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Kitniyot is a Hebrew word meaning legumes. During the Passover holiday, the word kitniyot takes on a broader meaning to include grains and seeds such as rice, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, soybeans and lentils, in addition to legumes. According to Orthodox Ashkenazi and some Sephardic customs, kitniyot may not be eaten during Passover. Although Reform and Conservative Ashkenazi Judaism allow for the consumption of kitniyot during Passover, long-standing tradition in these and other communities is to abstain from their consumption. According to Torat Eretz Yisrael and Minhagei Eretz Yisrael, any Jew worldwide, regardless of origin, despite the practice of their forefathers, may eat kitniyot on Passover, for it is a practice rejected as an unnecessary precaution by Halachic authorities as early as the time of its emergence; the Torah only prohibits Jews from eating chametz during Passover. Chametz is leaven made from the "five grains": wheat, barley, shibbolet shu'al or rye. There are additional rabbinic prohibitions against eating these grains in any form other than matzo.

Among Orthodox Ashkenazi and some Sephardic Jews, the custom during Passover is to refrain from not only products of the five grains but other grains and legumes. Traditions of what is considered kitniyot vary from community to community but include maize, as well as rice, peas and beans. Many include other legumes, such as peanuts and soy, in this prohibition; the Chayei Adam considers potatoes not to be kitniyot because they were unknown in the time when the prohibition was created, an opinion followed today by nearly all Ashkenazi authorities. Some Sephardic and Yemenite Jews have not traditionally observed a prohibition on eating kitniyot on Passover, although some groups do abstain from the use of dried pulses during Passover. Since wheat flour only becomes chametz after it is ground and mixed with water, one might assume that the kitniyot custom does not forbid kitniyot that were never ground or never came in contact with water. By this logic, it might be permitted to eat fresh kitniyot, or processed kitniyot which never came in contact with water.

In fact, Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu states that Ashkenazim in Israel would eat fresh kitniyot on Pesach until the 1700s, when new Ashkenazi immigrants brought with them the custom not to eat fresh kitniyot. Conservative rabbis have ruled to permit fresh kitniyot; the Halakhic argument against eating kitniyot during Passover originated in early medieval France and Provence and flourished in high medieval Ashkenazi Germany. The original reasons behind the custom of not eating kitniyot during Passover are not clear, though two common theories are that these items are made into products resembling chametz, or that these items were stored in the same sacks as the five grains and people worried that they might become contaminated with chametz, it is possible that crop rotation would result in the forbidden chametz grains growing in the same fields, being mixed in with the kitniyot. Those authorities concerned with these three issues suggested that by avoiding eating kitniyot, people would be better able to avoid chametz.

Since Jewish law is quite stringent about the prohibition against chametz in the house during Passover in small amounts, a tradition developed to avoid these products altogether. Vilna Gaon proposes a different source for this custom; the Gemara in Pesachim notes that Rava objected to the workers of the Exilarch cooking a food called chasisi on Pesach, since it could to be confused with chametz. Tosafot understand that chasisi are lentils, thus, argues Vilna Gaon, establishes the basis for the concern for kitniyot. Rabbi David Golinkin in the Responsa of the Masorati Movement cites Rabbenu Manoah who wrote an opinion in his commentary on Maimonides that "It is not proper to eat kitniyot on holidays because it is written that ‘you shall rejoice in your festivals’ and there is no joy in eating dishes made from kitniyot". Lentils were a food of mourners. Where the prohibition against kitniyot was practiced, some poskim opposed it, among them Rabbi Yeruham of 14th century Provence. Others, including Rav Moshe Feinstein did not advocate abandoning the custom, but he opposed expanding the list of forbidden kitniyot Reform Jewish authorities, such as the Responsa Committee of the Reform Jewish Movement for the principal organization of Reform rabbis in the United States and Canada, have ruled in favor of permitting kitniyot.

Reform Judaism first formally permitted eating kitniyot during Passover in the 19th century. While most Conservative Jews observe the tradition of avoiding kitniyot during Passover, the Committee on Jewish Law and Standards, an authoritative body in Conservative Judaism, issued two responsa in December 2015 that said it was now permissible to eat these prohibited foods throughout the world; these responsa were based on a 1989 responsa by the Responsa Committee of the Israeli Conservative Movement that permitted Conservative Jews in Israel to eat kitniyot. While eating kitniyot has become more common in Israel, due in large part to the influence of Sephardic Jewish food customs, it is not yet clear whether Conservative Jews in other parts of the world will embrace the new rulings or continue to refrain from kitniyot; some Orthodox rabbis, such as David Bar-Hayim at'Beth HaWaad' beth din of M

Mitsuharu Misawa

Mitsuharu Misawa was a Japanese professional wrestler and promoter who worked for All Japan Pro Wrestling before forming Pro Wrestling Noah. Alongside Toshiaki Kawada, Kenta Kobashi, Akira Taue, Misawa was considered one of AJPW's Four Pillars of Heaven, whose matches developed the ōdō style of puroresu and received significant critical acclaim. Despite never working in the United States during the 1990s, Misawa had significant stylistic influence upon American independent wrestling through the popularity of his work among tape-traders in the country. However, while Misawa is regarded by industry journalists as one of the greatest professional wrestlers of all time, the physical demands and consequences of the style in which he worked and the circumstances of his death have made his legacy, or at least that of ōdō, somewhat problematic. Debuting in 1981, Misawa became the second incarnation of the Tiger Mask gimmick in 1984, which he wrestled as through the decade's end. After the departure of Genichiro Tenryu, Misawa unmasked mid-match in May 1990 and began a rivalry with company ace Jumbo Tsuruta.

Misawa's victory over Tsuruta on June 8, 1990 led AJPW to sell out every Tokyo event they held into early 1996, as Tsuruta receded from the main event due to hepatitis, Misawa was cemented as AJPW's ace when he won the Triple Crown Heavyweight Championship from Stan Hansen in August 1992 and held it for the longest reign in the title's history. Misawa remained atop the company throughout the 1990s, following the death of president Giant Baba in 1999, Misawa inherited his position, but conflicts with widow and majority shareholder Motoko Baba led to his removal in May 2000. After this, Misawa led a mass exodus of the promotion's talent to form NOAH. NOAH was successful in the first half of the decade, but as business declined and top star Kobashi left in 2006 for cancer treatment, Misawa continued to work a full-time schedule, despite mounting injuries, for the company's survival. On June 13, 2009, during a tag match in Hiroshima with Go Shiozaki against Akitoshi Saito and Bison Smith, Misawa died after a belly-to-back suplex from Saito.

Misawa was an eight-time world champion, having won the Triple Crown Heavyweight Championship five times and the GHC Heavyweight Championship three times. He was an eight-time world tag team champion. Fifty-three of the sixty-nine events at the Nippon Budokan that Misawa headlined were sellouts, a drawing record, compared to Bruno Sammartino's run at Madison Square Garden. Misawa was named Wrestler of the Year by the Wrestling Observer Newsletter on three occasions, holds the record for most WON five star matches, with 24, he is one of only six wrestlers to have been awarded a six-star rating, for his match with Kawada on June 3, 1994, cited as one of the greatest professional wrestling matches of all time. Misawa was born in Yūbari, Hokkaidō, but moved with his family to Koshigaya, Saitama as the coal mine where his father worked declined. Misawa had an older brother, favored by his father. According to Misawa, his father was violent towards his mother, once stabbed her with a kitchen knife.

Misawa won a long jump competition held by Koshigaya in elementary school, joined the gymnastics club in junior high. He was a fan of professional wrestling the All Japan product, from an early age, his first favorite wrestler was Horst Hoffman. Misawa had wanted to pursue vocation as a professional wrestler since he was 12, planned to do so after completing junior high, but his mother and teacher persuaded him to continue his studies so that he could attend a school with a good amateur wrestling program. Misawa attended the high school at the Ashikaga Institute of Technology in Tochigi on a scholarship, alongside Toshiaki Kawada, a year below him, he wanted to drop out in his second year to begin training, but during an encounter with Jumbo Tsuruta in 1977, the latter convinced Misawa to complete high school education, told him that if he was serious about professional wrestling he should concentrate on Amateur wrestling for the time being. Misawa would have significant success in amateur wrestling.

Wrestling at 187 pounds, Misawa won the national high school championship in 1980, in the same year he placed fifth at the freestyle World Championships, competing in the junior age group. Despite his success, Misawa disliked amateur wrestling, only saw it as a means to an end for a career in professional wrestling. Misawa entered the AJPW training camp in March 1981, was trained by Kazuharu Sonoda and Akihisa Takachihō, though he received training from Dick "The Destroyer" Beyer, Shohei Baba, Dory Funk Jr. and Lou Thesz. He made his professional debut on August 21, 1981, where he lost against Shiro Koshinaka in an outdoor show in Urawa. After losing his first seventeen consecutive matches, Misawa had his first win on October 9 in a tag match with Mitsuo Momota against Hiromichi Fuyuki and Nobuyoshi Sugawara, won his first singles match against Sugawara four nights later. In April 1983, Baba held a round-robin tournament for his preliminary wrestlers called the Lou Thesz Cup, Misawa entered the tournament alongside Koshinaka, Fuyuki and brother Yoshihiro Momota, Sugawara and Tarzan Goto.

Misawa reached the finals, on April 22 in the Nakajima Sports Center, Misawa made his televised debut in the final match for the Lou Thesz Cup, again wrestling Koshinaka to a loss. Baba had

Fonovisa Records

Fonovisa Records is an American Spanish language record label founded in 1984 by Guillermo Santiso as a subsidiary of Televisa. Its former name before being acquired by Televisa in 1984 was Profono Internacional, founded in 1978. Fonovisa produces Mexican style music, it is well known for its signing with artists such as Los Tigres Del Norte, Los Bukis, Enrique Iglesias and Thalía. In late 2002, Fonovisa was acquired from Televisa by the Univision Music Group. Fonovisa was owned by the Univision Music Group until May 2008 when it was bought by Universal Music Group, it is now part of Universal Music Latin Entertainment. Fonovisa headquarters are now in Hollywood, California. On January 25, 1996, Fonovisa was allowed to proceed with its copyright infringement lawsuit against Cherry Auction for allowing vendors to sell unlicensed records. Fonovisa itself, became the subject of controversy in 1999 when the record label admitted to paying radio stations millions of dollars in payola to play songs from Fonovisa artists.

Santiso was charged with tax evasion during the process. List of record labels Official site

Craven Berkeley

Craven FitzHardinge Berkeley was a British Whig politician. Berkeley was the seventh son of Frederick Berkeley, 5th Earl of Berkeley, Mary, daughter of William Cole, he was the younger brother of William Berkeley, 1st Earl FitzHardinge, Maurice Berkeley, 1st Baron FitzHardinge and Henry FitzHardinge Berkeley and of the Hon. Grantley Berkeley. Craven entered Parliament for Cheltenham in 1832, a seat he held until 1847. In the 1847 general election the seat was won by Sir Willoughby Jones, but his election was declared void in May the following year. Berkeley was elected in his place in June 1848 but his election was declared void two months later. In 1852 he was again returned for the constituency, held the seat until his death three years later. Berkeley married firstly Augusta, daughter of Sir Horace St Paul, 1st Baronet and widow of George Henry Talbot, in 1839, they had one daughter. After Augusta’s death in April 1841, aged 28, he married secondly Charlotte, daughter of General Denzil Onslow, in 1845.

Berkeley died in July 1855, aged 50. His daughter Louisa Mary succeeded as 15th Baroness Berkeley in 1882. Charlotte Berkeley died in January 1897. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Craven Berkeley Biography at

Aussie Queer Eye for the Straight Guy

Aussie Queer Eye for the Straight Guy is an Australian reality television series, based on the original and hugely popular American series, Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. Much like the American version, the program is premised on the stereotype that gay men are superior in matters of fashion, personal grooming, interior design and culture. In each episode, a team of five gay men—known collectively as the "Fab Five"—perform a makeover on a subject a straight man, revamping his wardrobe, redecorating his home and offering advice on grooming and food; the program premiered on Network Ten at 7:30 pm on Wednesday 9 February 2005, during the first week the 2005 Australian ratings season to a national audience of 903,254. After the second episode saw its audience share drop 20 per cent to 725,263, rumours began the show would now be moved from its prime time slot at 7.30 pm on Wednesdays to 9.30 pm on Mondays. However, after the third episode which aired on 23 February, the Network axed the program.

The three remaining episodes aired in the year. Ryan Andrijich: expert on food and beverages, meal preparation Will Fennell: expert on hair, personal hygiene, makeup Brendan Wong: expert on interior design and home organization Ty Henschke: expert on clothing and personal styling Liston Williams: expert on popular culture and social interaction List of programs broadcast by Network Ten List of Australian television series Aussie Queer Eye for the Straight Guy at

Don Bosco High School (Imphal)

Don Bosco School, situated at Chingmeirong, India, is an all-boys, English medium school imparting education from Lower Kindergarten through 12th grade. Established in 1957, it is run by the Salesians of Don Bosco, a minority institution within the Catholic Church; the school is affiliated to the Board of Manipur. The motto of the institution is For Country; the school was established on 5 March 1957 by Father A Ravilico. Fr Ravalico and Fr Bianchi resided first in a rented house in Thangmeiband, in the place, now Nirmalabas School. In that year, a piece of land was bought in Chingmeirong, the place where the church and boarding stand now, the school was started, named Don Bosco Youth Centre. In 1958 the classes were held in the newly completed building; the land on which the present school building stands was bought in three pieces over the years. Three floors of this building were completed in 1975. A fourth floor was added in 1995; the school pioneered education in the English medium in the state.

As the school catered to boys, soon after it was started a sister school was established for girls by its sister society, the Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco. This second school is Imphal, on the Airport road. Today there are some 50 high schools and higher secondary schools run by the Catholic Church in Manipur and a Don Bosco College at Maram. A second Don Bosco School was started in 1983 to ease the pressure for admissions; the performance of the school in the academic field in the three decades of the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s has seen students taking the top positions in the Board examinations year after year, with the peak in 1985 when it secured six ranks within the first ten. It was the first school in North East India, the second Don Bosco School in India, to offer students computer science, starting in 1986. In 2003, it became the first school in the State to introduce counselling services for its students and today the school staff offer free counselling to 21 schools in their neighborhoods.

In 2003, value education books authored by the school rector were released. Sports and games are organised through the house system. Despite some recent setbacks due to the political turmoil in the state and the consequent law and order situation, the school continues to pioneer; the school has an extensive reach-out program taking education to the most marginalized youth of the city, through a literacy program. The school has 41 centers giving free classes for a few hours a day to over 1100 children who have never attended school. After they have been introduced to literacy, these children are helped to get admitted into regular schools; the school has admitted nearly 3,000 of them into regular schools, presently sponsors the poorest 600 children, paying one-third of their school fees. The school celebrated 50 years on 27 March 2007. Over 2000 people participated in the celebration gathering; the school uses the House system to foster a sense of belonging. The four houses are Red, Blue and Green.

All activities in the school are organized according to the houses. The house that wins the most points gets the Don Bosco title on top of the school building colored according to its color. Sports played in the school have coaching classes for each of them, free for the players on the school team; the sports are: Basketball: This is the most popular sport in Don Bosco. There are two basketball courts and the game plays an important role during the annual sports days. Football: there are two football grounds inside the school, another one outside, near the school church. Volleyball: there are two volleyball courts inside the school. Swimming: swimming used to be a popular sport, but the pond inside the school has dried up. NCC and Scouts YCS Table Tennis Club Don Bosco School, Imphal alumni website