Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Kitasato University is a private university in Minato, Japan. The head of the university is on the Shirokane campus; the school was named after Kitasato Shibasaburō. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901; the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Satoshi Ōmura, a professor at Kitasato University. Its major educational facilities are on 60 km west of central Tokyo; the departments include the School of Medicine, School of Allied Health Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, School of Marine Sciences, School of Nursing, School of Science. About Kitasato University School of Medicine Kitasato University
Kiyoshi Shiga was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist. Shiga was born in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, though his original family name was Satō, he graduated from the Medical School of Tokyo Imperial University in 1896 and went to work at the Institute for the Study of Infectious Diseases under Dr. Kitasato Shibasaburō. Shiga became famous for the discovery of Shigella dysenteriae, the organism that causes dysentery, in 1897, during a severe epidemic in which more than 90,000 cases were reported, with a mortality rate approaching 30%; the bacterium Shigella was thus named after him, as well as the Shiga toxin, produced by the bacterium. After the discovery of Shigella, Shiga worked with Paul Ehrlich in Germany from 1901 to 1905. After returning to Japan, he resumed the study of infectious diseases with Dr. Kitasato, he became a professor at Keio University in 1920. From 1929 to 1931, Shiga was the president of Keijō Imperial University in Keijo and was senior medical advisor to the Japanese Governor-General of Korea.
Shiga was a recipient of the Order of Culture in 1944. He was awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class, on his death in 1957. Csuros, Maria. Microbiological Examination of Water and Wastewater. CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-179-1 Kleinman. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disease. ISBN 1-55009-364-9
Aoyama Cemetery is a cemetery in Aoyama, Tokyo, managed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. The cemetery is famous for its cherry blossoms, at the season of hanami, which many people would visit; the cemetery was the land of the Aoyama family of the Gujō clan in the province of Mino. Japan's first public cemetery was opened in 1874, in the Meiji era was the main locations of foreigners' graves; the cemetery has an area of 263,564 m2. The Japanese section includes the graves of many notable Japanese, including: Amino Kiku Gotō Shōjirō Ichikawa Danjūrō IX Ichikawa Danjūrō XI Kitasato Shibasaburō Nakae Chōmin Nogi Maresuke Ōkubo Toshimichi Otoya Yamaguchi Sasaki Takayuki Shiga Naoya Nishi Takeichi The cemetery has a Tateyama branch, where Nagata Tetsuzan, Kimura Heitarō, Sagara Sōzō are buried. One of the cemetery's most famous graves is that of Hachikō, the faithful and dutiful dog whose statue adorns Shibuya Station, was buried alongside with his two owners, Hidesaburō Ueno and Yaeko Sakano.
The cemetery includes one of the few such plots in Tokyo. Many of the graves are of foreign experts who came to Japan at the end of the 19th century, as part of the Meiji Government's drive for modernisation. Although some of the graves were threatened with removal in 2005 due to unpaid annual fees, the Foreign Section was awarded special protection in 2007. A plaque on the site recognises the women who contributed to Japan's modernization; some of the noted foreigners buried within the cemetery: Francis Brinkley Journalist and scholar. Edoardo Chiossone, engraver. Edwin Dun, American agricultural advisor. William Clark Eastlake "Dental Pioneer of the Orient" Hugh Fraser, British Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Japan. Flora B. Harris and translator, wife of Merriman Colbert Harris. Merriman Colbert Harris American Methodist missionary. Henry Hartshorne, Quaker missionary and doctor, father of Anna Hartshorne. Joseph Heco, the first naturalized Japanese-American. Paul Jacoulet, French-born woodblock print artist in the Japanese style.
Arthur Lloyd, British. Anglican Church in Japan minister, Keio University professor and translator. Henry Spencer Palmer British journalist. Julius Scriba, German surgeon. Alexander Croft Shaw, Canadian. Anglican Church in Japan minister, Keio University professor. Frederick William Strange, British. University instructor, founder of competitive rowing in Japan. Guido Verbeck, Dutch political advisor and missionary. Gottfried Wagener, German chemist and ceramics specialist Charles Dickinson West, Irish engineer. Zōshigaya cemetery Yanaka cemetery This article was translated from the Japanese Wikipedia article ja:青山霊園, accessed December 16, 2007 Who is Buried in the Foreign Section?, The Foreign Section Trust. "Resting in Pieces", Metropolis
Keio University, abbreviated as Keio or Keidai, is a private university located in Minato, Japan. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo, it has eleven campuses in Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Law and Commerce, Medicine and Technology, Policy Management and Information Studies and Medical Care, Pharmacy; the university is one of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports and Technology's thirteen "Global 30" Project universities. In the United States, Keio has a high school called "Keio Academy of New York". Keio traces its history to 1858 when Fukuzawa Yukichi, who had studied the Western educational system at Brown University in the United States, started to teach Dutch while he was a guest of the Okudaira family. In 1868 he devoted all his time to education. While Keiō's initial identity was that of a private school of Western studies, it expanded and established its first university faculty in 1890, became known as a leading institute in Japanese higher education.
It was the first Japanese university to reach its 150th anniversary, celebrating this anniversary in 2008. Keio has leading research centers, it has 30 Research Centers located on its five main campuses and at other facilities for advanced research in Japan. Keio University Research Institute at SFC has joined the MIT and the French INRIA in hosting the international W3C. Fukuzawa stated the mission of Keio shown below, based on his speech at the alumni party on November 1, 1896. Keio Gijuku shouldn't be satisfied with being just one educational institution, its mission is expected to be a model of the nobility of intelligence and virtue,to make clear how it can be applied to its family and nation,and to take an actual action of this statement. It expects all students being leaders in society by the practice of this mission; those sentences were given to students as his will, considered as the simple expression of Keio's actual mission. Keio is known for being the first institution to introduce many modern education systems in Japan.
The following are the examples: Keio is the earliest Japanese school that introduced an annual fixed course fee, designed by Fukuzawa. It introduced the culture of speech to Japan, which Japan had never had before, it built Japan's earliest speech house Mita Speech House in 1875 as well. It is regarded as Japan's first university to accept international students. Keio accepted 2 Korean students in 1881 as its first international students. 60 Korean students entered in 1883 and 130 Korean students in 1895. Keio put "self-respect" as a foundation of its education; this is meant to be physically and mentally independent, respect yourself for keeping your virtue. Independence and self-respect are regarded as Fukuzawa's nature and essence of his education. Learning half and teaching half is the other unique culture in Keio. During the late Edo period and the early Meiji period, several private prep schools used students as assistant teachers and it was called "Learning half and teaching half". Keio had used this system.
In the early period of such schools of Western studies, there had been many things to learn not only for students but professors themselves. Hence there had been sometimes the occasions that students who had learned in advance had taught other students and professors. After the proper legal systems for education had been set up, those situations have disappeared. However, Fukuzawa thought the essence of academia was and is a continuous learning, knowing more things provides more learning opportunities. Keio respects his thought and put the rule in "Rules in Keio Gijuku" that there shouldn't be any hierarchy between teachers and learners, all of the people in Keio Gijuku are in the same company. For this reason, there is still a culture in this university that all professors and lecturers are called with the honorific of "Kun" but never "Teacher" or "Professor". Collaboration in a company is a uniqueness of Keio. Fukuzawa stated in 1879 that the Keio's success today is because of the collaboration in its company, "Collaboration in a company" came from this article.
People in Keio think that all of the people related to Keio are the part of their company, thus they should try to help each other like brothers and sisters. This culture has been seen in the alumni organization called Mita-Kai. Keio University was established in 1858 as a School of Western studies located in one of the mansion houses in Tsukiji by the founder Fukuzawa Yukichi, its root is considered as the Han school for Kokugaku studies named Shinshu Kan established in 1796. Keio changed its name as "Keio Gijuku" in 1868, which came from the era name "Keio" and "Gijuku" as the translation of Private school, it moved to the current location in 1871, established the Medical school in 1873, the official university department with Economics and Literacy study in 1890. Keio has been forming its structure in the following chronological order. There have been several notable things in Keio's over 150-year history as shown below. Keio launched Hiromoto Watanabe as a first chancellor of the Imperial University in 1886.
He is the first chancellor of the authorized
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded yearly for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in his will in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for scientific progress through laboratory discoveries; the Nobel Prize is presented at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal displays the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics and Literature; the reverse side is unique to this medal. The most recent Nobel prize was announced by Karolinska Institute on 1 October 2018, has been awarded to American James P. Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo – for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation; as of 2015, 106 Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded to 12 women.
The first one was awarded in 1901 to the German physiologist Emil von Behring, for his work on serum therapy and the development of a vaccine against diphtheria. The first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Gerty Cori, received it in 1947 for her role in elucidating the metabolism of glucose, important in many aspects of medicine, including treatment of diabetes; some awards have been controversial. This includes one to António Egas Moniz in 1949 for the prefrontal lobotomy, bestowed despite protests from the medical establishment. Other controversies resulted from disagreements over, included in the award; the 1952 prize to Selman Waksman was litigated in court, half the patent rights awarded to his co-discoverer Albert Schatz, not recognized by the prize. The 1962 prize awarded to James D. Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins for their work on DNA structure and properties did not acknowledge the contributing work from others, such as Oswald Avery and Rosalind Franklin who had died by the time of the nomination.
Since the Nobel Prize rules forbid nominations of the deceased, longevity is an asset, considering prizes are awarded as long as 50 years after the discovery. Forbidden is awarding any one prize to more than three recipients. In the last half century there has been an increasing tendency for scientists to work as teams, resulting in controversial exclusions. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, into a family of engineers, he was a chemist and inventor who amassed a fortune during his lifetime, most of it from his 355 inventions of which dynamite is the most famous. He was interested in experimental physiology and set up his own labs in France and Italy to conduct experiments in blood transfusions. Keeping abreast of scientific findings, he was generous in his donations to Ivan Pavlov's laboratory in Russia, was optimistic about the progress resulting from scientific discoveries made in laboratories. In 1888, Nobel was surprised to read his own obituary, titled "The merchant of death is dead", in a French newspaper.
As it happened, it was Nobel's brother Ludvig who had died, but Nobel, unhappy with the content of the obituary and concerned that his legacy would reflect poorly on him, was inspired to change his will. In his last will, Nobel requested that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature. Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died at the age of 63; because his will was contested, it was not approved by the Storting until 26 April 1897. After Nobel's death, the Nobel Foundation was set up to manage the assets of the bequest. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by Swedish King Oscar II. According to Nobel's will, the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, a medical school and research center, is responsible for the Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, the prize is referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
It was important to Nobel that the prize be awarded for a "discovery" and that it be of "greatest benefit on mankind". Per the provisions of the will, only select persons are eligible to nominate individuals for the award; these include members of academies around the world, professors of medicine in Sweden, Norway and Finland, as well as professors of selected universities and research institutions in other countries. Past Nobel laureates may nominate; until 1977, all professors of Karolinska Institute together decided on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. That year, changes in Swedish law forced the Institute to make public any documents pertaining to the Nobel Prize and it was considered necessary to establish a independent body for the Prize work. Therefore, the Nobel Assembly was constituted, it elects the Nobel Committee with 5 members who evaluate the nominees, the Secretary, in charge of the organization, each year 10 adjunct members to assist in the evaluation of candidates. In 1968, a provision was added.
True to its mandate, the Committee has chosen researchers working in the basic sciences over those who have made applied science contributions. Harvey Cushing, a pioneering American neurosurgeon who identified Cushing's syndrome, was not awarded the prize, nor was Sigmund Freud, as his psychoanalysis lacks hypotheses that can be experimentally confirmed; the public expected Jonas Salk or Albert Sabin to receive th