Hermann Broch was a 20th-century Austrian writer, considered one of the major Modernists. Broch was born in Vienna to a prosperous Jewish family and worked for some time in his familys factory and he was predestined to work in his father’s textile factory in Teesdorf, therefore, he attended a technical college for textile manufacture and a spinning and weaving college. In 1909 he converted to Roman Catholicism and married Franziska von Rothermann, the following year, their son Hermann Friedrich Maria was born. Later, Broch began to see women and the marriage ended in divorce in 1923. He was acquainted with Robert Musil, Rainer Maria Rilke, Elias Canetti, Leo Perutz, Franz Blei and his friend and inspiration and former nude model Ea von Allesch. In 1927 he sold the factory and decided to study mathematics, philosophy. He embarked on a literary career only around the age of 40. At the age of 45, his first novel, The Sleepwalkers, was published by Daniel Brody, Hermann Broch died in 1951 in New Haven, Connecticut.
He is buried in Killingworth, Connecticut, in the cemetery on Roast Meat Hill Road and he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1950. One of his foremost works, The Death of Virgil was first published in 1945 simultaneously in its original German and in English translation. This extensive, difficult novel interweaves reality, hallucination and prose, the final chapter exhibits the final hallucinations of the poet, where Virgil voyages to a distant land at which he witnesses roughly the biblical creation story in reverse. The French composer Jean Barraqué composed a number of inspired by The Death of Virgil. Erich Heller observed that if The Death of Virgil is his masterpiece and it is a very problematical one, for it attempts to give literary shape to the authors growing aversion to literature. In the very year the novel appeared, Broch confessed to a deep revulsion from literature as such – the domain of vanity and mendacity, written with a paradoxical, lyrical exuberance, it is the imaginary record of the poet’s last day and his renunciation of poetry.
He commands the manuscript of the Aeneid to be destroyed, not because it is incomplete or imperfect but because it is poetry and he even says his Georgics are useless, inferior to any expert treatise on agriculture. His friend the Emperor Augustus undoes his design and his works are saved, other important works by Broch are The Sleepwalkers and The Guiltless. The Sleepwalkers is a trilogy, where Broch takes the degeneration of values as his theme, the trilogy has been praised by Milan Kundera, whose writing has been greatly influenced by Broch. Archived from the original on 4 July 2013. F
A teapot is a vessel used for steeping tea leaves or an herbal mix in boiling or near-boiling water, and for serving the resulting infusion which is called tea. Teapots usually have an opening with a lid at their top, where the dry tea and hot water are added, a handle for holding by hand, some teapots have a strainer built-in on the inner edge of the spout. A small air hole in the lid is often created to stop the spout from dripping and splashing when tea is poured. In modern times, a cover called a tea cosy may be used to enhance the steeping process or to prevent the contents of the teapot from cooling too rapidly. The teapot was invented in China during the Yuan Dynasty and it was probably derived from ceramic kettles and wine pots, which were made of bronze and other metals and were a feature of Chinese life for thousands of years. Tea preparation during previous dynasties did not use a teapot, in the Tang Dynasty, a cauldron was used to boil ground tea, which was served in bowls. Song Dynasty tea was made by boiling water in a kettle pouring the water into a bowl with finely ground tea leaves, a brush was used to stir the tea.
Written evidence of a teapot appears in the Yuan Dynasty text Jiyuan Conghua, by the Ming Dynasty, teapots were widespread in China. The earliest example of a teapot that has survived to this day seems to be the one in the Flagstaff House Museum of Teaware, it has been dated to 1513 and is attributed to Gongchun. Early teapots are small by western standards because they are designed for a single drinker. The size reflects the importance of serving single portions so that the flavours can be concentrated and controlled. From the end of the 17th century tea was shipped from China to Europe as part of the export of exotic spices, the ships that brought the tea carried porcelain teapots. The majority of these teapots were painted in blue and white underglaze, being completely vitrified, will withstand sea water without damage, so the teapots were packed below deck whilst the tea was stowed above deck to ensure that it remained dry. Tea drinking in Europe was initially the preserve of the upper classes, porcelain teapots were particularly desirable because porcelain could not be made in Europe at that time.
It wasnt until 1708 that Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus devised a way of making porcelain in Dresden, when European potteries began to make their own tea wares they were inspired by the Chinese designs. In colonial America, Boston became the epicenter for silver production, among the many artists in Boston there were four major families in the citys silver market, Revere and Hurd. Their works of art included silver teapots, to keep teapots hot after tea is first brewed, early English households employed the tea cosy, a padded fabric covering, much like a hat, that slips over the tea pot. Often decorated with lace or log cabin motifs in the early 1900s, a chocolate teapot is a teapot that would be made from chocolate
Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief, the poet Ezra Pounds 1934 injunction to Make it new. Was the touchstone of the approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. In this spirit, its innovations, like the novel and twelve-tone music, divisionist painting and abstract art. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and makes use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, rewriting, revision, others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. While J. M. W. Art critic Clement Greenberg describes the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood as proto-Modernists, There the proto-Modernists were, of all people, the Pre-Raphaelites actually foreshadowed Manet, with whom Modernist painting most definitely begins. They acted on a dissatisfaction with painting as practiced in their time, rationalism has had opponents in the philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, both of whom had significant influence on existentialism.
A major 19th-century engineering achievement was The Crystal Palace, the huge cast-iron and iron were used in a similar monumental style in the construction of major railway terminals in London, such as Paddington Station and Kings Cross Station. These technological advances led to the building of structures like the Brooklyn Bridge. The latter broke all previous limitations on how tall man-made objects could be and these engineering marvels radically altered the 19th-century urban environment and the daily lives of people. Arguments arose that the values of the artist and those of society were not merely different, but that Society was antithetical to Progress, the philosopher Schopenhauer called into question the previous optimism, and his ideas had an important influence on thinkers, including Nietzsche. Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection undermined religious certainty and the idea of human uniqueness, in particular, the notion that human beings were driven by the same impulses as lower animals proved to be difficult to reconcile with the idea of an ennobling spirituality.
Karl Marx argued that there were fundamental contradictions within the capitalist system and writers in different disciplines, have suggested various dates as starting points for modernism. Everdell thinks modernism in painting began in 1885–86 with Seurats Divisionism, the poet Baudelaires Les Fleurs du mal, and Flauberts novel Madame Bovary were both published in 1857. In the arts and letters, two important approaches developed separately in France, the first was Impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors. Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, the school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners, and became increasingly influential. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon. While most were in standard styles, but by artists, the work of Manet attracted tremendous attention
Lord Kitchener (calypsonian)
Aldwyn Roberts, better known by the stage name Lord Kitchener, was an internationally known Trinidadian calypsonian. He has been described as the master of calypso and the greatest calypsonian of the post-war age. Roberts was born in Arima and Tobago, the son of a blacksmith, Stephen and he was educated at the Arima Boys Government School until he was 14, when his father died, leaving him orphaned. He became locally popular in Arima with songs such as Shops Close Too Early and he won the Arima borough councils calypso competition five times between 1938 and 1942. He moved to Port of Spain in 1943 where he joined the Roving Brigade and he became known as an innovator, introducing musical and lyrical changes, including frequent criticism of the British governments control of the island. He became popular with US troops based on the island, leading to performances in New York and he toured Jamaica for six months in 1947-8 with Lord Beginner and Lord Woodbine before they took passage on the Empire Windrush to England in 1948.
Upon his arrival, Kitchener performed the specially-written song London Is the Place for Me, within two years he was a regular performer on BBC radio, and was much in demand for live performances. His prominence continued throughout the 1950s, when calypso achieved international success, Kitchener became a very important figure to those first 5,000 West Indian migrants to the UK. His music spoke of home and a life that they all longed for and this was one of the first widely known West Indian songs, and epitomised an event that historian and cricket enthusiast C. L. R. James defined as crucial to West Indian post-colonial societies. He opened a nightclub in Manchester and had a residency at The Sunset in London. Further US performances followed in the mid-1950s, Kitchener returned to Trinidad in 1962. He and the Mighty Sparrow proceeded to dominate the calypso competitions of the sixties and seventies, Lord Kitchener won the road march competition ten times between 1965 and 1976, more times than any other calypsonian.
For 30 years, Kitchener ran his own tent, Calypso Revue. Calypso Rose, David Rudder, Black Stalin and Denyse Plummer are among the artists who got their start under Kitcheners tutelage. Later he moved towards soca, a style, and continued recording until his death. Kitcheners compositions were popular as the chosen selections for steel bands to perform at the annual National Panorama competition during Trinidad Carnival. He won his only Calypso King title in 1975 with Tribute to Spree Simon, Kitchener saw the potential of the new soca phenomenon of the late 1970s and adopted the genre on a string of albums over the years that followed. He recorded his most commercially successful song, and one of the earliest major soca hits, in 1993 a campaign was launched for Kitchener to received the islands highest civilian honour, the Trinity Cross
Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was embodied most strongly in the arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of heroic individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art, there was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism, the decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. Defining the nature of Romanticism may be approached from the point of the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist.
The importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich that the feeling is his law. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were laws that the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone. As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creators own imagination, so that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist who was able to produce his own work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism. This idea is called romantic originality. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief, this is particularly in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the voice of the artist. So, in literature, much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves.
In both French and German the closeness of the adjective to roman, meaning the new literary form of the novel, had some effect on the sense of the word in those languages. It is only from the 1820s that Romanticism certainly knew itself by its name, the period typically called Romantic varies greatly between different countries and different artistic media or areas of thought. Margaret Drabble described it in literature as taking place roughly between 1770 and 1848, and few dates much earlier than 1770 will be found. In English literature, M. H. Abrams placed it between 1789, or 1798, this latter a very typical view, and about 1830, however, in most fields the Romantic Period is said to be over by about 1850, or earlier
In art history, Old Master refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An old master print is a print made by an artist in the same period. The term old master drawing is used in the same way, beyond a certain level of competence, date rather than quality is the criterion for using the term. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as A pre-eminent artist of the period before the modern, a pre-eminent western European painter of the 13th to 18th centuries. The term is used to refer to a painting or sculpture made by an Old Master. Les Maitres dautrefois of 1876 by Eugene Fromentin may have helped to popularize the concept, the collection in the Dresden museum essentially stops at the Baroque period. The end date is necessarily vague – for example, Goya is certainly an Old Master, the term might be used for John Constable or Eugène Delacroix, but usually is not. The term tends to be avoided by art historians as too vague, especially when discussing paintings, although the terms Old Master Prints and it remains current in the art trade.
Auction houses still usually divide their sales between, for example, Old Master Paintings, Nineteenth-century paintings and Modern paintings, christies defines the term as ranging from the 14th to the early 19th century. S. Master of Flémalle, Master of Mary of Burgundy, Master of Latin 757, Master of the Brunswick Diptych or Master of Schloss Lichtenstein
Tacky is a song by American musician Weird Al Yankovic from his fourteenth studio album, Mandatory Fun. The song is a parody of the 2013 single Happy by Pharrell Williams, the song mocks questionable taste in fashion as well as activities considered gauche. Yankovic recorded the song as one of the last on Mandatory Fun and he remarked he was honored to have his work spoofed by Yankovic. The songs one-shot music video parodies Happy, and was the first in a series of eight videos released over eight days in promotion of Mandatory Fun. It features cameo appearances by Aisha Tyler, Margaret Cho, Eric Stonestreet, Kristen Schaal, and Jack Black, and was produced by Nerdist Industries. As usual for him, Yankovic sought permission from the artists for his parodies on Mandatory Fun, in contrast to previous albums. Yankovic stated This is the first time where Ive gotten everybody that I wanted, the song was recorded in April 2014. The song mocks people whose actions and style are generally considered gauche, the singer boasts of having no shame and seems proud of his gaudy attire and his breaches of deportment.
Reviews noted that the song lists various disruptive acts associated with media, referencing Instagram, Twitter. Yankovic mentions printing his résumé in Comic Sans, a much-reviled font, the music video for Tacky debuted on July 14,2014, as the first in an eight-video series. The video was filmed at Palace Theatre in downtown Los Angeles, Yankovic specified that during each of the six continuous takes, he would have to rush down five flights of stairs while changing his outfit in order to appear in the beginning and end of the video. Rolling Stone reviewed the song Tacky stating that Weird Al is in form throughout the track. In their review of Mandatory Fun, the wrote that there’s a touch of hypocrisy in a guy as gloriously tacky as Al taking shots at the shameless. ABC News wrote that the parody and musicianship are spot-on, aided by a classic music video. Billboard noted that the song had the potential of being a one-joke affair, Happy List of songs by Weird Al Yankovic Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Weird Al Yankovic - Tacky music video on Youtube
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone or a plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material, Lithography originally used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, when the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water, an oil-based ink could be applied and would be repelled by the water, sticking only to the original drawing. The ink would finally be transferred to a paper sheet. This traditional technique is used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a coating applied to a flexible aluminum plate. The image can be printed directly from the plate, or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a sheet for printing.
In fact, photolithography is used synonymously with offset printing, the technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication, Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the part of an image is a water-repelling substance. Thus, when the plate is introduced to a printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer, Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a piece of limestone was used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, during printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite. Lithography works because of the repulsion of oil and water. The image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible
State schools generally refer to primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. The term may refer to public institutions of post-secondary education. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally and it is often organized and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although typically provided to groups of students in classrooms in a school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers. It can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space, State education is generally available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to school up to a certain age. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state, the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that even individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated.
In poverty stricken societies, authorities are often lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited and it is these same children whose income-securing labor cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance. The term public education when applied to schools is not synonymous with the term publicly funded education. Government may make a policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, and it may want to have some control over. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education, conversely, a state school may rely heavily on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, when these specific requirements are met, especially in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding.
Proponents of state education assert it to be necessary because of the need in society for people who are capable of reading, writing. In most industrialized countries, these views are distinctly in the minority, Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools usually charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories and selective schools, the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate approximately 65% of Australian students, with approximately 34% in Catholic, regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory. The curriculum framework however provides for flexibility in the syllabus. Public or Government funded schools are found throughout Bangladesh and these schools mostly teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5,8, and 10
Museum of Bad Art
The Museum of Bad Art is a privately owned museum whose stated aim is to celebrate the labor of artists whose work would be displayed and appreciated in no other forum. It was originally located in Dedham with current branches in Somerville and its permanent collection includes 500 pieces of art too bad to be ignored,25 to 35 of which are on public display at any one time. MOBA was founded in 1994, after antique dealer Scott Wilson showed a painting he had recovered from the trash to some friends, within a year, receptions held in Wilsons friends home were so well-attended that the collection needed its own viewing space. The museum moved to the basement of a theater in Dedham, deborah Solomon of The New York Times Magazine noted that the attention the Museum of Bad Art receives is part of a wider trend of museums displaying the best bad art. According to co-founder Marie Jackson, We are here to celebrate an artists right to fail, Wilson was initially interested only in the frame, but when he showed the picture to his friend Jerry Reilly, Reilly wanted both the frame and the painting.
He exhibited Lucy in his home, and encouraged friends to look for other bad art, when Wilson acquired another equally lovely piece and shared it with Reilly, they decided to start a collection. Reilly and his wife, Marie Jackson, held a party in their basement to exhibit the collection to date, in 1995 the display space was moved to the basement of the Dedham Community Theatre, a building with an aesthetic described in 2004 as ramshackle. The museum in Dedham had no fixed operating hours, instead being open while the upstairs was open. In MOBAs early days, the museum hosted traveling shows, on one occasion the works were hung from trees in the woods on Cape Cod for the Art Goes Out the Window—The Gallery in the Woods, Bad music was played during the public viewings to complete the ambiance. In an exhibition titled Awash in Bad Art,18 pieces of art were covered in shrink wrap for the worlds first drive-thru museum, Marie Jackson, formerly the Director of Aesthetic Interpretation noted, We didnt put any watercolors in there.
A2001 exhibition, Buck Naked—Nothing But Nudes featured all of the MOBA nudes hung in a local spa, MOBA features its works in rotating collections. In 2003, Freaks of Nature focused on landscape artwork gone awry, a 2006 exhibit titled Hackneyed Portraits was designed to pick up some of the slack when the David Hockney show at Bostons Museum of Fine Arts closed. MOBA unveiled its show Nature Abhors a Vacuum and All Other Housework in 2006, a second gallery opened in 2008 at the Somerville Theatre in Davis Square, Massachusetts, where the collection was placed near both the womens and mens restrooms. Although the original gallery was free and open to the public, exhibitions titled Bright Colors / Dark Emotions and Know What You Like / Paint How You Feel have been held in the academic gallery at Montserrat College of Art in Beverly, Massachusetts. One of MOBAs goals is to take bad art on the road, pieces from MOBAs collection have been on display in museums in Virginia and New York City.99. It eventually sold for $152.53 and the proceeds went to the Rose Art Museum.
In 2010, the opened a third location in the offices of the Brookline Interactive Group. In December 2012, the branch at the Dedham Community Theater closed to convert the space into a screening room, another branch has since opened at the New England Wildlife Center in South Weymouth
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch, dynamics, different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. The word derives from Greek μουσική, Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as the harmony of the spheres and it is music to my ears point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, for example, There is no noise, the creation, performance and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. There are many types of music, including music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between some early 1980s hard rock and heavy metal, within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art or as an auditory art.
People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, the word derives from Greek μουσική. According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the music is derived from mid-13c. Musike, from Old French musique and directly from Latin musica the art of music and this is derived from the. Greek mousike of the Muses, from fem. of mousikos pertaining to the Muses, from Mousa Muse. In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. With the advent of recording, records of popular songs. Some music lovers create mix tapes of their songs, which serve as a self-portrait. An environment consisting solely of what is most ardently loved, amateur musicians can compose or perform music for their own pleasure, and derive their income elsewhere. Professional musicians sometimes work as freelancers or session musicians, seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings, There are often many links between amateur and professional musicians.
Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians, in community settings, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles such as community concert bands and community orchestras. However, there are many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is recorded and distributed. Live concert recordings are popular in classical music and in popular music forms such as rock, where illegally taped live concerts are prized by music lovers
Sentimentality originally indicated the reliance on feelings as a guide to truth, but current usage defines it as an appeal to shallow, uncomplicated emotions at the expense of reason. Sentimentalism in philosophy is a view in meta-ethics according to which morality is grounded in moral sentiments or emotions. A sentimentalist, Oscar Wilde wrote, is one who desires to have the luxury of an emotion without paying for it. In James Joyces Ulysses, Stephen Dedalus sends Buck Mulligan a telegraph that reads The sentimentalist is he who would enjoy without incurring the immense debtorship for a thing done. James Baldwin considered that Sentimentality, the parading of excessive and spurious emotion, is the mark of dishonesty. This Side of Paradise by F. Scott Fitzgerald contrasts sentimentalists and romantics with Amory Blaine telling Rosalind, “Im not sentimental--Im as romantic as you are. The idea, you know, is that the person thinks things will last--the romantic person has a desperate confidence that they wont.
”What she was observing was the way the term was becoming a European obsession - part of the Enlightenment drive to foster the individuals capacity to recognise virtue at a visceral level. Everywhere in the novel or the sentimental comedy, lively. Nevertheless, as a social force sentimentality is a perennial, appearing for example as Romantic sentimentality. in the 1960s slogans flower power. There is the issue of what has been called indecent sentimentality, francis Fukuyama takes up the theme through the exploration of societys stock of shared values as social capital. In a subjective confession of 1932, Ulysses, a Monolgue, the psychiatrist knows only too well how each of us becomes the helpless but not pitiable victim of his own sentiments. Sentimentality is the superstructure erected upon brutality, unfeelingness is the counter-position and inevitably suffers from the same defects. Complications enter into the view of sentimentality, when changes in fashion. The view that sentimentality is relative is inherent in John Ciardis sympathetic contract, the reader of Dickens, Richard Holt Hutton observed, has the painful impression of pathos feasting upon itself.
The sentimental fallacy is an ancient rhetorical device that attributes human emotions, such as grief or anger and this is known as the pathetic fallacy, a term coined by John Ruskin. Introduction to A Sentimental Journey, by Laurence Sterne, anderson and Peter Mullen, eds. The Female Complaint, The Unfinished Business of Sentimentality in American Culture, cupchik, G. C. and J. Laszlo. Emerging Visions of the Aesthetic Process, Semiology, Space, Toward a New Theory