NKVD figures list 2,733,739 German "Wehrmacht" POWs taken with 381,067 having died in captivity; the table below lists the Soviet statistics for total number of German prisoners of war reported by the NKVD as of 22 April 1956 (excluding USSR citizens

Daniel Girardi

Daniel Girardi is a Canadian former professional ice hockey defenceman. Undrafted, Girardi played 13 seasons in the National Hockey League with the New York Rangers and Tampa Bay Lightning. During his junior career, he was a member of the London Knights team that won the 2005 OHL Championship and the 2005 Memorial Cup. Although eligible in the 2003 NHL Entry Draft, Girardi went undrafted, as no NHL team felt he was a skilled enough player to play professionally, in spite of having a good year in the Ontario Hockey League with 39 points in 68 games. Not to be discouraged, Girardi contacted several NHL teams for a tryout; the New York Rangers took a second look at Girardi and invited him to their training camp in the 2005–06 season. He signed a free agent, two-way American Hockey League contract with the Hartford Wolf Pack, the Rangers' AHL affiliate, began the 2005–06 season with the Charlotte Checkers of the ECHL. Girardi was called up to the AHL's Wolf Pack and while there, was signed to an NHL deal by the Rangers.

Girardi was called up by the New York Rangers on January 27, 2007, after an injury to Rangers defenceman Darius Kasparaitis, made his NHL debut that night in a 2–1 win over the Philadelphia Flyers. Girardi remained in the NHL for the remainder of the season, playing in 34 games and recording 6 assists, he played in 10 playoff games, going pointless as the Rangers lost in the second round 4–2 to the Buffalo Sabres. On February 16, 2008, Girardi signed a two-year, $3.1 million contract extension with the Rangers. On July 9, 2010, Girardi re-signed with the Rangers, signing $13.3 million deal. During the 2010–11 season, Girardi led the NHL in blocked shots, with 236. For the 2011–12 season, Girardi was named an interim alternate captain for the Rangers while Marc Staal was recovering from post-concussion syndrome. In Staal's absence, Girardi led all NHL skaters in average ice-time, averaging nearly 28 minutes per game, his play earned him a spot in the 2012 NHL All-Star Game. Girardi scored his first playoff goal on April 26, 2012, against the Ottawa Senators during Game 7 of the 2012 Eastern Conference Quarterfinals.

During the 2012–13 lockout-shortened season, Girardi was named an interim alternate captain for the Rangers a second time while Marc Staal was recovering from an injury sustained on March 3 when he was hit with a puck in the eye. During the 2013–14 season, on February 28, Girardi signed a six-year, $33 million extension with the Rangers, he was named an alternate captain for the Rangers for the remainder of the season when captain Ryan Callahan was traded at the NHL trade deadline to the Tampa Bay Lightning. Girardi's solid defensive play in the playoffs was a key part in the Rangers' run to the 2014 Stanley Cup Finals, where they lost to the Los Angeles Kings. Girardi became a permanent alternate captain during the 2014–15 season, spent most of the season on the Rangers' top defensive pairing with captain Ryan McDonagh. Girardi's solid defensive play that season led to the Rangers winning the Presidents' Trophy, as well as a run to the Eastern Conference Final, where the Rangers lost to the Tampa Bay Lightning in a hard-fought, 7-game series.

Girardi started the 2015–16 season strong, contributing to a 14–2–2 start to the 2015–16 season for the Rangers. Midway through the season, the Rangers slumped, going 4–7–2 in the month of December, with many critics blaming Girardi for the slump. Though the Rangers seemed to play better by February, Girardi suffered a knee injury late in the season, the team started to fall apart, losing to the Pittsburgh Penguins in the first round of the playoffs in five games, despite many expecting the Rangers to make another deep playoff run. Following the 2016–17 season, his 11th with the Rangers, due to a decline in play and salary cap considerations it was announced that Girardi would be bought out from the remaining three years of his contract on June 14, 2017. On July 1, 2017, Girardi signed as a free agent a two-year, $6 million deal with the Tampa Bay Lightning; the Lightning announced through its social media account that Girardi would be wearing the #5, a continuation of the number he used as a member of the Rangers.

In game 4 of the second round in the 2018 NHL playoffs, Girardi scored an overtime goal to give the Lightning the win and a 3–1 series lead over the Boston Bruins. Giradi announced his retirement from hockey on September 20, 2019. Girardi retired 30th in playoff games played by a defenceman, as the all-time leader in shots blocked, having blocked nearly 2,000 shots in his career. Girardi's childhood idol was Mark Messier. During the off-season, Girardi resides in Ontario. Girardi and his wife Pam have two children together -- a daughter. Girardi and his family live in Davis Islands neighborhood of Florida. 2012 NHL All-Star Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database, or

Moussa Moumouni Djermakoye

Moussa Moumouni Djermakoye was a Nigerien politician, President of the Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress, a political party in Niger, from 2010 to 2017. As a high-ranking army officer, he was Army Chief of Staff for a time and briefly served as Minister of National Defense in 1999 as part of a transitional military regime. After retiring from the army and beginning a political career, he stood as the ANDP's candidate in the 2011 presidential election, winning only a small share of the vote. From December 2011 to 2017, he was President of the Economic and Cultural Council of Niger; as an army officer with the rank of colonel, Moussa Moumouni Djermakoye was the Army Chief of Staff at the time of the assassination of President Ibrahim Bare Mainassara by soldiers undertaking a coup d'etat on 9 April 1999. Amidst the confusion that followed the coup, it was suggested that he might head the junta that took power, but instead he was appointed as Minister of National Defense in the junta's transitional government, appointed a week after the coup.

The transition ended with the swearing-in of an elected President, Mamadou Tandja, on 22 December 1999. Djermakoye is the brother of Moumouni Adamou Djermakoye, who led the ANDP, a political party, from the time of its creation in the early 1990s until his death in June 2009. Following a coup that ousted Tandja in February 2010, Djermakoye was appointed as Special Adviser to the President of the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy, Salou Djibo, in March 2010. Djermakoye, having retired from the military, was elected to succeed his brother as ANDP President at an extraordinary party congress on 20 June 2010, he won the vote easily. Speaking to Le Sahel after the congress, he said that he did not find it remarkable that he had shifted from a career in the military to the leadership of a political party. Although he lacked elective political experience due to his service in the military, he observed that he had held administrative posts during periods of military rule and therefore felt he was sufficiently experienced for the role.

He was subsequently nominated to stand as the ANDP candidate in the January 2011 presidential election, the Transitional Constitutional Council approved his candidacy, along with nine others, on 22 December 2010. In the first round of the presidential election, held on 31 January 2011, Djermakoye received 3.95% of the vote. On 10 February 2011, he announced his support for the candidacy of the first round's leading candidate, Mahamadou Issoufou, in the second round. Djermakoye was one of several unsuccessful first round candidates who gave their support to Issoufou at that time, helping to give the momentum to Issoufou in his second round campaign against Seyni Oumarou. Djermakoye stood as an ANDP candidate in the January 2011 parliamentary election and was elected to the National Assembly, he was appointed as President of the Economic and Cultural Council, a state institution, on 9 December 2011. He vacated his parliamentary seat. At the ANDP's Sixth Ordinary Congress, held in Maradi on 9–10 May 2015, Djermakoye was re-elected as President of the ANDP.

Djermakoye did not stand again as a candidate for the February 2016 presidential election, as the ANDP opted to endorse the candidacy of incumbent President Mahamadou Issoufou in the first round of voting. He died on 19 November 2017 in Paris, France at the age of 73. Moussa Moumouni Djermakoye has received several awards and medals: Officer in the Order of the International Council of Military Sports Officer in the Order of Burkina Faso Officer in the National Order of Mono of the Republic of Togo Commander of the Academic Palms of Niger Knight in the National Order of the French Legion of Honour Knight in the National Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Great Cross in the National Order of Niger

Washington State Route 502

State Route 502 is a 6.12-mile-long state highway in the U. S. state of Washington, serving the city of Battle Ground in Clark County. The highway travels due east from an interchange with Interstate 5 north of Mount Vista through Dollars Corner and Battle Ground to an intersection with SR 503, serving as connector between Battle Ground and I-5. Prior to the 1964 highway renumbering, SR 502 was part of Secondary State Highway 1S, established in 1937; the highway traveled south from its current western terminus until the construction of a new interchange with I-5 in 2008, part of a project to widen SR 502 and install a median barrier on the roadway. SR 502 begins as the four-lane Battle Ground Highway at exit 11 on I-5, a trumpet interchange located north of Mount Vista, travels due east as 219th Street, crossing Gee Creek and passing the northbound Gee Creek rest area; the four-lane highway travels east through rural Clark County and the community of Dollars Corner before it enters the city of Battle Ground, where it becomes Main Street.

SR 502 crosses over Mill Creek and travels through the city, ending at an intersection with SR 503 and Main Street. Every year, the Washington State Department of Transportation conducts a series of surveys on its highways in the state to measure traffic volume; this is expressed in terms of average annual daily traffic, a measure of traffic volume for any average day of the year. In 2011, WSDOT calculated that between 8,200 and 26,000 vehicles per day used the highway within Battle Ground; the entire route is designated as part of the National Highway System, which includes roadways important to the national economy and mobility. SSH 1S was created in 1937 during the formation of the primary and secondary state highways, traveling on a 57.60-mile-long route east from Primary State Highway 1 and U. S. Route 99 north of Mount Vista to intersect SSH 1U in Battle Ground and turned north towards Amboy and west to end at PSH 1 and US 99 in Woodland. After PSH 1 and US 99 was realigned onto a four-lane limited-access highway in the late 1940s, SSH 1S was extended south over the old highway to intersect PSH 1 and US 99.

SR 502 was established during the 1964 highway renumbering and codified in 1970 as the successor to the Mount Vista–Battle Ground section of SSH 1S, while US 99 was replaced by I-5. WSDOT constructed a new interchange between I-5 and 219th Street between April 2007 and October 2008 at a cost of $52 million; the new interchange and subsequent realignment shortened the total length of SR 502 by 1.46 miles, the mileposts were not updated, as of 2011. During construction of the interchange, WSDOT uncovered archaeological remains belonging to a Coast Salish settlement at Gee Creek that were at least 8,000 years old; the entire highway was christened the "Battle Ground Highway" in May 2009 to signify the importance of SR 502 connecting the city of Battle Ground to I-5. WSDOT began preparing to install a median barrier and widen SR 502 to four lanes between the I-5 interchange and the western Battle Ground city limit in July 2012 to accommodate increasing traffic on the highway, which has a speed limit up to 50 miles per hour.

Construction for the $85 million project began in earnest in 2014. New Mill Creek wetlands were created, to mitigate for wetlands buried by construction, which included the driving of 1,200 concrete pilings; the new, four-lane highway, which includes 10-foot shoulders for bicycle and pedestrian travel and traffic signals at major intersections, opened on June 27, 2016. The entire highway is in Clark County. Highways of Washington State