Manastash Ridge is a long anticline mountain ridge located in central Washington state in the United States. Manastash Ridge runs west-to-east in Kittitas and Yakima counties, for 50 miles; the ridge is part of the Yakima Fold Belt of east-tending long ridges formed by the folding of Miocene Columbia River basalt flows. The highest point in Manastash Ridge is Manastash Peak at 6,335 feet, located 22.4 miles west of Ellensburg, Washington. Interstate 82 crosses through the eastern portion of the ridge. In addition to Manastash Peak, Manastash Ridge includes the peaks of Quartz Mountain, Mount Clifty, Lookout Mountain; the astronomy department of the University of Washington maintains the Manastash Ridge Observatory, located about 9 miles west-southwest of Ellensburg. Manastash Ridge road conditions Bivouac.com - Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia - Manastash Region page Manastash Ridge Observatory page U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Manastash Ridge
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Pierce County, Washington
Pierce County is a county in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 795,225, making it the second-most populous county in Washington behind King County; the county seat and largest city is Tacoma. Formed out of Thurston County on December 22, 1852, by the legislature of Oregon Territory, it was named for U. S. President Franklin Pierce. Pierce County is in the Seattle metropolitan area. Pierce County is notable for being home to Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain and a volcano in the Cascade Range, its most recent recorded eruption was between 1820 and 1854. There is no imminent risk of eruption. If this should happen, parts of Pierce County and the Puyallup Valley would be at risk from lahars, lava, or pyroclastic flows; the Mount Rainier Volcano Lahar Warning System was established in 1998 to assist in the evacuation of the Puyallup River valley in case of eruption. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,806 square miles, of which 1,670 square miles is land and 137 square miles is water.
The highest natural point in Washington, Mount Rainier at 14,410 feet, is located in Pierce County. Pierce County contains the Clearwater Wilderness area. King County — north Yakima County — east Lewis County — south Thurston County — west/southwest Mason County — west/northwest Kitsap County — north/northwest Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Mount Rainier National Park Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 700,820 people, 260,800 households, 180,212 families residing in the county; the population density was 417 people per square mile. There were 277,060 housing units at an average density of 165 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.39% White, 6.95% Black or African American, 1.42% Native American, 5.08% Asian, 0.85% Pacific Islander, 2.20% from other races, 5.11% from two or more races. 5.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.1% were of German, 8.6% Irish, 8.2% English, 6.3% American, 6.2% Norwegian ancestry.
There were 260,800 households out of which 35.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.80% were married couples living together, 11.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.10. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.20% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 10.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,204, the median income for a family was $52,098. Males had a median income of $38,510 versus $28,580 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,948. About 7.50% of families and 10.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.20% of those under age 18 and 7.20% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 795,225 people, 299,918 households, 202,174 families residing in the county. The population density was 476.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 325,375 housing units at an average density of 194.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 74.2% white, 6.8% black or African American, 6.0% Asian, 1.4% American Indian, 1.3% Pacific islander, 3.5% from other races, 6.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 9.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 20.5% were German, 13.1% were Irish, 10.7% were English, 6.3% were Norwegian, 4.2% were American. Of the 299,918 households, 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families, 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age was 35.9 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $57,869 and the median income for a family was $68,462. Males had a median income of $50,084 versus $38,696 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,446. About 8.1% of families and 11.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Pierce County is governed by a Charter; this is allowed by section 4 of Article XI of the Washington constitution. The Pierce County Executive Bruce Dammeier, heads the county's executive branch; the Assessor-Treasurer Mike Lonergan, auditor Julie Anderson, Prosecuting Attorney Mark Lindquist, Sheriff Paul A. Pastor are countywide elected executive positions; the Pierce County Council is the elected legislative body for Pierce County and consists of seven members elected by district. The council is vested with all law-making power granted by its charter and by the State of Washington, sets county policy through the adoption of ordinances and resolutions, approves the annual budget and directs the use of county funds.
The seven members of the County Council are elected from each of seven contiguous and populated districts, with each councilmember representing 114,000 county residents. Each county councilmember is elected to serve a four-year term. Dave Morell, District 1 Pam Roach, District 2 Jim McCune, District 3 Connie Lade
In oceanography and earth sciences, a shoal is a natural submerged ridge, bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material, rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface. It refers to those submerged ridges, banks, or bars that rise near enough to the surface of a body of water as to constitute a danger to navigation. Shoals are known as sandbanks, sandbars, or gravelbars. Two or more shoals that are either separated by shared troughs or interconnected by past or present sedimentary and hydrographic processes are referred to as a shoal complex; the term shoal is used in a number of ways that can be either similar or quite different from how it is used in the geologic and oceanographic literature. Sometimes, this terms refers to either any shallow place in a stream, sea, or other body of water. Shoals are characteristically narrow ridges, they can develop where a stream, river, or ocean current promotes deposition of sediment and granular material, resulting in localized shallowing of the water.
Marine shoals develop either by the in place drowning of barrier islands as the result of episodic sea level rise or by the erosion and submergence of inactive delta lobes. Shoals can appear as a coastal landform in the sea, where they are classified as a type of ocean bank, or as fluvial landforms in rivers and lakes. A shoal–sandbar may seasonally separate a smaller body of water from the sea, such as: Marine lagoons Brackish water estuaries Freshwater seasonal stream and river mouths and deltas; the term bar can apply to landform features spanning a considerable range in size, from a length of a few metres in a small stream to marine depositions stretching for hundreds of kilometers along a coastline called barrier islands. They are composed of sand, although they could be of any granular matter that the moving water has access to and is capable of shifting around; the grain size of the material comprising a bar is related to the size of the waves or the strength of the currents moving the material, but the availability of material to be worked by waves and currents is important.
Wave shoaling is the process when surface waves move towards shallow water, such as a beach, they slow down, their wave height increases and the distance between waves decreases. This behavior is called shoaling, the waves are said to shoal; the waves may or may not build to the point where they break, depending on how large they were to begin with, how steep the slope of the beach is. In particular, waves shoal as they pass over submerged reefs; this can be treacherous for ships. Shoaling can diffract waves, so the waves change direction. For example, if waves pass over a sloping bank, shallower at one end than the other the shoaling effect will result in the waves slowing more at the shallow end, thus the wave fronts will refract. Refraction occurs as waves move towards a beach if the waves come in at an angle to the beach, or if the beach slopes more at one end than the other. Sandbars known as a trough bars, form where the waves are breaking, because the breaking waves set up a shoreward current with a compensating counter-current along the bottom.
Sometimes this occurs seaward of a trough. Sand carried by the offshore moving bottom current is deposited where the current reaches the wave break. Other longshore bars may lie further offshore, representing the break point of larger waves, or the break point at low tide. A harbor or river bar is a sedimentary deposit formed at a harbor entrance or river mouth by: the deposition of freshwater sediment, or the action of waves on the sea floor or up—current beaches. Where beaches are suitably mobile, or the river's suspended or bed loads are large enough, deposition can build up a sandbar that blocks a river mouth and damming the river, it can be a seasonally natural process of aquatic ecology, causing the formation of estuaries and wetlands in the lower course of the river. This situation will persist until the bar is eroded by the sea, or the dammed river develops sufficient head to break through the bar; the formation of harbor bars can prevent access for boats and shipping, can be the result of: construction up-coast or at the harbor — e.g.: breakwaters, dune habitat destruction.
Upriver development — e.g.: dams and reservoirs, riparian zone destruction, river bank alterations, river adjacent agricultural land practices, water diversions. Watershed erosion from habitat alterations — e.g.: deforestation, grading for development. Artificially created/deepened harbors. In a nautical sense, a bar is a shoal, similar to a reef: a shallow formation of sand, a navigation or grounding hazard, with a depth of water of 6 fathoms or less, it therefore applies to a silt accumulation that shallows the entrance to or course of a river, or creek. A bar can form a dangerous obstacle to shipping, preventing access to the river or harbour in unfavourable weather conditions or at some states of the tide. In addition to longshore bars discussed above that are small features of a beach, the term shoal can be applied to larger geological units that form off a coastline as part of the process of coastal erosion; these include spits and baymouth bars that
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
King County, Washington
King County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington. The population was 2,188,649 in the 2017 census estimate. King is the most populous county in Washington, the 13th-most populous in the United States; the county seat is Seattle, the state's largest city. King County is one of three Washington counties that are included in the Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue metropolitan statistical area. About two-thirds of King County's population lives in Seattle's suburbs; the county was formed out of territory within Thurston County on December 22, 1852, by the Oregon Territory legislature, was named after Alabama resident William R. King, who had just been elected Vice President of the United States under President Franklin Pierce. Seattle was made the county seat on January 11, 1853; the area became part of the Washington Territory when it was created that year. King County extended to the Olympic Peninsula. According to historian Bill Speidel, when peninsular prohibitionists threatened to shut down Seattle’s saloons, Doc Maynard engineered a peninsular independence movement.
On February 24, 1986, a motion to change the namesake to Martin Luther King Jr. was passed by the King County Council five votes to four. The motion stated, among other reasons for the change, that "William Rufus DeVane King was a slaveowner and a ‘gentle slave monger’ according to John Quincy Adams." Because only the state can charter counties, the change was not made official until April 19, 2005, when Governor Christine Gregoire signed into law Senate Bill 5332, which provided that "King county is renamed in honor of the Reverend Doctor Martin Luther King, Jr." effective July 24, 2005. The County Council voted on February 27, 2006 to adopt the proposal sponsored by Councilmember Larry Gossett to change the county's logo from an imperial crown to an image of Martin Luther King. On March 12, 2007, the new logo was unveiled; the new logo design was developed by the Gable Design Group and the specific image was selected by a committee consisting of King County Executive Ron Sims, Council Chair Larry Gossett, Prosecutor Norm Maleng, Sheriff Sue Rahr, District Court Judge Corrina Harn, Superior Court Judge Michael Trickey.
Martin Luther King Jr. visited King County for two days in November 1961. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,307 square miles, of which 2,116 square miles is land and 191 square miles is water. King County has nearly twice the land area of the state of Rhode Island; the highest point in the county is Mount Daniel at 7,959 feet above sea level. King County borders Snohomish County to the north, Kitsap County to the west, Kittitas County to the east, Pierce County to the south, it shares a small border with Chelan County to the northeast. King County includes Vashon Maury Island in Puget Sound. Snohomish County – north Pierce County – south Chelan County – east/northeast Kittitas County – east/southeast Kitsap County – west Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park Snoqualmie National Forest The center of population of the state of Washington in 2010 was located in eastern King County. King County's own center of population was located on Mercer Island; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,931,249 people, 789,232 households, 461,510 families residing in the county.
The population density was 912.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 851,261 housing units at an average density of 402.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 68.7% White, 6.2% African American, 14.6% Asian, 0.8% Pacific Islander, 0.8% Native American, 3.9% from other races, 5.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 8.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.1% were German, 11.6% were English, 11.1% were Irish, 5.5% were Norwegian, 2.9% were American. Of the 789,232 households, 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.5% were non-families, 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 37.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $68,065 and the median income for a family was $87,010. Males had a median income of $62,373 versus $45,761 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $38,211. About 6.4% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.5% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. The King County Executive heads the county's executive branch; the King County Prosecuting Attorney, Elections Director and the King County Assessor are elected executive positions. Judicial power is vested in the King County District Court. Seattle houses the King County Courthouse. King County is represented in the United States Congress through a near-entirety of the population in the 7th and 9th Congressional Districts, a majority of the population in the 8th Congressional District and a plurality of the population in the 1st Congressional District. In the state legislature, King contains the entirety of the 5th, 11th, 33rd