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Kitty Hawk, North Carolina

Kitty Hawk is a town in Dare County, North Carolina, is a part of what is known as North Carolina's Outer Banks. The population was 3,272 at the 2010 Census, it was established in the early 18th century as Chickahawk. Kitty Hawk became world-famous after the Wright brothers made the first controlled powered airplane flights at Kill Devil Hills, four miles south of the town, on December 17, 1903. After the four flights in their Wright Flyer, the brothers walked back to Kitty Hawk, where they sent a telegram from the Weather Bureau office to their father informing him of their success. Kitty Hawk is credited as the site of the powered flights because it was the nearest named settlement at the time of the flight; the Wrights chose the area because its frequent winds and soft sandy surfaces were suitable for their glider experiments, which they conducted over a three-year period prior to making the powered flights. The aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk, the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber AV-19 with an aircraft number of 93–1086, P-40D Kitty hawk fighter aircraft, the aircraft transport ship USS Kitty Hawk, the Apollo 14 command module have been named for the town, which incorporated in 1981.

The Kitty Hawk Life-Saving Station was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. Kitty Hawk is located at 36.1°N 75.7°W / 36.1. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a complete area of 8.23 square miles. 8.18 square miles of it is land and 0.0476 square miles of it is water. Kitty Hawk is served by U. S. Route Highway 12, which parallel each other in the city. US 158 can be used to go west, while the barrier islands extend south; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,991 people, 1,265 households, 866 families residing in the town. The population density was 365.8 people per square mile. There were 2,618 housing units at an average density of 320.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.13% White, 0.64% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. 0.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,265 households out of which 27.9% had youngsters under the age of 18 years living with them, 58.7% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families.

23.8% of all tribes were made up of individuals and 8.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.79. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 girls, there were 103.7 boys. For every 100 girls age 18 and over, there were 97.6 boys. The median income for a household in the town was $42,813, the median income for a family was $48,676. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $25,744 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,960. About 4.3% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.9% of people under age 18 and 4.6% of people age 65 or over. Federally, Kitty Hawk is part of North Carolina's 3rd congressional district, represented by Republican Walt Jones, first elected in 1994, until his death on February 10, 2019.

Coulaines in Pays de la Loire, about 1.7 miles north of Le Mans According to the Trewartha climate classification system, Kitty Hawk, North Carolina has a humid subtropical climate with hot and humid summers, cool winters and year-around precipitation. Cfak climates are characterized by all months having an average mean temperature > 32.0 °F, at least eight months with an average mean temperature ≥ 50.0 °F, at least one month with an average mean temperature ≥ 71.6 °F and no significant precipitation difference between seasons. During the summer months in Kitty Hawk, a cooling afternoon sea breeze is present on most days, but episodes of extreme heat and humidity can occur with heat index values ≥ 100 °F. Kitty Hawk is prone to hurricane strikes during the Atlantic hurricane season which extends from June 1 through November 30 peaking from late August through September. During the winter months, episodes of cold and wind can occur with wind chill values < 10 °F. The plant hardiness zone in Kitty Hawk is 8b with an average annual extreme minimum air temperature of 16.6 °F.

The average seasonal snowfall total is < 2 inches, the average annual peak in nor'easter activity is in February. According to the A. W. Kuchler U. S. potential natural vegetation types, Kitty Hawk, North Carolina would have a dominant vegetation type of Live oak/Sea Oats Uniola paniculata with a dominant vegetation form of Coastal Prairie. Official website

Flora of the Colorado Plateau and Canyonlands region

The flora of the Colorado Plateau and Canyonlands region of the Western United States. The flora is characterized by plant adaptations to the arid conditions of the region, a wide variation of plant communities from wide variations in elevation and soil types; the elevation variation results in temperature variation. Differing soil types are due to erosion of different sedimentary layers in the canyons, from the layers at lowest point of canyons of the Colorado River network, to the top layers of the plateau. Exceptions to flora adapted to aridity occur in lowland riparian areas, at springs, in hanging gardens; the salt desert shrub is a plant community or vegetation type found in the Colorado Plateau and Canyonlands region. It is characterized by alkaline and saline soils and plants that can tolerate these conditions. Dominant plant species include shadscale and Mormon tea. Blackbush scrub, or blackbrush scrub, is a vegetation type of the Western United States deserts characterized by low growing, dark gray blackbush as the dominant species.

Blackbush occurs in pure stands, giving a uniform dark gray appearance to the landscape. In the Colorado Plateau, it occurs across uniformly thin soils; the sand desert shrub is a plant community, or vegetation type, found in the Colorado Plateau and Canyonlands region in areas of shifting sands or sandy soils. Dominant plant species include old man sage, Indian ricegrass, wavy leaf oak. A common characteristic of plants in this community is a deep and extensive root system, which helps stabilize the sand dunes, or an ability to adjust to the shifting sands. In the Glen Canyon area, it can be found in lower elevation mesas and terraces to 4,500 feet in elevation. Mixed desert shrub is a plant community, or vegetation type, found in the Colorado Plateau and Canyonlands region of the southwestern United States, it is supported by a range of overlapping and intergrading soil types. Characteristic dominant plant species include rubber rabbitbrush, fourwinged saltbrush and dwarf mountain mahogany, it is located at the elevation belt above sand desert shrub and below cool desert shrub.

The pinyon-juniper plant community covers a large portion of the Canyonlands region. Singleleaf ash, Utah serviceberry are codominants of pinyon pine and Utah juniper in this region. In this region, the community occurs on jointed bedrock. Mountain brush is a plant community or vegetation type of the Colorado Plateau and Canyonlands region, it covers large parts of the mountain foothills and shaded canyons in areas below the Ponderosa pine community. It is characterized by dominance by shrubby Gambel's Oak, Utah serviceberry and mountain mahogany; the Jeffrey pine and the ponderosa pine are pines that are common in drier montane areas of the Sierra Nevada. They are confused by casual observers. Across the remainder of the American West, Jeffrey pine is absent, with ponderosa pine being the sole yellow pine. Jeffrey pine is more stress tolerant than ponderosa pine in the Sierra Nevada. At higher elevations, on poorer soils, in colder climates, in drier climates, Jeffrey pine replaces ponderosa as the dominant tree.

Ponderosa pine-dominated forests occur at elevations from about 300 to 2,100 metres. Jeffrey pine-dominated forests occur in California, from 1,500 to 2,400 metres in the north, 1,700 to 2,800 metres in the south; the highest elevations are on the east side of the Sierra Nevada. "Eastside pine forest" refers to areas of Lassen National Forest, Plumas National Forest, Tahoe National Forest, all on the east of the Sierra Nevada crest, where ponderosa and Jeffrey pine codominate. Ponderosa pine forests occurs on the Colorado Plateau and in the Sierra Nevada of the western United States, as well as other parts of North America. One way to distinguish between them is by their cones; each has barbs at the end of the scales. The sharp Jeffrey pine cone scale barbs point inward, so the cone feels smooth to the palm of one's hand when rubbed down the cone. Ponderosa pine cone scale barbs point outward, so feel prickly to the palm of one's hands. Another distinguishing characteristic is that the needles of Jeffrey pine are glaucous, less bright green than those of ponderosa pine, by the stouter, heavier cones with larger seeds and inward-pointing barbs.

Jeffrey pine wood and ponderosa pine wood are sold together as yellow pine. Both kinds of wood are hard, but the western yellow pine wood is less dense than southern yellow pine wood

The Armada (book)

The Armada is a popular history by Garrett Mattingly—a historian who taught at Columbia University—about the attempt of the Spanish Armada to invade England in 1588. It was published in 1959 by Houghton Mifflin Company, Mattingly won a special Pulitzer Prize for the work in 1960 as "a first class history and a literary work of high order."One biographer wrote that The Armada was "written in purple prose but a royal purple, which read like historical fiction." Another biographer noted that Mattingly "treated his job as that of telling a story about people" and that The Armada was "that rarity, a book by a professional historian and admired by professional historians which became a best seller." The Armada remains in print and has been issued outside the United States under the title The Defeat of the Spanish Armada

A Party with Betty Comden and Adolph Green

A Party with Betty Comden and Adolph Green is a musical revue with a book and lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green and music by Leonard Bernstein, Jule Styne, André Previn, Saul Chaplin, Roger Edens. The performance was composed of material written by Comden and Green for stage shows and their former comedy troupe The Revuers. Comden and Green performed the revue A Party Off-Broadway at the Cherry Lane Theatre for 5 performances in November 1958; the revue was produced on Broadway by the Theatre Guild, opening on December 23, 1958, at the John Golden Theatre, where it closed on May 23, 1959 after 82 performances. It won the Obie Award for Best Musical An original cast recording was released by Capitol Records. After four previews, a revival opened on Broadway on February 10, 1977, at the Morosco Theatre, where it remained for six weeks before transferring to the Little Theatre to complete its 92-performance run on April 30, 1977; this production included material written since the original 1958 show, including Do Re Mi and Subways Are For Sleeping.

The duo took the show on tour, starting in Washington, DC. A revival cast album was recorded live at the Arena Theatre in Washington, D. C. was released by DRG. I Said Good Morning Movie Ads The Reader's Digest The Screenwriters The Banshee Sisters Baroness Bazooka New York, New York Lonely Town Lucky to be Me Some Other Time I Get Carried Away The French Lesson If You Hadn't, But You Did Catch Our Act at the Met One Hundred Easy Ways to Lose a Man Ohio Wrong Note Rag A Quiet Girl Oh My Mysterious Lady Captain Hook's Waltz Never Never Land Inspiration Just in Time The Party's Over Capital Gains Make Someone Happy The Lost Word Simplified Language Internt Broadway database

Grand Ducal Gendarmerie (Luxembourg)

The Grand Ducal Gendarmerie was a national law enforcement corps in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg with both civil and military duties. It merged on January 1st, 2000 with local police forces under state authority to form the Grand Ducal Police; the Grand Ducal Gendarmerie was formed on February 3, 1733, "to fight the plague of the vagrants and people without consent". Luxembourg was incorporated into France as the Département des Forêts from 1795 to 1813 and the "Gendarmerie Nationale" system was applied; the law of the "28 Germinal, Year VI", was to remain the basis of the Luxembourgish Gendarmerie. In 1805, the name of the "National Gendarmerie" was changed to "Imperial Gendarmerie". Transitionally, after Napoleon's defeat at Leipzig in 1813, Luxembourg became part of the province of Middle-Rhine, administered by Prussia; the Gendarmerie being in complete disarray, the ordinance of 18 February 1814 replaced it with a government militia, with 3 officers and 106 sub-officers and soldiers. From 1815 to 1830, Luxembourg was ruled by the King of the Netherlands.

The law of 1814, creating a Corps de Maréchaussée in Belgium on the model of the French Gendarmerie, was extended to Luxembourg. After the Belgian Revolution in October 1830, Luxembourg was divided into two parts: the larger part formed the Belgian Province de Luxembourg; until 1839, it was controlled by the Dutch Constabulary. Luxembourg was made an independent state by the Treaty of London of 19 April, the creation of a local police force was necessary; the Ordinance of 29 January 1840 created the "Grand Duchy Royal Gendarmerie". On 1842, it was incorporated into the federal contingent; until 1877, the commandant of the Gendarmerie was under the authority of the commander of the contingent. The Royal-Grand Ducal decree of 25 August 1863 changed the name into the'Company of the Grand Duchy Royal Gendarmerie', increased its size to 108 men. In 1877, the Gendarmerie was separated from the contingent; the law of 16 February 1881 created a "Force Armée", consisting of a company of gendarmes and a company of volunteers, under the command of a major.

In 1902, a criminal brigade was created in the Gendarmerie, in order to help the judicial authorities in dealing with crimes and misdemeanours. This brigade was reorganised and reinforced in 1911. By grand-ducal decree of 30 November 1929, it received the name of "Service de la Sûreté Publique". In 1940, under the German occupation, the Gendarmerie was dissolved and its members were integrated in the services of the polizei deployed into the occupied countries on Eastern Europe. During the Battle of the Bulge, 15 gendarmes assisted American troops with defending the town of Diekirch; the law of 23 July 1952 constituted the legal bases of the modern gendarmerie. It formed a part of the army as well as of the police force; the Gendarmerie was merged into the Grand Ducal Police on 1 January 2000. The gendarmerie was placed under the supervision of the Minister for the Police Force for all matters related to its organisation, administration and discipline, it fell under the remit of the Minister for Justice for all matters related to the maintenance of law and order and the exercise of the Criminal Investigation Department.

History of the Grand Ducal Gendarmerie Grand Ducal Police official website

Penrhyn Quarry Railway

The Penrhyn Quarry Railway first opened in 1798 as the Llandegai Tramway. Constructed to transport slate from Lord Penrhyn's slate quarries at Bethesda to Port Penrhyn at Bangor, the railway was around six miles long and used a gauge of 1 ft 10 3⁄4 in; the line was one of the earliest narrow gauge railways in the world. It closed on 24 July 1962. In 2012, a section of the railway southwards from Coed y Parc was restored by Penrhyn Quarries Ltd. and further sections were planned. Events were held each year on the restored section on the line, by Felin Fawr Cyf and PQR Engineering Ltd. At the end of 2016 a new company was formed to operate the railway and Penrhyn Rail Ltd operated regular services beginning in February 2017. In July 2017, the railway closed just ahead of the fifth anniversary of operations at Felin Fawr; the earliest predecessor to the Penrhyn Quarry Railway was the one mile long 2 ft 1⁄2 in gauge Llandegai Tramway, built in 1798. The tramway was connected to a local flint mill that ground chert into flints.

These were transported to Porth Penrhyn on the coast by the tramway, one of the earliest overground railways in Britain. It included two balanced gravity inclines one from the floor of the Cegin valley near Llandegai to the hills above Bangor, the other dropping from there to the mill. Both inclines used vertically mounted winding drums; the success of the Llandegai Tramway encouraged the owners of the Penrhyn quarry to consider a similar tramway from their slate quarry to Porth Penrhyn. The plan subsumed the existing tramway into a longer railroad. Construction started on 2 September 1800, relaying and extending the Llandegai Tramway, with the first slate train traveling on 25 June 1801; the new railway was 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in gauge. The connection to the Llandegai flint mill continued to be used until 1831; the railroad was operated by horse power along with gravity and three balanced inclines – "Port" near Llandegai, inherited from the Llandegai Tramway, "Dinas" north east of Tregarth and "Cilgeraint" a short distance north of Coed-y-Parc workshops in Bethesda.

The longest extended for 220 yards. With hindsight this seems hard work, but the overall gain was remarkable, shown not least by the cost of transport falling from 4 shillings per ton to 1 shillingBy the early 1870s the Penrhyn Quarry Railway was no longer able to keep up with the output of the Penrhyn quarry. By 1874 the decision had been made to replace the railroad with a steam locomotive worked railway without rope-hauled inclines. Steam locomotives had been introduced with great success on the quarry's internal railway system and at the nearby Dinorwic Quarry; the Ffestiniog Railway's example had shown that running a 2 ft gauge line for several miles from quarry to sea was feasible, that company's Charles Easton Spooner was retained to survey and map possible routes to the port. The Penrhyn directors saw every reason not to follow the Padarn Railway's example and build a main line built to a gauge of 4 ft, joining lines in its quarries to lines in its dock both at a much narrower gauge.

All Penrhyn tracks were of the same narrow gauge, so no costly and inefficient internal trans-shipments were needed. At the end of 1875 the first "mainline" locomotive was delivered to Port Penrhyn and moved to the quarry workshops at Coed y Parc; the railroad was converted into the new railway in five stages from 1877 to 1878. The first locomotives used on the new railway were three. Although successful, these locomotives were not powerful enough for the substantial traffic that passed down the line. In 1882 the railway ordered'Charles', a large 0-4-0ST from Hunslet. Charles proved successful and was followed by'Blanche' and'Linda' in 1893 to the same basic design; these locomotives were the mainstay of the railway for the rest of its life. There was a significant demand for building materials after the First World War, as Britain recovered from the conflict and many new houses were built to replace slums; the slate industry had been mothballed during the conflict, but now found itself in a boom period.

Shortly after the war, the quarry began producing Fullersite - ground slate waste -, shipped in large quantities along the railway. In 1924, with traffic continuing the rise, three additional Baldwin locomotives were purchased; these had been built for war use by the United States Army Transport Corp, were refurbished before being sold to the railway, but were not successful, after three years of intermittent use they were put aside. After the Second World War, there was a short boom in demand for Welsh slate, to meet reconstruction needs throughout the United Kingdom; however this proved to be a short-lived period of success, cheap foreign imports of slate and new man-made roofing materials began to eat into the market for the higher-quality and more expensive Penrhyn product. A steady decline in traffic through the 1950s and an growth in the use of roads for transporting slates direct from the quarry to market meant the end of the railway was inevitable. In June 1962, the last slate train ran, though a few unofficial trips were run as late as the summer of 1963.

Heading seawards from the quarry at Bethesda the first incline was bypassed by building an parallel straight line at a gentler end-to-end gradient whose foot was some distance north of the foot of the incline. A similar approach was not feasible for the other two inclines, so the traditional approach was taken – to increase