Tarento are celebrities who appear in mass media in Japan television. The term is a gairaigo word – a borrowed foreign language word – derived from the English word talent, has a connotation of "famous for being famous". During the Golden Age of Hollywood, bankable stars in America were described as talents, were distinguished from production crews, which were seen as having more technical than charismatic talents. In Japan the concept of tarento may approximate the English term celebrity, including the nuance that the fame of a Tarento may or may not be based upon specific accomplishments and abilities. Japanese television programs feature these media personalities. Many, sometimes dozens at a time, are called in to take part in these prime time shows, their participation in these programs varies and includes performing, voicing opinions, mimicking fellow celebrities in a practice called Monomane, taking part in game shows, joking, or just being present for the entire duration of the show. While it is common for tarento to appear in serious Japanese television drama or movies, they are distinguished from mainstream actors by the fact that, where an actor might go on variety television to advertise their latest venture, tarento appear on variety shows with no apparent promotional agenda outside of a personal one.
Tarento, whether men or women, have notoriously short career spans, their earning capabilities are not as high as popularly imagined. The vast majority make just enough to maintain a middle-class lifestyle in Tokyo, Japan's media capital; this is because their talent agencies take a majority share of their earnings for the appearances that they make on TV. Part of the money given up by the tarento is to pay for initial support the agencies gave them in terms of free housing, financial stipends, promotion of that person; these cuts can sometimes be as much as 90%. However, their work achieves social prominence, a successful tarento career can be the launching point for a career as movie actor or political figure. An example is Takeshi Kitano, a prominent director, who started out as a comedy tarento and still does weekly shows. Tarento who are unable to leverage their career into something larger sometimes fade away into eventual obscurity. Important considerations for tarento include the degree to which their names are publicly known, the Japanese equivalent of a Q Rating, the degree to which they are liked by the public, the character or personality by which they are known.
The distinction between the first two terms is an important one, as celebrities such as Egashira 2:50 might be disliked by audiences and still make a living. Additional elements of a tarento's character may include their origins and other careers, intelligence and skills, or appearance; the way by which a person becomes tarento can more than not be categorized. These are people on programs that have a "trademarked" phrase, wardrobe, or mannerism, used to elicit laughs from the audience, their on-TV characters tend to be shallow as they milk the comic device or neta that gave them notoriety and hardly expand on their character. It is these figures that tend to have the shortest shelf life on TV as they fade into obscurity after the novelty of their act wears off, they are known in Japan as ippatsuya, or "one trick ponies". Examples are Yoshio Kojima, Dandy Sakano, Razor Ramon Hard Gay.'Owarai' is Japanese for laughter, or in this case a "comic talent". Owarai tarento are former comedians in manzai, after becoming famous, make appearances on variety television programs that are comedic in nature.
Sometimes, Tarento are given prominent air time on TV and are promoted due to their association or relationship to an established celebrity or politician, not because they possess any discernible skills for entertaining audiences. One of the bigger examples of this phenomenon is Kazushige Nagashima, the son of the legendary Yomiuri Giants player and manager Shigeo Nagashima. After failing to become a successful baseball player, he turned to the entertainment circuit and used his father's name to make inroads; the son of controversial Tokyo governor Shintaro Ishihara, Yoshizumi Ishihara, has achieved a measure of exposure due to nepotism as well as Kotaro Koizumi, son of former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi. Additionally, both male and female, may be discovered and be given considerable exposure due to their perceived physical beauty and endowments, but the way they are promoted is different from being a fashion model; this is because they spend time making music CDs, star vehicles, television appearances that capitalize on their physical beauty or on screen charisma.
These people are referred to as obaka-aidoru or "dumb idols". Many of the men that fall into this category come from Johnny & Associates, a male talent agency, the backbone of the music and television industry. A gaikokujin tarento known as gaijin tarento and abbreviated gaitare, is a foreign celebrity active exclusive
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Cinnamomum camphora is a species of evergreen tree, known under the names camphor tree, camphorwood or camphor laurel. Cinnamomum camphora is native to China south of the Yangtze River, southern Japan and Vietnam, has been introduced to many other countries, it grows up to 20–30 m tall. In Japan, where the tree is called kusunoki, five camphor trees are known with a trunk circumference above 20 m, with the largest individual, Kamō no Ōkusu, reaching 24.22 m. The leaves have a waxy appearance and smell of camphor when crushed. In spring, it produces bright green foliage with masses of small white flowers, it produces clusters of berry-like fruit around 1 cm in diameter. Its pale bark is rough and fissured vertically. C. camphora is cultivated for timber production. The production and shipment of camphor, in a solid, waxy form, was a major industry in Taiwan prior to and during the Japanese colonial era, it was used medicinally and was an important ingredient in the production of smokeless gunpowder and celluloid.
Primitive stills were set up in the mountainous areas in which the tree is found. The wood was chipped, it was scraped off and packed out to government-run factories for processing and sale. Camphor was one of the most lucrative of several important government monopolies under the Japanese. Camphor is a white crystalline substance, obtained from the tree C. camphora. Camphor has been used for many centuries as a culinary spice, a component of incense, as a medicine, it is an insect repellent and a flea-killing substance. The species contains volatile chemical compounds in all plant parts, the wood and leaves are steam distilled for the essential oils. Camphor laurel has six different chemical variants called chemotypes, which are camphor, linalool, 1,8-cineole, nerolidol and borneol. In China, field workers avoid mixing chemotypes; the cineole fraction of camphor laurel is used in China to manufacture fake "eucalyptus oil". The chemical variants seem dependent upon the country of origin of the tree.
E.g. C. camphora grown in Taiwan and Japan is very high in linalool between 80 and 85%. In India and Sri Lanka, the high camphor variety/chemotype remains dominant. C. camphora grown in Madagascar, though, is high in 1,8-cineole. The essential oil from the Madagascar trees is commercially known as ravintsara. Camphor laurel was introduced to Australia in 1822 as an ornamental tree for use in gardens and public parks, it has become a noxious weed throughout Queensland and central to northern New South Wales, where it is suited to the wet, subtropical climate. However, the tree provides hollows in younger trees, whereas natives can take hundreds of years to develop hollows; the camphor content of the leaf litter helps prevent other plants from germinating helping to ensure the camphor's success against any competing vegetation, the seeds are attractive to birds and pass intact through the digestive system, ensuring rapid distribution. Camphor laurel invades rainforests and pastures, competes against eucalyptus trees, certain species of which are the sole food source of koalas.
Introduced to the contiguous United States around 1875, C. camphora has become naturalized in portions of Alabama, Florida, Hawaii, Mississippi, North Carolina and South Carolina. It has been declared a category. In Australia, two native Lepidoptera insects, the purple brown-eye and common red-eye, larval stages feed on camphor despite it being an introduced plant. Sandalwood Camphor laurel fact sheet—Produced by the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries Campaign to stop the spread of camphor laurels in Australia
Rome Kanda is a Japanese tarento and actor who resides in the United States. He resides and works in Los Angeles, California. Born in Kishiwada, Japan, Kanda spent his early career as an actor with his debut movie Tokyo Pop directed by Fran Rubel Kuzui and filmed both in Japan and the USA in 1987. After finding his own path to be an actor and comedian, he moved to the USA in 1999 and has made his first appearances on Ned's Declassified School Survival Guide as a samurai, nowadays Kanda is most known for his hosting role on the "Majide" game on I Survived a Japanese Game Show in 2008 and 2009 and works under the alias of Kei Kato on the G4 broadcasts of Kinniku Banzuke, he has appeared on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, Saturday Night Live and in a commercial for the New York Mets as a sushi chef. Kanda has starred in films such as Takeshi Kitano's film Sonatine, his most recent film appearance has been a supportive role in "The Informant!", a Matt Damon vehicle directed by Steven Soderbergh. He has appeared as a spokesman and personality for Sun Drop soda.
He appears on several TV commercials playing a soda sommelier named "The Taste Master." Kanda is familiar with variety of Japanese traditional performing arts and martial arts such as Buyō, Kendo, among, samurai sword fighting, which he teaches. While he continues to perform at a comedy club in Hollywood as a comedian. Kanda was chosen to be one of the speakers at "TEDxTOKYO 2010 HIT RESET" to be held in Tokyo on May 15, 2010. Rome Kanda Official website Rome Kanda on IMDb Interview with Rome Kanda, Host of'Majide' on'I Survived a Japanese Game Show' J!-ENT INTERVIEW with Rome Kanda – Actor and host of “MAJIDE” on ABC’s “I Survived a Japanese Game Show” TEDxTOKYO
The Hanwa Line is a commuter rail line in the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto Metropolitan Area and operated by West Japan Railway Company. The 61.3-kilometre line runs between Osaka and Wakayama and has a 1.7-kilometre branchline in a southern Osaka suburb. The terminus of the line in Osaka is Tennōji Station in Tennōji-ku where most of the commuter trains on the line originate and terminate. However, many intercity limited express and rapid trains extend to the Osaka Loop Line beyond Tennōji; the terminus in Wakayama is Wakayama Station. Some trains from Osaka terminate before Wakayama and some spur off to Kansai Airport Station on the Kansai Airport Line from Hineno Station. Tracks are connected to the Kisei Main Line and some trains continue on from there; the Hagoromo Branch Line called the Hagoromo Line or the Higashi-Hagoromo Branch Line, between Ōtori Station and Higashi-Hagoromo Station, is a part of the Hanwa Line. On the 1.7 km branch, only local shuttle trains operate. Hanwa Line segment in bold. Stations in brackets are only served by some services.
Haruka: Maibara/Kyoto/Shin-Osaka - Tennoji - - - Kansai Airport Kuroshio: Kyoto/Shin-Osaka - Tennoji - - - - Wakayama ~ Shirahama/Shingu Local: Tennoji - WakayamaTrains stop at every station on the line, they are operated between Tennoji and Otori in the non-rush hour. Kishuji Rapid Service: Osaka Loop Line/Tennoji - WakayamaTrains run on the Osaka Loop Line before entering Hanwa Line at Tennoji with stopping at every station between Tennoji and Fukushima via Tsuruhashi and Osaka Nishikujo, Bentencho and Shin-Imamiya stations, they make rapid service stops throughout the Hanwa Line and stop at every station between Hineno and Wakayama except in the morning and night. Kansai Airport Rapid Service: Osaka Loop Line/Tennoji - Hineno - Kansai AirportTrains run in tandem with Kishuji Rapid between the Osaka Loop Line and Hineno before splitting off and making every stop on the Kansai Airport Line, they go loop with stops at every station between Tennoji and Fukushima via Tsuruhashi and Osaka Nishikujo, Bentencho and Shin-Imamiya.
Direct Rapid Service: Osaka Loop Line ← Tennoji ← Wakayama/Kansai AirportTrains run on weekday mornings, make rapid service stops throughout its route and every stop on the Osaka Loop Line. Rapid Service: Tennoji - WakayamaTrains run on the Hanwa Line with extended service to the Kisei Main Line except the non-rush hour. Stations on the Hanwa Line where trains stop: at Tennōji, Mikunigaoka, Ōtori, Izumi-Fuchū, Higashi-Kishiwada, Hineno, Izumi-Sunagawa, Kii and WakayamaRegional Rapid Service: Tennoji - Hineno/WakayamaTrains make rapid service stops from Tennoji to Otori local stops to Wakayama, they run between Tennoji and Hineno in the non-rush hour, in the morning and as the last train for Hineno. B-Rapid Service: Tennoji - WakayamaTrains ran in early mornings and between the mornings and non-rush hours, with rapid service stops from Tennoji to Kumatori local stops to Wakayama; the first train of the service from Wakayama ran to Shin-Osaka via the Osaka Loop Line and the Umeda Freight Line.
Legend: ●: All trains stop ｜: All trains pass ○: Some trains stop ↑: Pass, northbound services only ▲: Stop, northbound services only ▼: Stop, southbound services onlyLocal trains stop at all stations. For limited expresses Haruka and Kuroshio, please see their respective articles. All trains are based at Suita Depots. 223-0/2500 series 225-5000/5100 series 281 series 283 series 287 series 289 series 51 series 52 series 70 series 72 series 103 series 113 series 117 series 123 series 165 series 205-0 series 205-1000 series 221 series 381 series 485 series KiHa 55 series KiHa 58 series KiHa 65 KiHa 81 series KiHa 82 series MoYo 100 MoTa 300 KuYo 500 KuTa 600 KuTe 700 KuTa 750 KuTa 3000 KuTa 7000 ED16 EF15 RoKo 1000 RoKo 1100 MoKa 2000 ED1151 The line was opened as a double-track electrified line by the Hanwa Electric Railway in 1929. In 1940, the company became the Yamanote Line of Nankai; the Yamanote Line was nationalized in 1944 and renamed the Hanwa Line. When Kansai International Airport opened in 1994, the Hanwa Line became one of the main railway links between the city and the airport.
This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Nova is a large eikaiwa school in Japan. It was by far the largest company of this type until its publicized collapse in October 2007. Before its bankruptcy, Nova employed 15,000 people across a group of companies that supported the operations of and extended out from the "Intercultural Network" of its language schools; the scope of its business operations reached its peak in February 2007 following a rapid expansion of its chain to 924 Nova branches plus a Multimedia Center located in Osaka. Nova, known for high-priced lesson packages, plagued by lawsuits and negative publicity, began to decline in earnest immediately after the Ministry of Economy and Industry placed a six-month ban against soliciting new long-term contracts from students on the company on 13 June 2007; the impending financial crisis facing Nova related to a rapid increase in refund claims, significant drops in sales figures, deterioration of its reputation, came to the fore in September 2007 when Nova began to delay payment of wages and bonuses to staff.
The NAMBU Foreign Workers Caucus in Tokyo estimated that up to 3,000 staff had not received their salaries on time. A solution for Nova's failure to pay wages was promised by 19 October in a fax sent to branch schools. On 23 October the Osaka Labor Standards office accepted a demand by unionized Nova instructors to investigate criminal charges against Nova President and founder, Nozomu Sahashi, over delayed and unpaid wages, but Sahashi was not charged, it took eight months for the company to reach the point where it filed for bankruptcy protection on 26 October 2007 whereupon the trading of its stock was suspended and was delisted on 27 November 2007. On 6 November 2007 court-appointed receivers announced that Nagoya-based G. Communication would sponsor Nova. Initial plans by G.com were to start with reopening up to 30 schools in various locations including Tokyo and Osaka by the end of November 2007. G.com sold off its 490 Nova and 167 GEOS English schools on 1 October 2010 to Inayoshi Holdings, with 50 of the GEOS schools slated to join the Nova group under the name "Nova x Geos" on 1 November 2010.
As of 1 February 2012 Nova is owned by Jibun Mirai Associe Co. Ltd. On 2 September 2013 Jibun Mirai established a wholly owned subsidiary called Nova and reinstated the name Nova; as of January 2014 Nova operates 310 branches, with 66,000 students. The Nova Group was led by CEO Nozomu Sahashi. Nova's corporate headquarters were in Osaka; the company was the largest employer of foreign nationals in Japan, employing 7,000 foreign workers, 5,000 of whom were employed as language instructors. Each year, Nova hired between 2,600 foreign teachers to replace those who had left. Although instructors were not required to have actual educational training, the company provided a salary bonus for teachers with an accredited TEFL certificate, any master's degree, or a degree in education. Teachers were admitted directly after university graduation with any degree that allowed them to obtain a work visa. Instructors from participating countries who can obtain a Working Holiday Visa were admitted without a degree.
They earned less pay than full-time instructors. Sahashi established the company with two high school graduates from Sweden and Canada whom he met via a friend, studying abroad in Paris, they opened the first classroom in Osaka. The name Nova was chosen by Sahashi. In November 1996, Nova's initial public offering was met with several demonstrations in front of Nomura Securities and the Tokyo Stock Exchange. A complaint filed by The Nova Union stated that the company was violating Japanese exchange laws by falsely stating that there were no unions at Nova, nor pending litigation, that labor relations between the company and its employees were amicable and untroubled. Since 1997, Nova expanded the number of its schools as its business grew, going from 239 schools to 623 in 2004. By 2002, Nova had captured 50% of total market share by revenue and in 2003, Nova had gained a 66% market share by number of students, some 410,000 students in total; however 2005 saw. The company was in the red in the business year ending in March for the second consecutive year, posting net losses of 3 billion yen in fiscal 2005 and 2.4 billion yen in fiscal 2006 after a failed expansion attempt.
The number of students fell to 418,000 by the end of March: down 12.1 percent from a year earlier. On 20 September 2007, NOVA announced; the announcement of court protection and the admission that operations at all Nova branches would be temporarily shut down shocked the estimated 420,000 Nova students as some of them had paid their tuition in advance and feared their money might not be refunded. The Ministry of Economy and Industry asked the Japan Association for the Promotion of Foreign Language Education, an industry body, to call on its member schools to accept Nova students. METI requested consumer credit companies not to seek loan repayments from the 20% of Nova students who paid their tuition with loans because Nova has ceased operations and they could not take lessons. Nova President Nozomu Sahashi, missing since before his dismissal, was replaced by three board members, including co-founder Anders Lundqvist; the Osaka Labor Bureau, a local branch of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, launched a consulting counter with five interpreters for foreign Nova instructors.
The immediate effect of collapse of Nova was the s