Seven Brides for Seven Brothers
Seven Brides for Seven Brothers is a 1954 musical film, photographed in Ansco Color in the CinemaScope format. The film was directed by Stanley Donen, with music by Saul Chaplin and Gene de Paul, lyrics by Johnny Mercer, Film critic Stephanie Zacharek has called the barn-raising sequence in Seven Brides one of the most rousing dance numbers ever put on screen. Seven Brides for Seven Brothers won the Academy Award for Best Scoring of a Musical Picture and was nominated for four additional awards, in 2006, American Film Institute named Seven Brides for Seven Brothers as one of the best American musical films ever made. In 1850, backwoodsman Adam Pontipee comes into a town in the Oregon Territory to search for a bride, met with ridicule by some locals, he comes upon the local tavern where he meets Milly. On the journey home Milly talks about how she is excited to be cooking and taking care of one man. When they arrive at his cabin in the mountains, Milly is surprised to learn that Adam is one of seven brothers living under the same roof.
The brothers have been named alphabetically from the Old Testament in order of birth, Benjamin, Daniel, Frank, all of the brothers have red hair and all but Gideon are well over six feet tall. Understandably sad about having to tend to the needs of not one, as an idea to solve the situation. A smart & reasonable Milly decides to, marry Adams brothers off to some girls, during an attempt to accomplish this Milly teaches Adams, ill-behaved younger brothers manners and social mores. She shows them how to dance, at first, the brothers have a hard time changing from their mountain man ways, but eventually each comes to see that the only way he will get a woman of his own is to do things Millys way. They try out their new manners & make an attempt to begin courting the girls and this takes place at a, where they meet six women they like — Dorcas, Martha, Liza and Alice. The girls take a fancy to the brothers as well, they already have suitors among the young men of the town, who jealously taunt the brothers into fighting during the barn-raising.
At first the six brothers remember Millys teaching and try to resist being drawn into a fight by accepting physical indignities, Adam refuses to let himself be pushed around by the rival suitors and calls his younger brothers cowards for letting them get away with their behavior. The girls suitors from the town finally go too far when they attack Adam, a free-for-all ensues in which the brothers dominate their physically weaker townie rivals. Although the Pontipees did not start the fight, they are banished from the town after demolishing the barn they were raising in the course of the brawl, winter finds the six younger brothers pining for the girls for whom they had fallen fast and hard. Milly asks Adam to talk to the brothers as she fears they will want to leave because of missing the girls, Adam reads his brothers the story of The Sobbin Women, one of the books Milly brought to the homestead. He tells them that they should stop moping around and take action is necessary to get their women.
Aided by Adam, the brothers kidnap the six girls, cause an avalanche in Echo Pass so that they cannot be followed by the townspeople, the only problem, they forgot to bring the parson to perform the marriages
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 36th largest and the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia to the north, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, and Arkansas and Missouri to the west. The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, Tennessees capital and second largest city is Nashville, which has a population of 654,610. Memphis is the states largest city, with a population of 655,770, the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was initially part of North Carolina, Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1,1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.
Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia and this sharply reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. This city was established to house the Manhattan Projects uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the worlds first atomic bomb, Tennessees major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the primary agricultural products, and major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, the town was located on a river of the same name, and appears on maps as early as 1725. The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain, some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee modification of an earlier Yuchi word. It has been said to mean meeting place, winding river, according to ethnographer James Mooney, the name can not be analyzed and its meaning is lost.
The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, the spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlakes Draught of the Cherokee Country in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created Tennessee County, the county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee. When a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new out of the Southwest Territory. Other sources differ on the origin of the nickname, according to the Columbia Encyclopedia. Tennessee ties Missouri as the state bordering the most other states, the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet, Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessees eastern border, is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail, and is the third highest peak in the United States east of the Mississippi River
Li'l Abner (musical)
Lil Abner is a musical with a book by Norman Panama and Melvin Frank, music by Gene De Paul, and lyrics by Johnny Mercer. The Broadway production opened on November 15,1956 and ran for a moderately successful 693 performances, the score and Michael Kidds choreography received critical praise, but some critics felt that the books adaptation lost the spirit of the comic strip. Kidd and Edie Adams, as Daisy Mae, won Tony Awards, while newcomer Peter Palmer, in the title role, Paramount released a film version with the same title in 1959, with most of the Broadway cast reprising their roles. A musical version of the comic strip Lil Abner was first planned in 1946, with the book to be written by the comic strips author. Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II were named as potential producers, this version never materialized, and over the next several years, various authors and composers sought to musicalize Lil Abner, including writers Arnold Horwitt and Josh Logan. The familiar comic characters were to be retained but Lil Abner.
The Schwartz–Lerner version fell through, but by the next year Lerner and composer Burton Lane planned to write the musical, herman Levin would serve as producer, and rehearsals were scheduled to begin in November 1954. However, that year, Levin announced a version of George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion, by Lerner. In 1955, Norman Panama and Melvin Frank announced a Lil Abner musical to open on Broadway in 1956, the music was to be written by Gene de Paul with lyrics by Johnny Mercer. De Paul and Mercer had previously written the score for the movie musical. Michael Kidd, who had choreographed Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, was to direct, Al Capp approved the production and was to receive a share of any profits. Paramount Pictures was the backer of the musical and paid $300,000 for its film rights, with Panama and Frank slated to adapt, direct. The producers conducted a search for the actor to play the title role, over 400 actors auditioned for the part. Palmer was a singer with a music degree from the University of Illinois.
The leading female role, Daisy Mae, was easier to cast. The producers knew that they wanted soprano Edie Adams, who had given a performance as Eileen in the 1953 musical Wonderful Town. Adams, had offered the lead role in the original production of Candide. Adams asked director George Abbott, who had directed her in Wonderful Town, which show she should choose, and he advised her to take Daisy Mae, coincidentally, Al Capp had been one of the three judges for the Miss U. S
Edd Byrnes is an American actor best known for his starring role in the television series 77 Sunset Strip. He was featured in the 1978 film Grease as television show host Vince Fontaine. He was born Edward Byrne Breitenberger and he had two siblings, Vincent and Jo-Ann. When he was 13, his father died and he dropped his last name in favor of Byrnes based on the name of his maternal grandfather, a fireman. His enduring and most famous role was as Gerald Lloyd Kookie Kookson III, efrem Zimbalist, Jr. Kookie frequently acted as an unlicensed, protégé detective who helped the private eyes on their cases based upon the word heard from Kookies street informants. Kookie called everybody Dad, and was televisions homage to the Jack Kerouac style of cult-hipster of the late 1950s. To the thrill of teen viewers, Kookie spoke a jive-talk code to everyone, whether you understood him or not, and Kookie knew better than others the word on the street. Some say the Kookie character borrowed much from James Deans character in the film Rebel Without a Cause and it sold over one million copies, and was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA.
The song appeared on the Edd Byrnes album, entitled Kookie and he and Stevens appeared together on ABCs The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom. Byrnes walked off the show in the second season demanding a part and bigger pay. He appeared as a guest star in other WB series, including Lawman and Sugarfoot, in the latter with John Russell, Rodolfo Hoyos, Jr. and Will Wright in the 1958 season-premiere episode Ring of Sand. Owing to restrictions in his Warner Brothers television contract, Byrnes was forced to turn down roles in Oceans Eleven, Rio Bravo, North to Alaska. However he appeared in the Warner Brothers films Darbys Rangers, Marjorie Morningstar, Up Periscope and he tested for the role of John F. Kennedy in PT109 but President Kennedy preferred Cliff Robertson. Byrnes travelled to Europe where he made several films and he was featured as one of the convict commandos in 1964 in Roger Cormans The Secret Invasion. In 1965 he played Dick Martin in Beach Ball, returned to Europe for several spaghetti westerns, including the 1967 films Renegade Riders, Any Gun Can Play and Red Blood, Yellow Gold.
Since he has appeared in television programs and movies, including the Duo-Vision horror film Wicked, Wicked in 1973. In 1974, Byrnes hosted the pilots of Wheel of Fortune, as a tribute to his enduring celebrity and his iconic Kookie character, Edd Byrnes has ranked #5 in TV Guides list of TVs 25 Greatest Teen Idols. He wrote an autobiography in 1996 entitled Kookie No More and his son by Asa Maynor is Logan Byrnes, a television news anchor for Fox Connecticut since 2008
Sony Pictures Studios
The facility is owned by Sony Pictures Entertainment and houses the divisions film studios, Columbia Pictures, TriStar Pictures, and Screen Gems. The complex was the studios of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer from 1924 to 1986. In addition to films shot at the facility, several shows have been broadcast live or taped there. The lot, which is open to the public for daily studio tours, while director Thomas H. Ince was filming at Ballona Creek in 1915, Harry Culver, the founding father of Culver City, persuaded Ince to move his studio Inceville from Pacific Palisades to Culver City. During that time, Ince co-founded Triangle Film Corporation and the Triangle Studios was opened in the form of a Greek colonnade – the entrance to the studios, the colonnade still stands fronting Washington Boulevard and is a Culver City historical landmark. Ince added a few stages and an Administration Building before selling out to his partners D. W. Griffith, Ince relocated down the street and built the Culver Studios at that location.
In 1918, Triangle Studios was sold to film producer Samuel Goldwyn, Goldwyn added a few sound stages before selling his shares in Goldwyn Studios. But it was the Technicolor musicals, including The Wizard of Oz, Singin in the Rain, in addition to the main production building, MGM added two large backlot facilities – Lot 2 located opposite the main studio across Overland Avenue. Lot 3 entered the corner of Jefferson Boulevard and Overland Avenue and was MGM’s largest backlot, the administration building was inaugurated in 1938 and was named for Thalberg. However, the United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. anti-trust case of 1948 severed MGMs connection with Loews Theaters, in 1969, millionaire Kirk Kerkorian bought MGM and proceeded to dismantle the studio. MGM’s film memorabilia was sold through an 18-day auction, and 38 acres of the backlots were sold. Lot 3 was razed while Lot 2 was sold to housing developments, Kerkorian used the money to construct his hotel chain, the MGM Grand Hotels.
In 1981, Kerkorians Tracinda Corporation acquired United Artists and merged it with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become MGM/UA Entertainment Co and he sold MUEC to Ted Turner in 1986, who after 74 days, sold MGM/UA back to Kerkorian while retaining the pre-1986 MGM film library. In 1986, the studio was sold to Lorimar-Telepictures, during that time, the MGM logo was removed from the studios and moved across the street to the Filmland Building before their 1992 move to Santa Monica and finally settling in Century City. In 1989, Warner Communications acquired Lorimar-Telepictures and that year, Sony hired producers Jon Peters and Peter Guber to run the companys newly acquired Columbia Pictures Entertainment unit, even though they had a contract with Warner Bros. To resolve this issue, Warner sold their Lorimar lot to Columbia, Columbia had been sharing with Warner Bros. their studio lot in Burbank in a partnership called the Burbank Studios beginning in 1972. Sony sold its interest in the Burbank Studios as a result of the Guber-Peters issue, Sony acquired the property, first renamed Columbia Studios, in poor condition and thereafter invested $100 million to renovate the studio complex.
The property underwent a comprehensive plan as it transitioned to the 45 acres Sony Pictures Studios complex
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. Its headquarters are in Beverly Hills, California and it is one of the worlds oldest film studios. In 1971, it was announced that MGM would merge with 20th Century Fox, over the next thirty-nine years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3,2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol MGM, is not currently affiliated with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios, the studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios, mostly United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and a film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up production, as well as keeping production going at UA.
It incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production, the studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few later, sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt. The series of deals left MGM even more heavily in debt, MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio. The French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the major creditor. Even more deeply in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, and Australias Seven Network in 1996, the debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGMs ability to survive as an independent motion picture studio. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem and he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loews Theatres chain. With Loews lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters.
Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17,1924, Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production. MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years, in 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. Marcus Loew died in 1927, and control of Loews passed to Nicholas Schenck, in 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew familys holdings with Schencks assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision, Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds
Follow That Dream
Follow That Dream is a 1962 American musical film starring Elvis Presley made by Mirisch Productions. The movie was based on the 1959 novel Pioneer, Go Home, producer Walter Mirisch liked the song Follow that Dream and retitled the picture. The movie reached #5 on the Variety weekly Box Office Survey, when the car runs out of gas, Holly persuades Toby to persuade Pop to take up residence on the land next to the road. A chance encounter with an avid fisherman gives Holly an idea and they build a thriving business catering to sports fishermen. Toby rejects the advances of amorous social worker Alisha Claypoole, who goes to court to have the children away in revenge. Also, her government official boyfriend considers the squatters home to be an eyesore, since the area is outside the jurisdiction of any law enforcement, two gamblers soon set up a casino in a trailer, and Toby has to deal with their armed thugs. In the end, Tobys earthy wits win over the judge, Holly gets Toby to recognize that she is a grown woman.
Elvis Presley as Toby Anne Helm as Holly Arthur OConnell as Pop Joanna Moore as Alisha Jack Kruschen as Carmine Simon Oakland as Nick Roland Winters as Judge Alan Hewitt as H. At first, Powell was unhappy that Presley had been chosen for the role, filming began July 6,1961 in the summer heat of Florida. It was filmed in Citrus and Levy Counties, specifically Inverness, Inglis, the courtroom scene took place in the 1912 Citrus County Old Courthouse in Inverness which has been restored and is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Part of the courtroom restoration can be attributed to the film in that it was the only record of the original courtroom configuration. Yankeetown memorializes his stay in the form of a major highway, the parkway was so named because of the efforts of four Elvis fans. After months of meetings, the parkway had an opening under its new name, Follow That Dream Parkway. The dedication and celebration was held in Inglis, the bank scene was filmed in Ocala at a bank on Silver Springs Boulevard.
During filming, Elvis met Tom Petty, who was only 11 years old at the time, pettys uncle was involved in the production of the movie. Shortly afterwards, Petty swapped his slingshot for a collection of Elvis records. Review by Stuart Galbraith IV at DVD Talk, May 25,2004
San Bernardino Mountains
The San Bernardino Mountains are a high and rugged mountain range in Southern California in the United States. Situated north and northeast of San Bernardino and spanning two California counties, the range out at 11,489 feet at San Gorgonio Mountain – the tallest peak in all of Southern California. The San Bernardinos form a significant region of wilderness and are popular for hiking and skiing, the mountains were formed about eleven million years ago by tectonic activity along the San Andreas Fault, and are still actively rising. Many local rivers originate in the range, which receives more precipitation than the surrounding desert. The ranges unique and varying environment allows it to some of the greatest biodiversity in the state. For over 10,000 years, the San Bernardinos and their surrounds have been inhabited by indigenous peoples, Spanish explorers first encountered the San Bernardinos in the late 18th century, naming the eponymous San Bernardino Valley at its base. European settlement of the region progressed slowly until 1860, when the became the focus of the largest gold rush ever to occur in Southern California.
Recreational development of the began in the early 20th century. Since then, the mountains have been engineered for transportation. Four major state highways and the California Aqueduct traverse the mountains today, the Morongo Valley in the southeast divides the range from the Little San Bernardino Mountains. Encompassing roughly 2,100 square miles, the mountains lie mostly in San Bernardino County, the range divides three major physiographic regions, the highly urbanized Inland Empire to the southwest, the Coachella Valley in the southeast, and the Mojave Desert to the north. Most of the lies within the boundaries of the San Bernardino National Forest. From its northwestern end, the crest of the mountains rises steadily until they are interrupted by the gorge of Bear Creek, many cities lie at the base of the San Bernardino Mountains. These include San Bernardino and Yucaipa in the south, Yucca Valley to the east, in addition, there are several mid-sized to large towns in the mountains themselves, including Big Bear Lake, Big Bear City, Lake Arrowhead and Running Springs.
Cities within the San Bernardino Mountains total a population of about 44,000, several regional streams and rivers have their headwaters in the mountains. The principal drainage is provided by the Santa Ana River, which runs westwards into the Pacific Ocean in Orange County, the San Bernardino Mountains are a humid island in the mostly semi-arid southern California coastal plain. Parts of the San Bernardino Mountains have annual totals in excess of 40 inches. Most of the falls between November and March, summers are mostly dry except for infrequent thunderstorms during late summer
The Huffington Post called her a pioneer of female superheroes for television. Yvonne Craig was born in Taylorville and was raised in Columbus, after being discovered by Alexandra Danilova, a ballerina and instructor, Craig joined the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo as its youngest corps de ballet member. This training was helpful when she performed stunts while playing Batgirl and she left the ballet company in 1957 over a disagreement on casting changes and moved to Los Angeles in the hopes of continuing her dancing career but found herself cast in film roles. One of her earliest television roles was in an episode of the TV series Perry Mason alongside Neil Hamilton, who played her stepfather. Shortly afterwards, she appeared in three films—The Young Land, The Gene Krupa Story, and Gidget —and guest-starred in TV series Mr. Lucky as Beverly Mills in the episode Little Miss Wow. Craig appeared with Bing Crosby in High Time and in Seven Women from Hell featured alongside Cesar Romero, Craig starred in roles with Elvis Presley in two films, It Happened at the Worlds Fair and Kissin Cousins.
She starred in the 1966 cult sci-fi film Mars Needs Women, during the 1960s, Craig regularly appeared in television drama series. She appeared five times on The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis and she played Jo, a young phototographer with Charles Bronson in Man With a Camera in 1960. In 1964 Craig guest starred as Carol, a photographer, on Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, Season One, episode 7. Craig appeared on Star Trek as Marta, a green-skinned Orion slave girl in the episode Whom Gods Destroy, in an episode of The Man from U. N. C. L. E. She helps solve the mystery of a brain-endangering poison, employee in a theatrical film, One Spy Too Many expanded from the episode The Alexander the Greater Affair. In a 1966 episode of The Wild Wild West, she played an assassin who performs an exotic Arabian dance and she played a Navy nurse with exotic Arabian dance skills in an episode of McHales Navy. She appeared in an episode of The Big Valley with Lee Majors, in a 1968 episode of The Ghost & Mrs. Muir, she played Gladys Zimmerman a bride-to-be who was stranded overnight at Gull Cottage.
From September 1967, Craig appeared in her highest-profile role—as Batgirl—for the third, as Batgirl she wore a purple and yellow outfit and rode a purple motorcycle with white lace trim, whereas her alter ego Barbara Gordon was the librarian daughter of Commissioner Gordon. The New York Times praised her for add a scrappy girl-power element to a TV series it described as campy. Craig reportedly felt some connection to the character and complained to DC Comics after Barbara Gordon was shot and paralyzed by the Joker in the graphic novel Batman, during this time Craig appeared as a contestant on the show The Dating Game. Craig reprised her Batgirl role in a 1974 public service announcement for equal pay for women sponsored by the U. S. Department of Labor Wage & Hour Division, the PSA was narrated by William Dozier, who had narrated the Batman TV series. After Batman, Craig continued to act sporadically in movies and television and she appeared in guest roles in Love, American Style, Kentucky Jones, The Big Valley, It Takes a Thief, The Mod Squad and Emergency
Intercontinental ballistic missile
An intercontinental ballistic missile is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of 5,500 kilometres primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery. Similarly, conventional and biological weapons can be delivered with varying effectiveness, most modern designs support multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles, allowing a single missile to carry several warheads, each of which can strike a different target. Early ICBMs had limited precision that allowed them to be used only against the largest targets such as cities and they were seen as a safe basing option, one that would keep the deterrent force close to home where it would be difficult to attack. Attacks against military targets, if desired, still demanded the use of a more precise manned bomber, the result is that the power of a nuclear explosion to rupture hardened structures is greatly decreased by the distance from the impact point of the nuclear weapon. So a near-direct hit is generally necessary, as only diminishing returns are gained by increasing bomb yield, second- and third-generation designs dramatically improved accuracy to the point where even the smallest point targets can be successfully attacked.
Short and medium-range ballistic missiles are known collectively as theatre ballistic missiles, the ICBM A9/A10 rocket initially was intended to be guided by radio, but was changed to be a piloted craft after the failure of Operation Elster. The second stage of the A9/A10 rocket was tested a few times in January and February 1945, the progenitor of the A9/A10 was the German V-2 rocket, designed by von Braun and widely used at the end of World War II to bomb British and Belgian cities. All of these rockets used liquid propellants, in the immediate post-war era, the US and USSR both started rocket research programs based on the German wartime designs, especially the V-2. In the US, each branch of the military started its own programs, in the USSR, rocket research was centrally organized, although several teams worked on different designs. Early designs from both countries were short-range missiles, like the V-2, but improvements quickly followed, in the USSR early development was focused on missiles able to attack European targets.
This changed in 1953 when Sergei Korolyov was directed to development of a true ICBM able to deliver newly developed hydrogen bombs. Given steady funding throughout, the R-7 developed with some speed, the first launch took place on 15 May 1957 and led to an unintended crash 400 km from the site. The first successful test followed on 21 August 1957, the R-7 flew over 6,000 km, the first strategic-missile unit became operational on 9 February 1959 at Plesetsk in north-west Russia. It was the same R-7 launch vehicle that placed the first artificial satellite in space, the first human spaceflight in history was accomplished on a derivative of R-7, Vostok, on 12 April 1961, by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. The U. S. initiated ICBM research in 1946 with the RTV-A-2 Hiroc project and this was a three-stage effort with the ICBM development not starting until the third stage. However, funding was cut after only three successful launches in 1948 of the second stage design, used to test variations on the V-2 design.
With overwhelming air superiority and truly intercontinental bombers, the newly forming US Air Force did not take the problem of ICBM development seriously. Things changed in 1953 with the Soviet testing of their first thermonuclear weapon, the Atlas A first flew on 11 June 1957, the flight lasted only about 24 seconds before the rocket blew up
Private first class
Private first class is a military rank held by junior enlisted personnel. In the United States Army, recruits usually enter service as a private, designated by a single chevron, is typically an automatic promotion after six months of service. Private first class, equivalent to NATO grade OR-3, is designated by a single chevron, soldiers who have achieved an associate degree or its equivalent are entitled to enter the Army at this pay grade. Advancement from private first class is typically to specialist, although occasionally it may be to corporal, the rank of private first class has existed since 1846 and, prior to 1919, its insignia consisted of the branch of service insignia without any arcs or chevrons. The Secretary of War approved an arc of one bar under the branch of service or trade insignia for privates first class on 22 July 1919. From August 5,1920 to May 28,1968, the insignia for private first class was a single chevron. On May 28,1968, the insignia was changed to its current form, consisting of a single chevron with one arc.
In the United States Marine Corps, the rank of Private First Class is the second lowest, just under Lance Corporal and just above Private, equivalent to NATO grade OR-2, at the time the two ranks were directly equivalent. However, since 1968 when the US Army redesignated the E-3 paygrade as PFC, france has the rank of Soldat de première classe indicated with a single red chevron. The rank of private first class in the Singapore Armed Forces lies between the ranks of private and lance-corporal, introduced in 1983, it is awarded to hardworking conscript citizen-soldiers who performed well in their National Service term. Privates first class wear an insignia of a single chevron pointing down. The PFC rank is rarely awarded nowadays by the SAF since 2010s, all private enlistees are eligible to be promoted directly to lance corporal should they meet the minimum qualifying requirements and work performance. In the Vietnam Peoples Army, private first class is the highest junior enlisted rank, Private first class is below corporal and above private second class.
The rank of private first class is similar to its original American counterpart, the insignia consist of a single chevron with a triangle below. The rank is in use with the Philippine Marine Corps, comparative military ranks Gefreiter U. S. Army enlisted rank insignia U. S. Marine Corps enlisted rank insignia U. S. uniformed services pay grades United States military pay