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Kirtan is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, telling, describing" of an idea or story in Indian religions. It refers to a genre of religious performance arts, connoting a musical form of narration or shared recitation of spiritual or religious ideas, native to the Indian subcontinent. With roots in the Vedic anukirtana tradition, a kirtan is a call-and-response style song or chant, set to music, wherein multiple singers recite or describe a legend, or express loving devotion to a deity, or discuss spiritual ideas, it may include dancing or direct expression of bhavas by the singer. Many kirtan performances are structured to engage the audience where they either repeat the chant, or reply to the call of the singer. A person performing kirtan is known as a kirtankara. A Kirtan performance includes an accompaniment of regionally popular musical instruments, such as the harmonium, the veena or ektara, the tabla, the mrdanga or pakhawaj and karatalas or talas, it is a major practice in Hinduism, Vaisnava devotionalism, the Sant traditions and some forms of Buddhism, as well as other religious groups.

Kirtan is sometimes accompanied by acting. Texts cover religious, mythological or social subjects. Kirtan has Vedic roots and it is "telling, describing, reporting"; the term is found as Anukirtan in the context of Yajna, wherein team recitations of dialogue-style and question-answer riddle hymns were part of the ritual or celebratory dramatic performance. The Sanskrit verses in chapter 13.2 of Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, are written in the form of a riddle play between two actors. The Vedic sacrifice is presented as a kind of drama, with its actors, its dialogues, its portion to be set to music, its interludes, its climaxes; the root of kirtan is kirt. The root is found in the Samhitas, the Brahmanas and other Vedic literature, as well as the Vedanga and Sutras literature. Kirt, according to Monier-Williams contextually means, "to mention, make mention of, name, recite, relate, communicate, celebrate, glorify". Kirtan, sometimes referred to as sankirtana, is a call-and-response chanting or musical conversation, a genre of religious performance arts that developed during India's bhakti devotional traditions.

However, it is a heterogeneous practice that varies regionally according to Christian Novetzke, includes varying mixture of different musical instruments, oration, audience participation and moral narration. In Maharashtra for example, states Novetzke, a kirtan is a call-and-response style performance, ranging from devotional dancing and singing by a lead singer and audience, to an "intricate scholarly treatise, a social commentary or a philosophical/linguistic exposition", that includes narration, humor and entertainment – all an aesthetic part of ranga of the kirtan. Kirtan is locally known as Abhang, Samaj Gayan, Haveli Sangeet, Harikatha; the Vaishnava temples and monasteries of Hinduism in Assam and northeastern, called Satra, have a large worship hall named kirtan ghar – a name derived from their being used for congregational singing and performance arts. In regional languages, kirtan is scripted as Bengali: কীর্তন. Musical recitation of hymns and the praise of deities has ancient roots in Hinduism, as evidenced by the Samaveda and other Vedic literature.

Kirtans were popularized by the Bhakti movement of medieval era Hinduism, starting with the South Indian Alvars and Nayanars around the 6th century, which spread in central, northern and eastern India after the 12th century, as a social and congregational response to Hindu-Muslim conflicts. The foundations of the kirtan traditions are found in other Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavad-gita where Krishna describes bhakti marga as a means to moksha, alongside karma marga and jnana marga. References to kirtan as a musical recitation are found in the Bhagavata Purana, an important Vaishnava text. Kirtan is practiced as a kind of theatrical folk song with call-and-response chanting or antiphon; the ancient sage Narada revered as a musical genius, is called a kirtankar in the Padma Purana. The famous story of Prahlada in the Avatara Katha mentions kirtan as one of nine forms of worship, called the nava vidha bhakti along with shravanam, pada sevanam, vandanam, dasyam and atmanivedanam; the so-called Naradiya Kirtan divides kirtan into five parts: naman, chanting, katha or akhyan, a final prayer for universal welfare.

Kirtan as a genre of religious music has been a major part of the Vaishnavism tradition starting with the Alvars of Sri Vaishnavism sub-tradition between the 7th to 10th century CE. After the 13th-century, two subgenres of kirtan emerged in Vaishnavism, namely the Nama-kirtana wherein the different names or aspects of god are extolled, the Lila- kirtana wherein the deity's life and legends are narrated; the Marathi Varkari saint Namdev used the kirtan form of singing to praise the glo

Military history of New Zealand during World War II

The military history of New Zealand during World War II began when New Zealand entered the Second World War by declaring war on Nazi Germany with Great Britain. The state of war with Germany was held to have existed since 9:30 pm on 3 September 1939, simultaneous with that of Britain, but in fact the declaration of war was not made until confirmation had been received from Britain that their ultimatum to Germany had expired; the group listened to the shortwave radio in Carl Berendsen's room in Parliament Buildings but were not certain what Neville Chamberlain had said because of static on the short-wave radio, a coded telegraph message from London did not arrive until just before midnight as the messenger boy with the telegram in London took shelter because of a air-raid warning. The Cabinet acted after hearing the Admiralty's notification to the fleet; the next day Cabinet approved nearly 30 war regulations as laid down in the War Book, after completing the formalities with the Executive Council the Governor-General, Lord Galway, issued the Proclamation of War, backdated to 9.30 pm on 3 September.

Diplomatically, New Zealand had expressed vocal opposition to fascism in Europe and to the appeasement of Fascist dictatorships, national sentiment for a strong show of force met with general support. Economic and defensive considerations motivated the New Zealand involvement—reliance on Britain meant that threats to Britain became threats to New Zealand too in terms of economic and defensive ties. There was a strong sentimental link between the former British colony and the United Kingdom, with many seeing Britain as the "mother country" or "Home"; the New Zealand Prime Minister of the time Michael Joseph Savage summed this up at the outbreak of war with a broadcast on 5 September that became a popular cry in New Zealand during the war: It is with gratitude in the past, with confidence in the future, that we range ourselves without fear beside Britain, where she goes, we go! Where she stands, we stand! New Zealand provided personnel for service in the Royal Air Force and in the Royal Navy and was prepared to have New Zealanders serving under British command.

Royal New Zealand Air Force pilots, many trained in the Empire Air Training Scheme, were sent to Europe. But unlike the other Dominions, New Zealand did not insist on its aircrews serving with RNZAF squadrons, so speeding up the rate at which they entered service, and the Long Range Desert Group was formed in North Africa in 1940 with New Zealand and Rhodesian as well as British volunteers, but included no Australians for the same reason. The New Zealand government placed the New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy at the Admiralty's disposal and made available to the RAF 30 new Wellington medium bombers waiting in the United Kingdom for shipping to New Zealand; the New Zealand Army contributed the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force. In total, around 140,000 New Zealand personnel served overseas for the Allied war effort, an additional 100,000 men were armed for Home Guard duty. At its peak in July 1942, New Zealand had 154,549 men and women under arms and by the war's end a total of 194,000 men and 10,000 women had served in the armed forces at home and overseas.

Conscription was introduced in June 1940, volunteering for Army service ceased from 22 July 1940, although entry to the Air Force and Navy remained voluntary. Difficulties in filling the Second and Third Echelons for overseas service in 1939–1940, the Allied disasters of May 1940 and public demand led to its introduction. Four members of the cabinet including Prime Minister Peter Fraser had been imprisoned for anti-conscription activities in World War I, the Labour Party was traditionally opposed to it, some members still demanded conscription of wealth before men. From January 1942, workers could be directed to essential industries. Access to imports was hampered and rationing made doing some things difficult. Fuel and rubber shortages were overcome with novel approaches. In New Zealand, industry switched from civilian needs to making war materials on a much larger scale than is understood today. New Zealand and Australia supplied the bulk of foodstuffs to American forces in the South Pacific, as Reverse Lend-Lease.

With earlier commitments to supply food to Britain this led to both Britain and America complaining about food going to the other ally. By 1943 there was a manpower crisis, the withdrawal of the Third Division from the Pacific. In winter 1944 the government hastened work on docks and repair facilities at Auckland and Wellington following a British request, to supplement the bases and repair yards in Australia needed for the British Pacific Fleet; the New Zealand authorities deployed the 2nd New Zealand Expeditionary Force for combat in three echelons — all destined for Egypt, but one diverted to Scotland following the German invasion of France. In April 1941, after a period training in Egypt, 2NZEF's New Zealand 2nd Division, stationed in Egypt, deployed to take part in the defence of Greece against invasion by Italian troops, soon German forces too when they joined the invasion; this defence was mounted alongside British and Australian units – the corps-size Commonwealth contingent under the command of British General Henry Maitland Wilson known together as W Force, supported a

Back Number

Back Number is a Japanese rock power trio formed in 2004. The group consists of Iyori Shimizu, Kazuya Kojima, Hisashi Kurihara; the group signed to independent record label Idolsmith Recordings in 2009 and released their debut EP Nogashita Sakana and studio album Ato no Matsuri. They signed to Universal Sigma in 2011; the group's biggest hit is "Christmas Song", which peaked at number-one for three weeks on the Japan Hot 100 chart, was certified million by the Recording Industry Association of Japan. Their first compilation album, reached number one on the Billboard Japan Hot Album for two consecutive weeks in 2016 and ranked number five on the Oricon yearly best-selling album chart of 2017. Current members Iyori Shimizu – lead vocals, guitar Kazuya Kojima – bass guitar, backing vocals Hisashi Kurihara – drums Former members Makio Saito – bass guitar, backing vocals In 2004, the band formed in the mind of Iyori Shimizu in Gunma prefecture; the band was named "back number" because of a girl who had dated Shimizu in high school, dated another bandman.

To her, Shimizu is an ex-boyfriend, a "back number". He wanted to make a "cooler" band than that guy's band with a hope that the girl might come back to him, it took two years for the band to come to shape with other members in line. Some disagreements were born and other members' work priorities got in the way; the person, in charge of the bass at that time wanted to quit and joined Kazuya Kojima, a childhood friend of Shimizu and is now the current bassist. With Kojima joining, the band's activities were continued but this time, it was the drummer who wanted to withdraw from the band. While looking for another drummer, Shimizu heard that the band of the guy who had taken his girlfriend had disbanded. Hisashi Kurihara, the drummer of that band and went to the same high school as Kazuya, was recruited into back number and has been in charge of the drum since then. After that, the guitarist withdrew and the band was left with its current line-up till now. In November 2004, the band first performed live at Isezaki DUSTBOWL.

Since 2005, voluntary live performances were held annually in November, following the release of the demo CD. In 2007, the band performed a one-man live show, mobilized over 150 people and the tickets were sold out. In the same year, the band was chosen as the semi-best rocker from more than 100 bands at the band audition "ROCKERS 2007" sponsored by FM Gunma, a gateway for the northern Kanto band, it became a topic in the local media. In April 2008, their regular radio program "PIZZA SMALL WORLD" started broadcasting at the radio station FM TARO for an area of Ota City, Gunma Prefecture. In June 2008, the band won a qualifying competition from among 500 pairs of entries at the Shonan Music Festival Opening Act Audition and secured an appearance at the large outdoor festival Shonan Music Festival Vol. 2. On February 18, 2009, the band released their first mini album, Nogashita Sakana, became HMV push item "HOT PICKS", TOWER RECORDS push item "Tawareko Men" for the first time, selected as power play of FM station and Sony Ericsson CS commercial song, the band was known throughout the country.

On May 27, Tawareko, a back number free live with HMV as the co-ownership was held at SHIBUYA-BOXX, more than 500 people joined, which exceeded the capacity of the regular entry. In June, the band finished a tour at the Ferrari Temple Park Outdoor Stage in Isezaki City with an crowd of 500 people. After that, the band positively appeared in events such as "SAKAE-SPRING", "MINAMI WHEEL", "TREASURE", "MUSIC CUBE" all over the country, school festival, install alive, etc. On June 2, 2010, released their first full-length album, Ato no Matsuri. On April 6, 2011, the band made their major debut with the single "Hanabira". On September 7, 2013, the band held an one-man live "back number live at Nippon Budokan - stay with us-" at Nippon Budokan. From April 2014, the band was appointed as a regular personality of Nippon Broadcasting "All Night Nippon" on every Tuesday. On September 14, 2014, at the Yokohama Arena, the first arena performance "love stories tour 2014 - Yokohama love story 2 ~" was held.

On December 15, 2015, their fifth album, reached first place on the Oricon chart for two consecutive weeks. On December 28, 2016, the band released their own all-time best album, which reached number one on the Billboard Japan Hot Album for two consecutive weeks. Bolded performances are additional performances. ROCKERS 2007 · Semi Best Rockers 4th CD Shop Awards · Finalist Award Super Star 5th CD Shop Awards · Finalist Award blues 7th CD Shop Awards · Finalist Award Love Story SPACE SHOWER MUSIC AWARDS - BEST GROUP ARTIST The 87th Drama Academy Award "Christmas Song" The 58th Japan Record Awards · Excellent Album Award Chandelier DAM annual karaoke request ranking · First place Uta-Net annual lyrics browsing artist ranking: First place 8th CD Shop Awards · Finalist Award Chandelier Official website

Timo Liekoski

Timo Liekoski is a Finnish soccer coach who managed teams in the North American Soccer League, Major Indoor Soccer League, American Indoor Soccer Association and Major League Soccer. He holds a variety of coaching positions with the Football Association of Finland. A native of Finland, Liekoski was drafted into the Finnish army. After completing his service two years he moved to the United States. In 1964, Liekoski was working as a dishwasher when Al Miller noticed him watching Miller and his team mates practicing. At the time Miller played for the amateur Kingston Kickers and coached at the State University of New York at New Paltz. Miller invited a goalkeeper, to join the Kingston Kickers. After Liekoski proved his worth, Miller recruited him into the New Paltz State soccer team. Miller moved to Hartwick College after Liekoski's freshman season, took Liekoski with him. Liekoski sat out a season, per NCAA rules played his sophomore and junior seasons as the Warriors starting goalkeeper. After breaking his wrist during the preseason to his senior year, Liekoski moved to defender where he was a second team All American.

He graduated in 1971 with a bachelor's degree in economics and earned a master's degree in education from Whittier College. Liekoski began his coaching career in 1972 when he served as the first head coach of the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee soccer team. In 1973, Liekoski replaced Miller as head coach of the Hartwick College men's soccer team, he compiled a 30 -- 9 -- 7 record. He took the Hawks to the 1974 NCAA Final Four and was inducted into the Hartwick College Athletic Hall of Fame in 1995. In 1976, Miller became head coach of the Dallas Tornado of the North American Soccer League, he brought Liekoski in as an assistant that year. In 1978, he became the head coach of the Houston Hurricane; that fall, Liekoski became the head coach of the Houston Summit, a team in the newly established Major Indoor Soccer League. He gained MISL Coach of the Year honors, he followed this in 1979 when he coached the Hurricane to an unexpected 22–8 record and was named the 1979 NASL Coach of the Year. The Edmonton Drillers hired Liekoski in 1980.

Liekoski took the team, which had finished the 1979 season at 8–22 to 17–15 in 1980. He took the Drillers to the 1980–1981 NASL indoor championship. However, when Edmonton began the 1981 season at 6–12, the team fired him on June 22, 1981. In September 1981, the expansion New Jersey Rockets hired Liekoski. In February 1982, the Rockets fired him after the team started with a 4–13 record. In July 1982, the Cleveland Force hired Liekoski, he coached the Force until July 1988. On September 26, 1988, the Canton Invaders of the American Indoor Soccer Association signed Liekoski to a one-year contract, with an option for a second year, he took the Invaders to the 1990 championships. In August 1991, Bora Milutinovic, head coach of the U. S. national team brought in Liekoski as his assistant in preparation for a series of European games. He returned to coach the Invaders as they began the 1991–1992 season, but took a leave of absence in January 1992 to rejoin the national team. In June 1992, he became a full-time assistant to Milutinovic.

In 1994, Milutinovic and his staff took the national team to the second round of the 1994 FIFA World Cup. In October 1994, he was named as head coach of the U. S. Olympic soccer team as it prepared for the 1996 Summer Olympics. After losing three games without scoring a goal at the 1995 Pan American games finishing ninth at the 1995 World University Games, Liekoski was fired in September 1995. On December 5, 1995, the Columbus Crew of Major League Soccer hired Liekoski as the team's first coach. On August 3, 1996, Liekoski resigned after the Crew began the season at 6–16, he returned to Finland where he coached Myllykosken Pallo in 1997. In 1998, he was hired by the Football Association of Finland and has held a variety of national coaching positions. In 1999, he coached the Finland national futsal team, he headed the Finland national under-17 football team. Career overview


The Aeglidae are a family of freshwater crustaceans restricted to South America. They are the only anomurans to be found in fresh water except for a single hermit crab species, Clibanarius fonticola, on Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu, they live at altitudes between 320 and 3,500 m. Aeglids resemble squat lobsters in that the abdomen is tucked under the thorax; the notable sexual dimorphism in the abdomen is related to the behaviour of carrying fertilised eggs on the pleopods. The carapace length of the largest species may approach 6 cm, but most are smaller. Aeglids are omnivorous, preferring plant matter, but eating adult insects, molluscs and fly larvae; the internal anatomy has been described for Aegla cholchol and resembles that of other anomurans galatheoid squat lobsters. The morphology of the antennal gland bladder differs from that in other anomurans in having a twisted tubular structure, interpreted as an adaption to the freshwater lifestyle. Mating is preceded by a period of courtship, does not coincide with moulting, as it does in many other decapods.

The eggs of aeglids hatch as juveniles which resemble the adults. They live at the bottom of the body of water. Aegla, the only extant genus in the family, contains around 74 described extant species. Of the 63 species and subspecies described by 2008, two are found in lakes, four in caves, the remaining 57 are found in rivers. 42 species are found in all restricted to the country's southern and southeastern regions. Other countries with species are Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. More than a third of the species are considered threatened, in Brazil alone 26 species are recognized as threatened, including 8 critically endangered; this list contains all the described species as of 2013: Haumuriaegla glaessneri is a species known only from fossils of Haumurian age found near Cheviot, New Zealand. At the time of its discovery, Haumuriaegla was the only known fossil from the family and the only marine member. Protaegla miniscula was discovered in rocks of Albian age from the Tlayúa Formation, near Tepexi de Rodríguez, Mexico.

The family as a whole is thought to have originated around 75 million years ago in a marine environment, entered South America from the Pacific side during the Oligocene. Aegla rostrata / Río San Pedro / Región de los Ríos / Chile on YouTube

Horse's head of Waldgirmes

Pferdekopf von Waldgirmes, the horse's head of Waldgirmes, is the remnant of a Roman-age statue. It was found in the year 2009 on a field close to Waldgirmes in the German state of Hesse; the head was buried 11 metres below the ground in a collapsed well shaft, hidden in a barrel, had been found in the course of archeological excavation works of a former Roman settlement. Therefore most it belonged to an equestrian statue that stood on the forum of this settlement; the piece is 59 cm long, weighs about 15 kg, has been restored. It is considered to be one of the most important archeological finds in Germany. For years, the state of Hesse and the landowner hassled about the compensation the owner was entitled to, until the district court of Limburg set it at 773.000 Euros. Since August 19, 2018, the horse's head is presented in the Saalburgmuseum. Press release of the Hessian ministry for science and culture